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Esperanto, by George Cox

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Title: The International Auxiliary Language Esperanto
       Grammar and Commentary

Author: George Cox

Release Date: April 10, 2011 [EBook #35815]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Andrew Sly, Robert L. Read, Steve Brewer,
William Patterson, Edmund Grimley Evans, and the Online
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Thanks to the Esperanto Association of Britain for making
it available.


      Major-General George Cox
      B.A. (Cantab.)


      B.E.A. Publications Fund, No. 14


      [_All rights reserved_]

   _Reprinted, January, 1939_

   _Printed in Great Britain_


In this Fourth Edition of a work which, since its first appearance
in August, 1906, has had a very favourable reception among
English-speaking Esperantists in all parts of the world, advantage
has been taken of the necessity for reprinting the work, to make
a thorough revision of the text, and to introduce some other

Major-General Cox, born 1838, the author of the Commentary, died on
27th October, 1909, and the revision of the work has been carried out
under the direction of the British Esperanto Association

Footnotes to the Preface to the First Edition have been introduced to
record facts not known to the author at the time.


Esperanto is the International Auxiliary Language created by Dr. L.
L. Zamenhof, a doctor of medicine, residing at Warsaw, Poland. It
is now hardly necessary to mention this fact, but there was a time,
not very long ago, when many people thought that Esperanto was a
patent medicine, or new kind of soap, or, in fact, anything except a

Its aim is not to displace existing languages, but to be a
second language for the world, and its merits are now recognized
by many eminent men of all nationalities.[1]

If we consider the enormous advantages of a common language,
understood by all, we shall at once confess what a blessing Dr.
Zamenhof has conferred upon mankind, for:--

_Firstly._--It enables anyone to correspond on any topic, social,
commercial, or scientific, with persons of all nationalities.[2]

_Secondly._--Books of all descriptions can at once be translated
into this common language, and sold all over the world; consequently,
scientific and medical men will not have to wait, perhaps years,
before some important treatise appears in their own language.

Lovers of fiction would also have at command the works of all the
best foreign novelists.[3]

_Thirdly._--At international congresses the speeches and discussions
could be in Esperanto, and understood by all present, the aid of
interpreters being unnecessary, by which great saving of time would
be effected.[4]

_Fourthly._--Treaties and Conventions with foreign Powers could be
drawn up in the international language, and there would be no
difficulty in determining their exact signification.[5]

Esperanto was first introduced into Great Britain by Mr. Joseph
Rhodes, of Keighley, Yorkshire, who formed the first group in that
town in 1902. Shortly afterwards, in January, 1903, a group was
formed in London, under the auspices of Mr. W. T. Stead, Editor
of the "Review of Reviews," Miss E. A. Lawrence, and Mr. J. C.
O'Connor, M.A., Ph.D., which resulted in the foundation of the
present London Esperanto Club. The first English-Esperanto Gazette
was founded by Mr. H. Bolingbroke Mudie, in November, 1903; this
was followed in January, 1905, by "The British Esperantist," the
official organ of the _British Esperanto Association_, which
was then founded as the official organization of the Esperantists
of the British Empire. Progress in the language was at first slow,
but it is now advancing by leaps and bounds, and there are at
present, in England, Ireland, and Scotland, some 60[6] societies,
groups, and clubs, affiliated to the _British Esperanto Association_.
There is also now an American Esperanto Association, with already a
large number of energetic groups.[7]

I hope that those who take up this Commentary on Esperanto will not
think it necessary to wade through all its pages before they can
read and write the language. All that is necessary for this purpose
is to read the 16 simple rules, written by Dr. Zamenhof himself
(par. 94), and a few paragraphs and examples on the Formation of
Words (par. 40), and on the Parts of Speech (pars. 103, 107, 125,
149, 159, 238, 249, 262). This can easily be done in two or three
hours; and then, with the aid of a small English Dictionary, you
will be able to write a letter in Esperanto, which will be readily
understood by any Esperantist.

Or, you can buy for a few pence various primers, first lessons, or
instruction books, most of which contain a small vocabulary of common
words. A tiny book, costing 1d., called the "Esperanto Key," weighing
1/5th of an ounce, containing a vocabulary of over 1,500 roots,
with explanations of the suffixes, formation of words, etc., gives
you the language in a nutshell. This little book is already published
in nineteen different languages. If you wish to correspond with
anyone of a different nation, all you have to do is to write your
letter in Esperanto, enclose the "Esperanto Key" in the language of
the person you are writing to, and he will understand your letter.
This, you may say, is pure nonsense, but I assure you it is true, for
on several occasions I have done this myself. In all cases my letters
were thoroughly understood, and in two cases I received replies
written in Esperanto, within three days of my writing, from persons
who had never previously read a word in the language; these replies
were in perfectly good Esperanto, with only one or two trifling
errors, and I was quite amazed when I got them.

But then you will say, "What is the use of this Commentary?" Well, it
is compiled for the use of those who wish to go deeper into the study
of this delightful, logical, flexible, and sonorous language, and who
wish to write and speak it, not merely sufficiently well to be
understood, but to write and speak it in good style. Esperanto,
although so extraordinarily easy to learn, has, like every national
language, a certain style and elegance of expression of its own. If
we translate French, or any other foreign language, literally into
English, we see how bald and strange it reads, and probably some
sentences would be unintelligible. A language literally translated
into Esperanto would be quite intelligible to persons of all
nationalities, owing to the fact that Esperanto is a purely logical,
clear, and unidiomatic language, and to the use of the accusative
case; but the literal translation might be wanting in style, grace,
and smoothness, for the order of the words, although perfectly
correct grammatically, might, in some cases, entail harshness of
sound, and so the easy flow and euphony of the language would be

The standard book for good style in the language is the "Fundamenta
Krestomatio" (Fundamental Chrestomathy), or book of extracts for
studying a language. This book, containing 458 pages of prose and
verse on numerous subjects, was published by Dr. Zamenhof in 1903,
and all the articles in it were either written by himself or, if
written, as many were, by others, were corrected by him to such a
degree that they do not too widely differ from the Doctor's own

The more the student studies this language, the more he will wonder
how it could have been created by the brain of one man; for we must
remember that Esperanto was not devised by a group of learned men of
different nationalities, bringing the knowledge of their own language
to bear upon the construction of an entirely new language, but that
it was born of one individual after years of intense thought and
labour, and it is marvellous how he has discarded the illogical, and
introduced the logical and best points of all the European and dead
languages into Esperanto. How this result was obtained can best be
shown by a short history of the language, taken generally from the
Doctor's article on the subject in the "Krestomatio," page 241,
and also from a letter he wrote to a friend, which was first printed
by his consent in 1896, and reproduced in "Esperantaj Prozaĵoj,"
page 239.


[1] The Third Assembly of the League of Nations, held at Geneva in
September, 1922, unanimously adopted an exhaustive Report favourable
to Esperanto.

[2] The Universala Esperanto-Asocio (U.E.A.), with headquarters at
12, Boulevard du Théâtre, Geneva, has a world-wide organization with
delegates (or consuls, as they are sometimes called) in over 1000
towns in thirty-nine countries who render important international

[3] A book list containing titles of hundreds of translations and
original works in Esperanto may be had from the British Esperanto
Association (Incorporated).

[4] International Congresses, at which Esperanto was the only
language used, have been held at Boulogne-sur-Mer (1905), Geneva
(1906), Cambridge (1907), Dresden (1908), Barcelona (1909),
Washington (1910), Antwerp (1911), Cracow (1912), Berne (1913),
Paris (1914), San Francisco (1915), The Hague (1920), Prague (1921),
Helsingfors (1922), and Nurnberg (1923). A Conference of educationists
was held in 1922 at the Secretariat of the League of Nations in
Geneva, at which twenty-eight countries and sixteen governments
were represented; and in 1923 a Commercial Conference was held at
Venice, to which over 200 commercial and touring associations from
twenty-three countries sent delegates. At both of these conferences,
Esperanto was the only language used.

[5] The most notable example of a modern treaty was the Treaty of
Peace signed at Versailles in 1919. It was executed in French and
English; but not long afterwards questions of the interpretation
of certain parts of it were raised, based upon alleged divergencies
of meaning in the two texts.

[6] In 1923 more than 100.

[7] The Esperanto Association of North America (Inc.), 507, Pierce
Buildings, Copley Square, Boston 17 (Mass.), U.S.A., incorporates
the English-speaking Esperantists of North America. There are also
similar associations in the British Colonies.

The Origin of Esperanto.

Doctor Ludovic Zamenhof, Doctor of Medicine, the inventor of
Esperanto, was born on December 3rd (15th N.S.), 1859, at Bialystok
(Bjelostok), in the Government of Grodno, West Russia, where he spent
his boyhood.[8] The inhabitants of Bjelostok were of four different
nationalities, Russians, Poles, Germans, and Jews, all speaking
different languages, and generally on bad terms with each other. The
boy's impressionable nature caused him to reflect that this animosity
was occasioned by diversity of language, and thus the first seeds of
the idea of an International Language were sown. Even at an early age
Dr. Zamenhof came to the conclusion that an international language
was possible only if it were neutral, belonging to no nationality in
particular. When he passed from the Bjelostok gymnasium to the second
classical school at Warsaw he was for some time allured by the dead
languages, and dreamed of travelling through the world to revive one
of them for common use, but he was eventually convinced that this was
impracticable owing to the mass of grammatical forms and ponderous
dictionaries of those languages.


[8] Dr. Zamenhof died at Warsaw on April 14th, 1917.

In his boyhood he learnt French and German, and began to work out
the idea of his new language, but when, in the 5th Class of the
Gymnasium, he began to study English, the simplicity of its grammar
was a revelation to him, and his own grammar soon melted down to a
few pages without causing any loss to the language. But his giant
vocabularies left him no peace of mind.

He tried to use similar economy in his dictionary as in the grammar,
thinking that it did not matter what form a word took if it had a
given meaning; so he began to invent words, taking care only that
they should be as short as possible. For instance, he argued that the
word "conversation" has 12 letters; why should not the same idea be
conveyed by two, say, "_pa_"? He tried this by simply writing
the shortest and most easily pronounced mathematical series of joined
letters, and these he gave a defined meaning, e.g., ab, ac, ad, ...
ba, ca, da, ... eb, ec, ed, ... etc. He, however, soon abandoned this
idea, as he found these invented words very difficult to learn, and
hard to remember, and thus he came to the conclusion that the word
material for the dictionary must be Romance-Teutonic, changed only as
regularity and other important conditions of the language required.
He soon remarked that the present spoken languages possessed an
immense store of ready-made international words known by all nations,
and he commenced at once to make use of this unlimited supply.

One day, when he was in the 6th or 7th Class at the Gymnasium
he, by chance, observed that the signs over shops had certain
terminations, as we might notice in England, for instance, "Surgery,"
"Bakery," etc., and it then struck him for the first time that these
terminations had certain meanings, and that by using a number of
suffixes, each always having the same meaning, he might make out
of one word many others that need not be separately learnt. This
thought shed a ray of light upon his great and terrible vocabularies,
and he cried out "The problem is solved!" He at once understood how
important it was to make use of this power, which, in the national
languages, plays only a blind, irregular and incomplete _rôle_.
So he began to compare words, and to search out the constant and
defined relationship between them. He cast out of his vocabularies
a vast series of words, substituting for each huge mass a single
suffix, which had always a certain fixed relationship to a root-word.
He next remarked that certain words, which he had hitherto regarded
as purely roots, might easily become formed words and disappear from
the dictionary, such as patr-_ino_ (mother), _mal_-larĝa
(narrow), tranĉ-_ilo_ (knife). Soon after this the Doctor had
in manuscript the whole grammar and a small vocabulary.

In 1878, when he was in the 8th Class at the Gymnasium, the language
was more or less ready, and his fellow students commenced to study
it. On December 17th, 1878, they celebrated the birth of the language
by a banquet, at which a hymn was sung, the commencing words being as

  Malamikete de las nacjes
  Kadó, kadó, jam temp' está!
  La tot' homoze in familje
  Konunigare so debá.

The language then was very different from what it is now, as the
following translation will show:--

  Malamikeco de la nacioj
  Falu, falu, jam tempo estas!
  La tuta homaro en familion
  Unuiĝi devas.

"Let the enmity of nations fall, fall, for the hour is come. All
mankind must be united in one family."

On the table, in addition to the grammar and dictionary, were some
translations in the new language.

The Doctor's fellow students were at first enthusiastic, but
meeting with ridicule when they tried to discuss the language with
their elders, they soon renounced it, and the Doctor hid his work
from all eyes.

After he left school and was at the University, for five years
and a half he never spoke of it to anyone. This secrecy tormented
him. Compelled to conceal his thoughts and plans, he went scarcely
anywhere, took part in nothing, and the best period of his life,
his student years, were, for him, his saddest. Occasionally, he
sought society, but it failed to enliven him, and he then tried
to tranquillize his mind by writing poems in the language he was

For six years he worked at perfecting and testing it. This gave him
plenty of work, notwithstanding he had considered it ready in 1878;
but severe trials showed him that, although it might be ready in
theory, it was not so in practice. He had much to cut out, alter,
and radically transform. Words, forms, principles, and postulates
opposed one another in practice, although each, taken separately,
appeared in theory right. Such things as the universal preposition
_je_, the elastic verb _meti_ (to put), the neutral, but
definite, ending _aŭ_, would probably never have entered his
head had he proceeded only on theory. Some forms, which appeared to
him to possess a mine of wealth, were shown in practice to be useless
ballast, and, on this account, he discarded several unnecessary

He had thought, in the year 1878, that it was sufficient for the
language to have a grammar and vocabulary; the heaviness and want of
grace of the language he ascribed to his not knowing it sufficiently
well; but practice always kept convincing him that the language
required an indescribable "something," a uniting element, giving it
life and soul. He therefore avoided all literal translations, and
commenced to _think_ in the language.

He soon noticed that his new language was not a mere shadowy
reflection of the language he happened to be translating, but was
becoming imbued with a life and spirit of its own, and was now no
mere lifeless mixture of words, It flowed of itself as flexibly,
gracefully, and freely as his own native tongue.

However, another circumstance delayed for a long time its public
appearance. He knew that everyone would say, "Your language will
be useful to me only when the whole world accepts it, therefore
I shall not learn it until I find everyone else is adopting it."
This problem gave him much thought till at last it struck him that
correspondence was carried on in cipher by means of a key possessed
by both parties. This gave him his great idea, namely, to construct
his language in the fashion of such a key by inserting in it not
only the vocabulary, but the whole grammar in its separate elements.
Such a key, alphabetically arranged, would enable anyone possessing
the key, giving the meaning of the elements in his own language, to
understand without further ado a letter written in Esperanto.

Dr. Zamenhof illustrates this in the "Krestomatio," page 249, by the
following sentence:--"I do not know where I left my stick; did
you not see it?" Now supposing that a German wished to write this to
an Englishman or person of any other nationality, he would translate
it from the German into Esperanto as follows, dividing the words into
their elements by hyphens:--

_Mi ne sci-as, kie mi las-is mi-a-n baston-o-n; ĉu vi ĝi-n ne

The Englishman, on receiving the letter, turns to his Esperanto
dictionary, or to the Ĉefeĉ Key, if it be enclosed, and reads as

   MI      = I                                   _I_
   NE      = no, not                             _not_
  {SCI-    = know                               }_know_
  {-AS     = ending of present tense of verb    }
   KIE     = Where                               _where_
   MI      = I                                   _I_
  {LAS-    = leave                              }_left_ or
  {-IS     = ending of past tense of verb       } _have left_
  {MI      = I                                  }_my_
  {-A-     = ending of an adjective (nom. case) }
  {-N      = ending of the objective case       }
  {BASTON- = stick                              }_stick_
  {-O-     = ending of noun (nom case)          }
  {-N      = ending for the objective case      }
   ĈU      = whether; asks a question            _whether_
   VI      = you                                 _you_
  {ĜI-     = it (nom case)                      }_it_
  {-N      = ending for the objective case      }
   NE      = no, not                             _not_
  {VID-    = see                                }_saw_, or _did see_,
  {-IS     = ending of past tense of verb       } or _have seen_

The above, therefore, in bald English is "I not know where I left
my stick; whether you it not have seen (_or_, did see)?"
Now this is perfectly comprehensible to any Englishman. But some
may say, "But if the German had written in his own language, and
I had found a German dictionary, I could quite as easily have
made out his meaning." Now the following is the German for this
sentence:--_Ich weiss nicht wo ich meinen Stock gelassen habe;
haben Sie ihn nicht gesehen?_

On referring to the German dictionary, and looking out the words, he
would find:--ICH=I, WEISS=white, NICHT=not, WO=where, ICH=I,
MEINEN=to think, STOCK=stick, GELASSEN=composed, calm, HABE=property,
goods, HABEN=to have, SIE=she, her, it, they, them, you, IHN=(not
in the dictionary), NICHT=not, GESEHEN=(not in the dictionary).
Therefore the sentence would read:--_I white not where I to think
stick composed property; to have she_ (blank) _not_ (blank).

It would be rather difficult to gather the meaning of this!

On leaving the university, Dr. Zamenhof commenced his medical
practice, and began to consider the publication of his language. He
prepared the manuscript of his first brochure, "An International
Language, by Dr. Esperanto, Preface and Full Manual," and sought out
a publisher. For two years he sought in vain, the financial question
meeting him at every turn; but, at length, after strenuous efforts,
he succeeded in publishing the brochure himself, in 1887. He had
"crossed the Rubicon," and Esperanto was given to the World!

Before concluding this preface let me give a word of advice to
learners. Do not think, after a few days' study, as many do,
that you can improve the language. If you have such thoughts, put
down on a piece of paper your youthful would-be improvements, and
think no more of them till you have a really good knowledge of
the language. Then read them over, and they will go at once into
the waste-paper basket! or, perhaps, be preserved as curiosities!
The most skilled Esperantists have had these thoughts, and have
wasted valuable time in thinking them out, only to find at last
that the more they studied Esperanto, the less they found it
needed alteration. This is what Dr. Zamenhof himself says on the
point:--"As the author of the language, I naturally, more than
anyone else, would wish that it should be as perfect as possible;
it is more difficult for me than others to hold back from fancied
improvements, and I have at times been tempted to propose to
Esperantists some slight alterations, but I bore in mind the great
danger of this step and abandoned my intention." Copy the Doctor in
this, and whatever you do, do not attempt to put your crude ideas of
improvement into _print_.

In compiling this Commentary, my thanks are
due to the following works I have consulted:--

   "Fundamenta Krestomatio," by Dr. Zamenhof.
   "Fundamento de Esperanto," by Dr. Zamenhof.
   "The Student's Complete Text Book," by Mr. J. C. O'Connor, B.A.
   "Grammaire et Exercises," "Commentaire sur la Grammaire Esperanto,"
     "Ekzercoj de Aplikado," "Texte Synthetique," all by M.
      L. de Beaufront.
   "Esperanta Sintakso," by M. Paul Fruictier.
   Various articles in "The Esperantist" and "The British Esperantist"

As regards personal assistance, Mr. Bolingbroke Mudie very kindly
looked over the MS. before its completion.

In preparing the manuscript for publication, my warmest thanks are
due to Mr. E. A. Millidge, F.B.E.A., who took infinite pains in
correcting errors of all kinds. And I must take occasion here to say
that any points of grammar that may be found incorrect, or failure in
making explanations clear to learners, are, in all probability, due
to my not strictly following his suggestions.

      George Cox.
  _August 21st, 1906_.


In this Second Edition of the "Grammar and Commentary" the press and
other errors which appeared in the first edition have been corrected,
and the book has been revised throughout; the text also has been
altered, where explanations were not quite clear.

In Part I an attempt has been made to give a nearer approach to the
proper pronunciation of the vowels which differ in sound from those
in English. In Part II the use of some of the pronouns, correlative
words, and adverbs has been more fully explained, and fresh pages
have been added to the verb section, showing, by numerous examples,
the rendering of the common English verbs "_can, could, may, might,
shall, will, should, would, must, ought_." In Part V, additions have
been made in the list of useful words and expressions.

My thanks, for their kind assistance in the revision of the book, are
especially due to Mr. E. A. Millidge, Mr. A. E. Wackrill, Mr. J. M.
Warden (President of the Edinburgh Group), Mr. M. C. Butler, Mr. G.
W. Bullen, Dr. R. Legge, Mr. W. Bailey, Mr. C. P. Blackham, Mr. P. J.
Cameron, Mr. H. Clegg, Mr. W. Morrison, Mr. G. Ledger, and many other
kind Esperantists, who have written to me pointing out errors and
giving useful suggestions.

Even in this second edition I fear that some errors will be found,
and I shall, therefore, be extremely obliged if Esperantists will
kindly point out to me any they may meet with.

      George Cox.
  _April 12th, 1907_.


In this Third Edition of the "Grammar and Commentary" I have again to
thank many kind Esperantist friends for assisting me in correcting
errors, and for their advice in pointing out desirable alterations
and improvements.

The book has been carefully revised, and a few additions have been
made, which I trust will be found useful.

   George Cox.


  En la mondon venis nova sento,
  Tra la mondo iras forta voko;
  Per flugiloj de facila vento
  Nun de loko flugu ĝi al loko.

  Ne al glavo sangon soifanta
  Ĝi la homan tiras familion:
  Al la mond' eterne militanta
  Ĝi promesas sanktan harmonion.

  Sub la sankta signo de l' espero
  Kolektiĝas pacaj batalantoj,
  Kaj rapide kreskas la afero
  Per laboro de la esperantoj.

  Forte staras muroj de miljaroj
  Inter la popoloj dividitaj;
  Sed dissaltos la obstinaj baroj,
  Per la sankta amo disbatitaj.

  Sur neŭtrala lingva fundamento,
  Komprenante unu la alian,
  La popoloj faros en konsento
  Unu grandan rondon familian.

  Nia diligenta kolegaro
  En laboro paca ne laciĝos,
  Ĝis la bela sonĝo de l' homaro
  Por eterna ben' efektiviĝos.

      L. L. Zamenhof.
  El Fundamenta Krestomatio.


Literal Translation.

  A new sentiment has come into the world,
  A mighty call is passing through the world;
  On wings of a light breeze
  From place to place now let it fly.

  Not to the sword thirsting for blood
  Does it draw the family of mankind:
  To the ever-warring world
  It promises holy harmony.

  Under the sacred sign of hope
  Peaceful combatants are gathering,
  And the cause is rapidly growing
  Through the labour of the hopeful.

  Strongly stand the walls of thousands of years
  Between the divided peoples;
  But the obstinate barriers shall leap asunder,
  Beaten down by sacred love.

  On a neutral lingual foundation,
  Understanding one another,
  The peoples shall form in agreement
  One great family circle.

  Our diligent colleagues
  Will not weary of their peaceful labour,
  Until the beautiful dream of mankind
  For eternal blessing shall be realized.


  Tra densa mallumo briletas la celo,
    Al kiu kuraĝe ni iras,
  Simile al stelo en nokta ĉielo,
    Al ni la direkton ĝi diras.
  Kaj nin ne timigas la noktaj fantomoj,
    Nek batoj de l' sorto, nek mokoj de l' homoj,
  Ĉar klara kaj rekta kaj tre difinita
    Ĝi estas, la voj' elektita.

  Ni semas kaj semas, neniam laciĝas,
    Pri l' tempoj estontaj pensante,
  Cent semoj perdiĝas, mil semoj perdiĝas,--
    Ni semas kaj semas konstante.
  "Ho, ĉesu!" mokante la homoj admonas,
    "Ne ĉesu, ne ĉesu!" en kor' al ni sonas:
  "Obstine antaŭen! La nepoj vin benos
    Se vi pacience eltenos."

  Se longa sekeco aŭ ventoj subitaj
    Velkantajn foliojn deŝiras,
  Ni dankas la venton kaj, repurigitaj,
    Ni forton pli freŝan akiras.
  Ne mortos jam nia bravega anaro,
    Ĝin jam ne timigas la vento, nek staro:
  Obstine ĝi paŝas, provita, hardita,
    Al cel' unu fojon signita

  Nur rekte, kuraĝe kaj ne flankiĝante
    Ni iru la vojon celitan!
  Eĉ guto malgranda, konstante frapante,
    Traboras la monton granitan.
  L' espero, l' obstino kaj la pacienco--
    Jen estas la signoj, per kies potenco
  Ni paŝo post paŝo, post longa laboro,
    Atingos la celon en gloro.

  L. L. Zamenhof.


   Alphabet.--Pronunciation.--Syntax.--Formation of Words.
      --Definitions.--Primary Words.--Foreign Words.--
      Grammatical Terminations.--List of Suffixes.--List of
      Affirmation.--The Accusative--Capital Letters.--
      Punctuation.--Order of Words                              1-58


Grammar and Commentary.

   Rules.--Parts of Speech.--The Article.--Nouns.--Adjectives.
      --Numerals.--Pronouns.--Correlative Words.--Verbs.--
      --Remarks on the Suffixes and Prefixes                    59-258


   Exercises                                                   259-316


   Phrases.--Conversation.--Correspondence                     317-333


   List of Primary Words.--List of Adverbs, Adjectives,
      Conjunctions, Prepositions, and Adverbial and
      Prepositional Expressions                                334-362

   Hints To Learners                                           363-364

   Index                                                       365-371


ALPHABET (Alfabeto).

1. The Alphabet (la alfabeto) consists of 28 letters, viz.:--5
vowels (vokaloj) and 23 consonants (konsonantoj).

  Aa, Bb, Cc, Ĉĉ, Dd, Ee, Ff,
  Gg, Ĝĝ, Hh, Ĥĥ, Ii, Jj, Ĵĵ,
  Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr,
  Ss, Ŝŝ, Tt, Uu, Ŭŭ, Vv, Zz.

2. The Characters are written as in English, the marks over the
letters requiring them being added as printed. In telegrams ĉ,
ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ, may be written ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u.

3. Typewriting.--If the letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ, are not on
the machine, type the plain letters and add the supersigns
afterwards with the pen; most makers, however, supply a machine with
the necessary characters, or they can be added to any machine on a
"dead key" at the cost of a few shillings.

4. The Names given to the letters are different from those of other
languages. For instance, in English we add E to _some_ of the
consonants to name the letter, but in Esperanto O is added to _all_
the 23 consonants, and the alphabet runs thus:--A, Bo, Co, Ĉo, Do,
E, Fo, Go, Ĝo, Ho, Ĥo, I, Jo, Ĵo, Ko, Lo, Mo, No, O, Po, Ro, So,
Ŝo, To, U, Ŭo, Vo, Zo. Note particularly the pronunciation of the
12 consonants, given in the next paragraph.

See "Hints to Learners," page 363.


5. The Consonants are pronounced as in English, with the following

  C pronounced _tso_ like _ts_ in _pits_, _Tsar_.
  Ĉ pronounced _cho_ like _ch_ in _choke_ or _church_.
  G pronounced _go_ like _g_ in _get_ or _go_, always hard.
  Ĝ pronounced _djo_ like _j_ in _Joe_, or _G_ in _George_.
  Ĥ pronounced _hHo_ like _ch_ in _loch_ (is a very strong guttural aspirate).
  J pronounced _yo_ like _y_ in _yoke_.
  Ĵ pronounced _zho_ like _s_ in _pleasure_, _leisure_.
  R pronounced _ro_ like _rr_ in _terror_.
  S pronounced _so_ like _s_ in _so_ (never has the sound of _z_).
  Ŝ pronounced _sho_ like _sh_ in _show_.
  Ŭ pronounced _oo-o_ or _wo_ like _w_ in _cow_.
  Z pronounced _zo_ like _z_ in _zone_.

For the pronunciation of the vowels, see pars. 8 and 9.

6. In spelling a word use the Esperanto name, thus:--A, No, To, A,
Wo, spells _antaŭ_ (before). E, Wo, Ro, O, Po, O, spells _Eŭropo_
(Europe). U, No, U, spells _unu_ (one).

7. Consonants. Note the following:--

(_a_). C and J are the only consonants which have a different sound
than in English.

(_b_). C, Ĉ and Ŝ are the equivalents of the English combinations
_ts_, _ch_ (soft) and _sh_.

(_c_). G has always the English _hard_ sound.

(_d_). Ĝ is like the English J.

(_e_). J is like the English Y.

(_f_). H is always aspirated.

(_g_). Ĥ is a guttural aspirate similar to the Spanish J as heard in
_mujer_ (a woman), or like the Scotch _ch_ in "loch," or the Irish
_gh_ in "lough." If the learner cannot catch this sound it will be
sufficient to aspirate the character strongly, as if it were a double
letter _hH_, laying stress on the last H.

(_h_). S _never_ has the sound of Z, as it has in the English words
"rose, has, was," etc.

(_i_). ĵ, the small letter, does not require the dot in addition to
the circumflex.

(_j_). Ŭ is a consonant, and is used in the combinations AŬ and EŬ
(see par. 10).

8. Vowels.--There are no _short_ vowels in Esperanto, as heard in
the words bat, bet, bit, pot, but. All vowels should be of _medium_
length, but it is well to begin by sounding them _long_ (see note,
page 12).

9. The vowel A is sounded like "ah!" or the _a_ in "father"; I like
_ee_ in "seen"; U like _oo_ in "fool."

As regards the vowels E and O, we have no words in English exactly
expressing their true sounds. The correct sound of E is something
midway between the vowels heard in "bale" and "bell," and that of O
something midway between those heard in "dole" and "doll," viz.,
"eh!" (cut short) and "oh!" (cut short), but without the _prolonged_
sound heard in these words. In the vowel E there should be no trace
of the _ee_ sound heard in "cake"; its true sound is much nearer to
the _e_ in "bell." The vowel O approaches to the sound of _o_ in
"for," or of _aw_ in "law."

In the scheme of pronunciation (par. 19) we have therefore used _ah_
for A; _eh_ for E; _ee_ for I; _o_ for O; _oo_ for U.

N.B.--Do not clip or drag the vowels.

10. Combinations, Vowel and Consonant.--The following 6
combinations resemble diphthongs, but are not so, since a diphthong
consists of 2 _vowels_ and _j_ and _ŭ_ are both consonants:--

  AJ pronounced _ahye_ or _i_ something like _ai_ in aisle.
  AŬ pronounced _ahoo_ or _ow_ something like _ow_ in cow.
  EJ pronounced _ehye_ or _ae_ something like _aye_ in c_aye_nne.
  EŬ pronounced _ehoo_ or _ew_ something like _ayw_ in w_ayw_ard.
  OJ pronounced _oye_ or _oi_ something like _oy_ in joy.
  UJ pronounced _ooye_ or _ooe_ something like _uj_ in Hallel_uj_ah.

It will be observed that if these double sounds be rapidly made the
pronunciation will resemble the English words given, but remember
they are each pronounced as one syllable, so the examples "cayenne,"
"wayward," "Hallelujah," are not strictly correct. AJ, EJ, OJ, UJ,
resemble the sound heard in the French words "paille," "oseille,"
"boyard," "fouille," and AŬ is heard in the German word "Haus."

N.B.--It is difficult to explain the exact sound of EŬ. Pronounce
our word "_ewe_," and then give the sound of _eh_ (cut short) to the
first letter, thus _ehwe_, pronouncing the word as _one_ syllable. In
the scheme of pronunciation at page 10 we have given it as _ehw_. It
occurs very rarely.

11. Combinations of Consonants.--There are a few which do not occur
in English, and the attention of the student is therefore called to
the following:--

12. GV, KN KV, SV. When these letters commence a word, both must be
clearly pronounced.

13. Ŝ, being the same as our Sh, must be distinctly pronounced, when
followed by one or two consonants. Ŝm = shm, Ŝn = shn, Ŝp = shp,
Ŝt = sht, Ŝtr = shtr, Ŝv = shv. If the _sh_ sound be not clearly
given, mistakes might occur in a few words, as, for instance,
Ŝtupo is a _step_ (of a ladder), but Stupo is _tow_; Ŝtalo is
_steel_, but Stalo a _stall_.

14. SC. This combination may at first be found difficult, especially
when it commences a word, since it represents STS, which, with a
following vowel, form but one syllable. There are very few words
commencing with SC, viz.:--The five given in the list of words (par.
19) and their derivatives, the word scii (_to know_) being the only
one in common use. First the sound of S has to be given, then T, and
lastly S. Since every letter has to be sounded, it is not sufficient
to pronounce scii as _tsee-e_, for then the initial S is omitted;
we must therefore mentally pronounce it _estsee-e_, the "_es_" being
uttered very rapidly (as if it were merely a short sibilant) before
the voice reaches the TS, on which the stress is made. When SC is not
preceded by a comma or other stop, or is in the middle of a word,
the pronunciation can be easily effected by joining the sound of
the preceding letter to the S. Thus mi scias = _I know_ can be
pronounced _meest-see-ahs_. Mi vidis brunan sciuron = _I saw a
brown squirrel_--_mee-vee-dees broo-nahnst-see-oo-ron_. But when the
preceding word ends in S, the full sound of both of the letters S
must be given, as mi havas sciuron = _I have a squirrel_--_mee
hahvahs (e)stsee-oo-ron_ (the initial _e_ very short to help to give
the sound of the first _s_) . [By repeating the sentence: "You at
least see as well as I do," and then detaching the words "least see,"
the student will readily arrive at the proper pronunciation of "sc"
in "Li scias."]

15. KZ. In pronouncing this combination, do not follow the English
pronunciation of words like "exempt," etc., which our dictionaries
give as "egzempt." Be careful not to turn the K into G in such words
as ekzemplo = _example_, ekzameni = _to examine_. The full sound
should be given to every letter in the three syllables, ek-zem-plo.

16. Pronunciation of Words.--Every vowel and consonant in a word is
pronounced distinctly, and the sound never varies, whether the
letters are initial, medial, or final; _there is no mute letter in
Esperanto_. Each syllable must be distinct, and it must be remembered
that when two vowels come together, such as ai, ae, ee, ii,
oi, etc., or two similar consonants, as kk, ll, mm, etc.,
each letter always belongs to a different syllable, and must be given
its full sound.

17. Tonic Accent.--The stress of the voice, or the tonic accent, is
always on the _penultimate_ (last syllable but one). Even in words of
two syllables the tonic accent must be strongly perceived in the
first syllable. The euphony and beauty of the language would in a
great measure be destroyed by non-observance of this rule.

(_a_). In compound words, as in others, the accent must very
distinctly fall on the penultimate of the _whole_ word; but when a
compound word consists of four syllables, or more, the _meaning_ of
the prefixed word, or words, may be shown by laying a certain stress
on those syllables which would be accented if they were complete
independent words. It will be noticed how much easier it is to grasp
the meaning of a prefixed word if a slight stress of the voice be
given to that syllable on which we are accustomed to hear the accent
fall when the word stands alone, as:--_Du_-be-_ni_-gra = Blackish.
_An_-taŭ-_vi_-di = To foresee. _Gas_-o-_me_-tro = Gasometer.
Arm-_il_-far-_ist_-o = Gunsmith. Ĝar-_den_-la-bor-_ad_-o = Gardening.
_In_-ter-ri-_lat_-o = Intercourse. _Sen_-la-_bor_-of-_ic_-o = Sinecure.
Le-_ter_-pa-_per_-o = Note-paper.

18. Beginners should read aloud daily; at first slowly and slightly
exaggerating the sounds, making free use of the organs of speech. It
will then be found that in more rapid utterance the exaggeration
will gradually disappear, and a good, bold, free pronunciation be
attained. (See "Hints to Learners," page 363.)

19. It is advisable that the student, before proceeding to the
grammar, should get a thorough knowledge of the sounds of letters,
syllables, and words; he should, therefore, read over the following
list of words, which gives most of the combinations of sounds in the
language. The italics denote where the tonic accent falls.


  Esperanto Letter.
  A = _ah_ is used to represent the _a_ in _father_.
  E = _eh_ (see par. 9).
  I = _ee_ is used to represent the _ee_ in _seen_.
  O = _o_ (see par. 9).
  U = _oo_ is used to represent the _oo_ in _fool_.
  Ŭ = _w_ is used to represent the _w_ in _wet_.
  G = _g_ is used to represent the _g_ in _go_.
  Ĝ = _dj_ is used to represent the _g_ in _George_.
  Ĥ = _hH_ is used to represent a very strong guttural aspirate
  J = _y_ is used to represent the _y_ in _yes_.
  Ĵ = _zh_ is used to represent the _s_ in _pleasure_.

        Esperanto.       Pronunciation.                English.

  A     abato       ah-_bah_-to                    abbot.
  a-a   la afero    lah ah-_feh_-ro                the affair.
  a-e   aero        ah-_eh_-ro                     air.
  a-i   trairi      trah-_ee_-ree                  to traverse.
        balai       bah-_lah_-ee                   to sweep.
  aj    ajlo        _ahy_-lo (sound "y" short,
                      as ye) (dissyllable)         garlic.
        krajono     krah-_yo_-no                   pencil.
        majesta     mah-_yehs_-tah                 majestic.
        ajn         _ahyn_ (sound "y" short,
                      as ye) (monosyllable)        ever.
        palaj       _pah_-lahy (sound "y" short,
                      as ye) (dissyllable)         pale (adj., pl.)
  a-o   la ondo     lah _on_-do                    the wave.
  a-u   la ungo     lah _oon_-go                   the nail.
  aŭ    laŭdo       _lahw_-do                      praise.
        antaŭ       _ahn_-tahw                     before.
        hodiaŭ      ho-_dee_-ahw                   to-day.
  B     Biblio      Bee-_blee_-o                   Bible.
  C     cent        _tsehnt_                       hundred.
        citi        _tsee_-tee                     to cite, quote.
        colo        _tso_-lo                       inch.
        paco        _pah_-tso                      peace.
        pacienco    pah-tsee-_ehn_-tso             patience.
        oficiro     o-fee-_tsee_-ro                officer.
        proceso     pro-_tseh_-so                  lawsuit.
  Ĉ     ĉar         _chahr_                        because, for.
        ĉielo       chee-_eh_-lo                   heaven, sky.
        senĉesa     sehn-_cheh_-sah                incessant,
        eĉ          _ehch_                         even.
  E     elemento    eh-leh-_mehn_-to               element.
  e-a   oceano      o-tseh-_ah_-no                 ocean.
  e-e   treege      treh-_eh_-geh                  exceedingly.
  e-i   feino       feh-_ee_-no                    fairy.
        perei       peh-_reh_-ee                   to perish.
  ej    plej        _plehy_ (sound "y" short,
                      as ye) (monosyllable)        most.
        malplej     _mahl_-plehy (sound "y" short,
                      as ye) (dissyllable)         least.
        hejmo       _hehy_-mo (sound "y" short,
                      as ye) (dissyllable)         home.
  e-o   neo         _neh_-o                        negative.
        teorio      teh-o-_ree_-o                  theory.
  e-u   pereu       peh-_reh_-oo                   perish
  eŭ    Eŭropo      ehw-_ro_-po                    Europe.
  G     gento       _gehn_-to                      tribe.
  gv    gvidi       _gvee_-dee                     to guide.
        lingvo      _leen_-gvo                     language.
  g-u   guano       goo-_ah_-no                    guano.
  Ĝ     ĝui         _djoo_-ee                      to enjoy.
        ĝojo        _djo_-yo                       joy.
        paĝo        _pah_-djo                      page.
  H     haro        _hah_-ro                       hair.
        senhara     sehn-_hah_-rah                 bald.
  Ĥ     ĥemio       hHeh-_mee_-o (guttural
                                     aspirate)     chemistry.
        eĥo         _eh_-hHo (do.)                 echo.
  I     idilio      ee-dee-_lee_-o                 idyll.
  i-a   ial         _ee_-ahl                       for any cause.
  i-e   tiel        _tee_-ehl                      thus.
  i-i   diigi       dee-_ee_-gee                   to deify.
  i-o   tiom        _tee_-om                       as much.
  i-u   ĉiu         _chee_-oo                      each.
  i-uj  tiuj        _tee-ooy_ (dissyllable)        those.
  J     justa       _yoos_-tah                     just.
        ĉiujara     chee-oo-_yah_-rah              yearly.
  Ĵ     ĵus         _zhoos_                        just (adv.).
        ĵaŭdo       _zhahw_-do                     Thursday.
        bovaĵo      bo-_vah_-zho                   beef.
  K     konkuri     kon-_koo_-ree                  to compete.
  kn    knedi       _kneh_-dee                     to knead.
  kv    kvankam     _kvahn_-kahm                   although.
        kvitanco    kvee-_tahn_-tso                receipt.
        malkvieteco mahl-kvee-eh-_teh_-tso         restlessness.
  k-z   ekzemplo    ehk-_zehm_-plo                 example.
  L     mallumiĝo   mahl-loo-_mee_-djo             eclipse.
        ellabori    ehl-lah-_bo_-ree               to achieve.
  O     ondo        _on_-do                        a wave.
  o-a   boato       bo-_ah_-to                     boat.
  o-e   troe        _tro_-eh                       excessively.
  o-i   foiro       fo-_ee_-ro                     a fair.
  oj    vojoj       _vo_-yoy                       roads (plur.).
  o-o   zoologio    zo-o-lo-_gee_-o                zoology.
  o-u   trouzi      tro-_oo_-zee                   to abuse.
  R     rimarki     ree-_mahr_-kee                 to remark.
  rr    forrampi    for-_rahm_-pee                 to creep away
  S     sekci       _sehk_-tsee                    to dissect.
  sc    sceno       _(e)stseh_-no (imagine
                     a very short _e_ to
                     help to give the
                     sound of the first _s_)       scene.
        sceptro     _(e)stsehp_-tro                sceptre.
        scienco     (e)stsee-_ehn_-tso             science.
        scii        _(e)stsee_-ee                  to know.
        sciuro      (e)stsee-_oo_-ro               squirrel.
        konscienco  kons-tsee-_ehn_-tso            conscience.
        nescio      nehs-_tsee_-o                  ignorance.
  sf    sfero       _sfeh_-ro                      sphere.
  sv    sveni       _sveh_-nee                     to swoon.
  skl   sklavo      _sklah_-vo                     slave.
  skv   skvamo      _skvah_-mo                     scale (of fish).
  Ŝ     ŝaŭmo       _shahw_-mo                     froth.
        malŝarĝi    mahl-_shahr_-djee              to unload (a cart).
  ŝl    ŝlosi       _shlo_-see                     to lock.
  ŝm    ŝmiri       _shmee_-ree                    to smear.
  ŝpr   ŝpruci      _shproo_-tsee                  to spurt (intrans.).
  ŝtr   ŝtrumpo     _shtroom_-po                   stocking.
  ŝv    ŝveli       _shveh_-lee                    to swell (intrans.).
  ŝt    poŝtmarko   posht-_mahr_-ko                postage stamp
  T     trajto      _trahy_-to (dissyllable)       trait, feature.
  U     unu         _oo_-noo                       one.
  u-a   unua        oo-_noo_-ah                    first.
  u-e   duelo       doo-_eh_-lo                    duel.
  u-i   kuirejo     koo-ee-_reh_-yo                kitchen.
        detrui      deh-_troo_-ee                  to destroy.
  uj    monujo      mo-_noo_-yo                    purse.
        tuj         _tooy_ (monosyllable)          immediately.
        prujno      _prooy_-no (dissyllable)       white frost.
        unuj        _oo_-nooy (dissyllable)        some (plural of
  u-o   duobla      doo-_o_-blah                   double.
        paruo       pah-_roo_-o                    tomtit.
  u-u   detruu      deh-_troo_-oo                  destroy (imperative).
  V     envolvi     ehn-_vol_-vee                  to envelop,
  Z     edzino      ehd-_zee_-no                   wife.
        noktomezo   nok-to-_meh_-zo                midnight.

Note.--Esperanto vowels are very similar in sound to those in German
and Spanish, and in the Italian _do_, _re_, _mi_, _fa_.

SYNTAX (Sintakso).

20. Syntax (sintakso) treats of the connection, dependence, and
arrangement of words to form intelligible speech.

21. Speech (parolo) consists of propositions.

22. A Proposition (propozicio) is a collection of words by which we
assert, or question, the act, state, or quality of some person or
thing. A complete proposition consists of two chief parts, viz., the
Subject and Predicate.

23. The Subject (subjekto) is the name of the person or thing
spoken of.

24. The Predicate (predikato) is what is said about the subject.

25. The Subject of a proposition is always:--

(_a_). One or more nouns.

(_b_). Some word used as a noun, e.g., (1), a pronoun, mi = _I_;
(2), an adjective, mia kara estas bona filino = _my dear (one) is a
good daughter_; (3), an infinitive, mensogi estas honte = _to lie_
(or, _lying_) _is shameful_; (4), a phrase. Estas agrable por (or,
al) mi, ke vi aĉetis tiun domon (here "ke vi aĉetis" is the
subject) = _I am glad (it is agreeable to me) that you bought that

26. The subject is always in the nominative case. When the subject
is a noun, it must, therefore, always end in -O, if the noun is
singular, or in -OJ, if the noun is in the plural. The subject of any
verb can always be determined by putting the word "who?" or "what?"
before the verb, and the word giving the reply is the subject,
as:--La riĉulo havas multe da mono = _The rich man has much (of)
money_. (Who has much money? _The rich man_ = la riĉulo is the
subject.) La papero estas blanka = _The paper is white._ (What is
white? _The paper_ = la papero is the subject.) De timo paliĝis
Antono = _Antony grew pale from fear._ (Who grew pale? _Antony_ =
Antono is the subject.) Miaj fratoj batis min = _My brothers beat
me._ (Who beat me? _My brothers_ = miaj fratoj is the subject.)

27. Subject omitted.--Sometimes the subject is omitted,
as:--Pluvas = _it rains_. Fulmis = _It lightened_. (See remarks
on impersonal verbs, par. 164.)

28. The Object is the person or thing acted upon by the subject,
hence the term objective (or accusative) case, as:--Johano batas la
knabon = _John beats the boy._ Knabon = _the boy_ is acted upon
by Johano, the subject, therefore knabon is the object, and has
the accusative termination N.

29. The Direct Complement (rekta komplemento).--The noun or pronoun
(not governed by a preposition), which is the direct complement of a
transitive verb, must have the accusative form -N in the singular,
or -JN in the plural. The direct complement of a verb can be
determined by asking the question "whom?" or "what?" after such verb,
and the word giving the reply is the direct complement, as:--Diru al
mi vian nomon = _Tell me your name_. (Tell what? _Your name_ = vian
nomon is the direct complement.) Johano min amas = _John loves
me_. (Loves whom? _Me_ = min is the direct complement.)

30. The direct complement of an active verb becomes the subject if
the verb is put in the passive voice, as:--Mia patro amas min = _My
father loves me_. Here min = _me_ is the direct complement; but Mi
estas amata de mia patro = _I am loved by my father_. Here mi =
_I_ is the subject of the verb. Note, that intransitive verbs cannot
have a direct complement, for they have no passive voice (par. 162).

31. The Indirect Complement (nerekta komplemento) is formed with a
preposition and a noun or pronoun in the nominative, as:--Donu al la
birdoj akvon = _Give (to) the birds water_, or _Give water to the
birds_. (Here "akvon" is the direct, and la birdoj the indirect,
complement.) Venu kune kun la patro = _Come together with (the)
father_. But if direction towards something be implied, and the
preposition of itself does not denote movement, the noun, or pronoun,
will then be in the accusative case (see pars. 67, 256), as:--Li
eniris en la domon = _He went into the house_.

32. The Circumstantial Complement.--A word or phrase is termed a
circumstantial complement (_cirkonstanca komplemento_) when it marks
the time, place, manner, cause, etc., of an action, as:--En
printempo floroj aperas, or Printempe floroj aperas = _In Spring
flowers appear_. Li agas pro ĵaluzo = _He acts from (owing to)

The Predicate (Predikato).

33. The Predicate is what is said about the subject.

(_a_). A predicative verb is one which, of itself, shows in a
definite manner some act, state, or quality, as:--Arbo kreskas =
_A tree grows_. La arbo verdiĝis = _The tree became green_.

(_b_) A non-predicative verb is one which does not, of itself,
show an act, but is accompanied by some adjective, participle or
predicative noun, defining and describing the subject, as:--La urbo
estas belega = _The city is magnificent_. Kolombo estas birdo = _A
pigeon is a bird_. This is called a "Disjoined predicate" (disigita

34. The Predicate can furthermore be precisely defined by an adverb
or a noun (or a word used as a noun) governed by a preposition. This
serves to show the object of the act and circumstances surrounding
it, as:--Arturo batis Georgon per sia pugno = _Arthur struck George
with his fist_.

35. A noun can be more precisely defined by the addition of another
noun or word used as a noun, as:--Eduardo, reĝo de Anglujo =
_Edward, King of England_. This is called "apposition" (_apozicio_).

36. To every noun can be added adjectives or participles, which also
can be defined by other nouns, as:--Homo mortiginta sian patrinon
estas granda krimulo = _A man who has murdered (having murdered) his
mother is a great criminal_. An adjective added, without any
intervening word, to a noun is termed "qualifying," in order to
distinguish it from an adjective (called a "predicative" adjective)
having the verb esti (expressed or understood) between it and the
noun, as:--Homo bona = _A good man_ (qualifying). La homo estas
bona = _The man is good_ (predicative). (See remarks on adjectives,
par. 108.)


37. A word consists of one or more syllables or distinct sounds,
and has a definite meaning.

38. A root is an incomplete word conveying only an idea. It may
consist of one or more syllables, but requires one or more letters to
form it into a word.

39. Words in Esperanto may be divided into four classes: Primary,
Simple, Compound, and Foreign.

(_a_). A Primary word is one which requires no additional letters
to give it a distinct meaning (see list of Primary Words, Part V).

(_b_). A Simple word is one formed by adding a grammatical
termination to a single root, or to a primary word (which then
becomes a root), with or without suffixes or prefixes.

Examples.--_Bon-a_ = Good. _Ĉirkaŭ-i_ = To surround. _Antaŭ-ul-o_
= A predecessor. _Dis-sem-i_ = To scatter. _Mal-san-ul-ejo_ = An

(_c_). A Compound word is one formed by adding a grammatical
termination to two or more roots, or to a primary word and a root,
with or without suffixes or prefixes. Any of the component parts may
be complete words, if euphony requires it.

Examples.--_Bon-intenc-a_ = Well-meaning. _Super-natur-a_ =
Supernatural. _Antaŭ-vid-i_ = To foresee. _Ĉas-o-ŝtel-ist-o_ = A
poacher. _Ĉas-gard-ist-o_ = A gamekeeper. _Vapor-ŝipo_ = A
steamship. _Griz-har-a_ = Grey-haired. _Super-akv-eg-o_ = A deluge.

(_d_). A Foreign word is one common to most languages, being
derived from the same root.

Examples.--_Teatr-o_ = Theatre. _Teatr-a_ = Theatrical. _Geologi-o_ =
Geology. _Geologi-a_ = Geological.


40. To show the manner in which words are formed in Esperanto, it
will perhaps be better first to do so in Dr. Zamenhof's own words, as
given on page 248 of his "Fundamenta Krestomatio." He says:--

"I arranged a complete dismemberment of ideas into independent
words, so that the whole language, _instead of_ being words in
various grammatical forms, consists solely of _unchangeable_ words.
If you will take a work written in my language, you will find that
each word is always in one constant form, namely, in that form in
which it is printed in the dictionary, and that the various
grammatical forms, reciprocal relation between words, etc., etc.,
are expressed by the union of unchanging words. But, because such a
construction of language is quite strange to Europeans, I adapted
this dismemberment of the language to the spirit of the European
languages, so that anyone learning mine from a manual would not
suppose that it differed in construction from his own. Take, for
example, the word fratino, which in reality consists of three words,
frat, in, o. Frat gives the idea of the offspring[9] of one's
parents, in the idea of the female sex, and o the idea of existence
(person or thing), hence a noun. These three ideas combined, in
Esperanto, make fratino = _a sister_. The first and last make frato
= _a brother_. The instruction book shows this in the following
manner:--Brother = frat-, but because every substantive in the
nominative ends in o, therefore frato = _brother_. For the formation
of the feminine, the little word -in- is inserted, therefore fratino
= _sister_. In this way, the dismemberment of the language in no way
embarrasses the learner; he does not even suspect that that which he
calls a prefix, or suffix, or termination, is really an _independent
word_, which always preserves its meaning, no matter whether it be
used at the beginning, middle, or end of a word, or independently,
and that every word, with equal right, can be used as a root word or
grammatical particle."


[9] It must be remembered that all roots or root-words in Esperanto
are either sexless, or have only the sex _naturally_ belonging to
the root, unless the feminine suffix--IN--be added. For instance,
vir- gives the idea of "man" (male), therefore viro = a man; and we
always speak of viro as li = _he_, because we are sure the noun
refers to the male sex. But the root infan- gives only the idea of a
"child" (neuter), so, unless we actually know the child is a male,
we speak of infano = _child_ as ĝi = _it_, just as we do in
English. When a suffix denoting a person, such as -estr-, -ist-,
-ul-, is added to a root, the noun is sexless, or may be presumed to
be masculine, unless the feminine -in- be also added.

41. With reference to the above, it will be observed that Dr.
Zamenhof calls all combinations of letters,[10] which convey an
idea, a "word," as for instance frat, in, o, but in practice the
student may find it helpful to use the terms which are defined in
pars. 37-39, and (with the exception of the primary words in the
list, Part V.) to call no combination a "word" until it receives a
grammatical termination.


[10] Not only combinations of letters, but each vowel (as already
shown in the case of O), conveys an idea, and is therefore,
technically speaking, a word; for instance--

  A conveys the idea of _quality_ and marks the _Adjective_.
  E conveys the idea of _modification_ and marks the _Adverb_.
  I conveys the idea of _indefiniteness_ and marks the _Infinitive mood_.
  O conveys the idea of _existence_, _entity_ and marks the _Noun_.
  U conveys the idea of _order_ and marks the _Imperative mood_.

In the table of Correlative Words, Dr. Zamenhof carries out the idea
of indefiniteness in the _I_ series, ia, ial, iam, etc.; all,
however, be it noted, independent indivisible _roots_ (see par.
147). In fact ia, ie, io, might be considered as adjective, adverb,
and noun, regularly formed from the indefinite word (or grammatical
termination as we call it) "i."

42. Grammatical Terminations (_gramatikaj finiĝoj_).--Every word
in Esperanto, except the primary words, has a grammatical termination
which shows:--

(_a_). The part of speech.

(_b_). Whether the word is singular or plural.

(_c_). Whether in the nominative or accusative case.

(_d_). The mood, tense, and participles of a verb.

A list of the grammatical terminations will be found in par. 53.

43. Suffixes.--Suffixes are syllables placed between the root and
grammatical termination, adding to the word the idea contained in the
suffix as well as that in the root.

A list of suffixes will be found in par. 54.

44. Prefixes.--A prefix is a syllable placed before the root,
adding to the root the idea contained in the prefix.

A list of prefixes will be found in par. 55.

45. From the foregoing definitions we see that words in Esperanto are
either primary words, or words composed of:--

(_a_). Roots and grammatical terminations.

(_b_). Roots, suffixes, and grammatical terminations.

(_c_). Prefixes, roots, and grammatical terminations.

(_d_). Prefixes, roots, suffixes, and grammatical terminations.

46. Order of Suffixes.--The grammatical terminations, _A_, _E_,
_I_, _O_, _U_, _AS_, _IS_, _OS_, _US_, showing the part of speech and
mood and tense of verbs, must end all words (except some of the
primary words), the accusative _N_ or plural _J_ being added if
required. Suffixes precede this termination in their natural order.
For instance, if we want to say "a tiny female kitten," we commence
with the root kat-, giving the idea only of "cat" ; then add -id-
(suffix for "offspring of") kat-id- = _kitten_; then -in- (female
suffix) kat-id-in- = _kitten female_; then -et- (diminutive
suffix) kat-id-in-et- = _kitten female tiny_; we have now got the
root and all the suffixes, and we might make the word an adjective by
adding _A_, but we want a noun, so add _O_; kat-id-in-et-o = _a
tiny female kitten_. If we place -et- after kat-, we commence by
speaking of a "tiny cat," for kateto has that meaning, so
katetidino would be the "female offspring of a tiny cat." If we
reversed the three suffixes, we should get kat-in-et-id-o =
_offspring of a tiny female cat_. This exaggerated example of
building up suffixes will show the importance of placing them in
their natural order. The student cannot make a mistake if he
commences with the root and forms a word of each suffix in
succession; for instance, hund-o = _a dog_, hund-id-o = _a
puppy_, hundid-in-o = _a female puppy_, hundidin-eg-o = _a huge
female puppy_.

47. Order of Prefixes.--In like manner prefixes must come in their
natural order, as:--Sano = _health_, mal-sano = _illness_,
re-mal-sano = _a return of illness_, _a relapse_.

48. Order of roots in compound words.--The principal root is always
placed last, and receives the grammatical termination, with or
without a suffix. The root of a subordinate word is sufficient
without any suffix.

Examples.--_Ĉas-gard-ist-o_ = A gamekeeper, (_ĉasi_ = to hunt,
_ĉas-aĵo_ = a thing hunted, game; but it is unnecessary to add the
suffix _-aĵ-_ to the subordinate root). _Roz-kolora_ = Rose
coloured. _Skrib-tablo_ = Writing table. _Lerno-libro_ = Instruction
book, manual (_lern-o_, the root, made a full word for euphony).
Compare: _librolerno_, book-learning. _Tir-kesto_ = A drawer
(_tir-i_ = to draw, _kesto_ = a chest). _Lum-turo_ = Lighthouse
(_lum-i_ = to shine, _turo_ = a tower). _Lip-haroj_ = Moustache
(_lip-o_ = a lip, _haroj_ = hairs). _Vang-haroj_ = Whiskers
(_vang-o_ = a cheek).

49. When the root should be a noun, adjective, or adverb.--When the
joining of the root alone makes the compound word difficult to
pronounce, the root is generally made a noun by adding _O_ for the
sake of euphony, as:--Lerno-libro = _manual_, _instruction book_.
If the prefixed root alone would not give the required meaning, the
suitable grammatical ending must be added. Estis unu-taga laboro =
_it was one day's work_. Estis la unua-taga laboro = _it was the
first day's work_. La supre-citita paragrafo = _the above-quoted
paragraph_. In case of adverbs, _N_ to form the accusative is also
added, if direction is implied, as:--Li supren-iris la monton =
_he ascended the mountain_ (see 67 (_b_)).

N.B.--The hyphens are not necessary.

50. The idea conveyed by the root.--In forming a word, the first
thing is to find out the exact primary idea contained in the root. Do
not think, for instance, that because you happen to know that one of
the meanings of cel-o is _end_, that cel-i will mean to _finish_
or _end_. The primary idea of cel- is _aim_, or _purpose_,
therefore cel-i is _to aim_, _to purpose_. Do not, in the case of a
word with one or more suffixes, think that because you know one of
its meanings, you know also the idea conveyed in its root. For
instance, kresk-aĵ-o is _a plant_, but do not at once say that
kresk-i is _to plant_; kreskaĵo comes quite logically from
kreski = _to grow_, therefore kreskaĵo is a thing grown, _a
growth_, _a plant_. In other words, make certain that you understand
the exact meaning of the Esperanto root; and be careful not to be
misled by the fact that many English words have a number of different

PRIMARY WORDS (Vortoj fundamentaj).

51. The Primary words are 158 in number, and must be carefully
learnt (see list, page 334). They are not only complete words in
themselves with a definite meaning, but they can be treated as
root-words and receive prefixes, suffixes, and grammatical
terminations. There is no rule to prevent any of these words, ending
in a vowel, from receiving, if logically allowable, the accusative
_N_ or the plural _J_ (see par. 142).

Examples.--_Jen_ (behold), _jene_ = As follows. _Ne_ (no, not), _nei_
= To deny. _Tie_ (there), _tieulo_ = A man from there (that place).
_Ĉirkaŭ_ (around, round), _ĉirkaŭi_ = To surround. _Jes_ (yes),
_jeso_ = An affirmation. _Tiaj esprimoj_ = Such expressions. _Tiuj
ĉevaloj_ = Those horses. _Li aĉetis ĉiujn ĉevalojn_ = He bought
all the horses. _Faru al mi ian respondon_ = Make me some (kind of)
reply. _Venu tien ĉi_ = Come hither. _Diru al mi tion, kion vi
faris_ = Tell me what (that which) you did (have done). _Unuj faris
tion ĉi, aliaj tion_ = Some did this, others that.

Among the Primary Words are found all the personal and demonstrative
pronouns, all the cardinal numbers and prepositions, and also many
common adverbs and conjunctions. It is important, therefore, that the
student should thoroughly master their meaning.

FOREIGN WORDS (Vortoj fremdaj).

52. Foreign words are those which in most languages are derived
from the same source, and, being consequently much alike in
formation, are easily understood by most nations, there being only a
slight difference in spelling and that difference of termination
which occurs in all languages. Dr. Zamenhof wisely lays down that
they should undergo no change, beyond conforming to Esperanto
orthography and its grammatical terminations.

In order to show their change from English spelling, the following
examples are given, not only of words which may be called "foreign,"
but of others that are a near approach to English in formation. It
must be borne in mind that these changes of letters by no means
invariably take place; they are only _general_.

52 (_a_).--Initial and Medial Letters.

C (hard) = _K_ generally, as:--_Declare_ = deklari, _economy_ =
ekonomio, _decameter_ = dekametro, _hectogram_ = hektogramo. In
a few cases _C_ becomes _Ĉ_, as:--_Dedicate_ = dediĉi, _carpenter_
= ĉarpentisto (probably from the French _charpentier_).

C (soft) generally undergoes no change, so remains _C_ with its
sound of _TS_, as:--_Cipher_ = cifero, _cigar_ = cigaro,
_glycerine_ = glicerino, _grimace_ = grimaco, _spice_ = spico.
Some few words change to _Z_, as:--_Price_ = prezo.

Ch (soft) = _Ĉ_ generally, as:--_Chamber_ = ĉambro, _charming_
= ĉarma, _chaste_ = ĉasta, _chief_ = ĉefo.

Ch (hard) = _Ĥ_ generally, as:--_Chameleon_ = ĥameleono,
_chaos_ = ĥaoso, _chemistry_ = ĥemio, _cholera_ = ĥolero,
_hypochondria_ = hipoĥondrio, _chorister_ = ĥoristo. It will be
seen that these words are mostly derived from the Greek.

G (soft or hard) = _G_ generally, as:--_Geology_ = geologio,
_elegant_ = eleganta, _general_ (officer) = generalo. The
exceptions in which Ĝ is used are mostly words following the
French pronunciation, as:--_Danger_ = danĝero, _garden_ =
ĝardeno, _general_ (adjective) = ĝenerala, _germ_ = ĝermo,
_giraffe_ = ĝirafo, etc.

PH = _F_, as:--_Elephantiasis_ = elefantiazo, _sphere_ = sfero,

QU = _KV_, as:--_Equivalent_ = ekvivalenta, _eloquent_ =
elokventa, _inquisition_ = inkvizicio, _quantity_ = kvanto,
_quadratic_ = kvadrata.

S = _S_, but in a few instances it becomes _Ŝ_ (probably following
German pronunciation) as:--_Slime_ = ŝlimo, _smear_ = ŝmiri,
_spare_ = ŝpari, _spin_ = ŝpini, etc.

S (sounded like Z) = _Z_ generally, as:--_Desert_ = dezerto,
_rose_ = rozo, _present_ = prezenti, _preside_ = prezidi, etc.

Sh = _Ŝ_ generally, as:--_Shark_ = ŝarko, _ship_ = ŝipo,
_shoe_ = ŝuo.

Th = _T_, as:--_Theatre_ = teatro, _mythology_ = mitologio.

X = _KS_ or _KZ_, generally, as:--_Example_ = ekzemplo,
_exercise_ = ekzerco, _dispatch_ = ekspedi, _excite_ = eksciti,
_exposition_ = ekspozicio, _exist_ = ekzisti. In a few instances
_X_ becomes _S_, as:--_Extinguish_ = estingi, _explore_ =
esplori, _express_ = esprimi. Occasionally _L_ is used for _X_,
as:--_Expel_ = elpeli, _excrescence_ = elkreskaĵo, etc. When _L_
is substituted it will be observed that the English prefix _EX_ means
"out of," and that, therefore, Esperanto logically uses the
preposition _EL_, meaning "out of," as the prefix.

52 (_b_).--Terminal Letters.

Terminal Letters.--If the last syllable ends in the sound of a
consonant, it is generally right to add _O_ to the last consonant of
the English word, to form a noun, as:--_Diadem_ = diademo,
_diagonal_ = diagonalo, _granite_ = granito, _dialogue_ =
dialogo, _debate_ = debato. There are, of course, exceptions.
Beginners should always consult an Esperanto Dictionary if they have
any doubt as to internationality or spelling. Note the following
terminations, which have a peculiarity of their own:--

-ER. = _RO_ generally, for a noun, as:--_December_ = Decembro,
_diameter_ = diametro. Words like "centre," "theatre," etc.,
sometimes spelt "center," "theater," follow the rule, as:--Centro,

-IC and -ICAL. = _A_ or _IA_. These terminations are English
suffixes for adjectives. Esperanto, however, discards them and gives
its own adjectival suffix _A_, as _Galvanic_ = galvana, _hypnotic_
= hipnota, _theatrical_ = teatra, _identical_ = identa, _theoretic_
= teoria, _geographical_ = geografia. (See remarks on -OGY and -ISM).

-ICS. = _KO_. The English termination -ICS has a plural form, but
in Esperanto -CS is generally represented by -KO, and not the
plural -KOJ, as:--_Mathematics_ = matematiko, etc.

-INE. The I in this termination is occasionally turned into E,
as:--_Gelatine_ = gelateno. More commonly it is retained,
as:--_Glycerine_ = glicerino.

-ISH. = _DUBE_ (doubtful) may be prefixed to colours to form the
adjective in _-ish_, as:--Dubenigra = _blackish_, dubeblanka =
_whitish_, dubeverda = _greenish_. It is, however, better to use
the suffix -et, thus: nigreta, verdeta.

-ISM. In many cases the ending -ISM forms part of an international
root, and is thus used in Esperanto also; e.g., paroksismo =
_paroxysm_, sofismo = _a sophism_, _fallacy_, aforismo = _an
aphorism_, are simple words, for there are no roots paroks, sof
(in this sense), afor. In the majority of cases the English
suffix _-ism_ and the Esperanto suffix -ism coincide, thus:
komunismo = _communism_, vegetarismo = _vegetarianism_.
Sometimes the English _-ism_ has the meaning -ec, thus: heroeco
= _heroism_, fanatikeco = _fanaticism_. _Catholicism_ may mean
katolikismo or katolikeco.

-IST. Esperanto words ending in -ism often have companion forms
in -ist, to which similar remarks apply, as:--sofisto = _a
sophist_, komunisto = _a communist_.

-MENT. When this is the English termination of a noun derived from
a root not ending in -MENT, it becomes O, as:--_Embarrass_ =
embarasi, _embarrassment_ = embaraso, _rebate_ = rabati,
_rebatement_ = rabato. But when -MENT is part of the English root
it is retained, as:--_Element_ = elemento, _experiment_ =
eksperimento, _fundament_ = fundamento.

-OGY. Words derived from the Greek change _Y_ into _IO_,
as:--_Geology_ = geologio, _theology_ = teologio. The adjectives
of these words end in -IC and -ICAL, and, as their Esperanto root
ends in -I, A must be added to this to form the adjectives
geologia, teologia.

-SIS. = _ZO_ generally, as:--_Apotheosis_ = apoteozo,
_hypothesis_ = hipotezo, _oasis_ = oazo, _synthesis_ = sintezo.

-TH. = _T_, as:--_Hyacinth_ = hiacinto.

-TION. = _CIO_ occasionally, as:--_Declaration_ = deklaracio,
_exposition_ = ekspozicio, _arbitration_ = arbitracio, _generation_
= generacio, _situation_ = situacio. Usually, however, English
_-tion_ corresponds to Esperanto -o, -ado, or -aĵo, as:--_information_
= inform-o, -ado, -aĵo; and such forms are often used even when
an alternative form in -cio exists, thus: deklar-o, -aĵo.

-UM. = _O_ generally, as:--_Epithalamium_ = epitalamio,
_gymnasium_ (_college_) = gimnazio, _geranium_ = geranio.

-Y. = _IO_ generally in words derived from Latin or Greek,
as:--_Philosophy_ = filozofio, _astronomy_ = astronomio,
_sympathy_ (_liking_) = simpatio, _industry_ = industrio.


(Gramatikaj Finiĝoj).

   A final denotes an Adjective. Patra, _paternal_.
   E final denotes an Adverb. Patre, _paternally_.
   I final denotes the Infinitive Mood. Fari, _to do_.
   O final denotes a Noun. Patro, _a father_.
   U final denotes the Imperative Mood. Faru, _do_.
                        Li faru, _let him do_.
                        Diru, ke li faru tion, _say he is to do that_.
   J final denotes the Plural. Patroj, _fathers_.
   N final denotes the Accusative Case. Patron.
                        Mi vidis mian patron, _I saw my father_.
   AS final denotes the Present Tense.
                        Mi faras, _I do_, or, _I am doing_.
   IS final denotes the Past Tense.
                        Li faris, _he did_, or, _he has done_.
   OS final denotes the Future Tense. Ni faros, _we shall do_.
   US final denotes the Conditional Mood.
                        Vi farus, _you should_, or _would_, _do_.
   ANTA final denotes Present Participle Active.
                        Faranta, _doing_.
   INTA final denotes Past Participle Active.
                        Farinta, _having done_.
   ONTA final denotes Future Participle Active.
                        Faronta, _about to do_.
   ATA final denotes Present Participle Passive.
                        Farata, _being done_.
   ITA final denotes Past Participle Passive.
                        Farita, _having been done_.
   OTA final denotes Future Participle Passive.
                        Farota, _about to be done_.

N.B.--There are three forms of participles, the adjectival,
substantival, and adverbial. The one given above is the adjectival.
In the adverbial form the final A is changed into E. Farante
tion, li ... = _By_ (_in_, or _through_) _doing that, he_ ... To
form the substantive, change A into O. La faranto = _The doer_
(_the person doing_). These three forms are applicable to all the
three participles in both the active and passive voices (see pars.


54. The following lists of suffixes (31) and prefixes (7 in number)
should be carefully studied, since innumerable words of the finest
shade of meaning can be formed by their aid, in fact, they are the
ground-work of the language. In cases where a suffix can be used as a
root, the word it helps to form is given. The hyphens are used only
to show the root, suffix, and grammatical termination of the
examples. The student should form other words himself, and study the
works of the best authors. (For remarks on suffixes and prefixes, see
pars. 270-290.)

-AĈ- Denotes badness of quality or condition (aĉ-a, _vile_, _bad_),
(par. 271):

dom-o, _a house_, dom-aĉ-o, _a tumble-down house_.

ĉeval-o, _a horse_, ĉeval-aĉ-o, _a sorry nag_.

-AD- Denotes the continuation of an action (par. 270):

paf-o, _a shot_, or _discharge_, paf-ad-o, _a firing_,

ir-i, _to go_, ir-ad-i, _to continue going_.

-AĴ- Denotes some real or concrete thing made from, or having the
quality of, the root (aĵ-o, _a thing_), (par. 271):

mola, _soft_, mol-aĵ-o, _a soft thing_, or _substance_.

frukt-o, _fruit_, frukt-aĵ-o, _jam_.

-AN- Denotes a member, inhabitant, or partisan (an-o, _a member,
etc._), (par. 272):

vilaĝ-o, _a village_, vilaĝ-an-o, _a villager_.

London-o, _London_, London-an-o, _a Londoner_.

-AR- Denotes a collection of the idea implied in the root (ar-o,
_a collection_, _flock_), (par. 273):

arb-o, _a tree_, arb-ar-o, _a wood_.

hom-o, _a man_, hom-ar-o, _mankind_.

-ĈJ- These letters, substituted for one or more of the letters of
a masculine name, make it an affectionate diminutive (par. 274):

Petr-o, _Peter_, Pe-ĉj-o, _Pete_.

Vilhelm-o, _William_, Vilhel-ĉj-o, _Willie_, Vilhe-ĉj-o,
_Will_, Vil-ĉj-o, _Billy_, Vi-ĉj-o, _Bill_.

For feminine names insert _nj_ instead of _ĉj_ (par. 274):

Mari-o, _Mary_, Ma-nj-o, _Polly_.

Helen-o, _Helen_, Hele-nj-o, _Nelly_, He-nj-o, _Nell_.

-EBL- Denotes possibility, similar to the English terminations
_-able_, _-ible_ (ebl-a, _possible_, ebl-e, _perhaps_), (par.

leg-i, _to read_, leg-ebl-a, _legible_.

tra-vid-i, _to see through_, tra-vid-ebl-a, _transparent_.

-EC- Denotes an abstract quality of the idea conveyed in the root,
like the English terminations _-ness_, _-tude_, _-ity_ (ec-o, _a
distinctive mark_, or _quality_), (par. 271):

bon-a, _good_, bon-ec-o, _goodness_.

riĉ-a, _rich_, riĉ-ec-o, _wealth_.

-EDZ- Denotes a married person (edz-o, _a husband_), (par. 276):

doktor-o, _a doctor_, doktor-edz-in-o, _a doctor's wife_,
lav-ist-in-o, _a washerwoman_, lav-ist-in-edz-o, _a washerwoman's

-EG- Denotes augmentation, intensity of degree (eg-a, _intense_,
eg-ec-o, _intensity_), (par. 277):

grand-a, _great_, grand-eg-a, _enormous_.

pord-o, _a door_, pord-eg-o, _a portal_, _outer-door_.

-EJ- Denotes the place specially used for, or allotted to, the idea
implied in the root (ej-o, _place_, _location_), (par. 278):

preĝ-i, _to pray_, preĝ-ej-o, _a church_.

tomb-o, _a grave_, _tomb_, tomb-ej-o, _a graveyard_, _cemetery_.

-EM- Denotes propensity, inclination, disposition (em-o, _a
disposition_, _bias_, _tendency_), (par. 275):

babil-i, _to chatter_, babil-em-a, _chattering_.

pac-o, _peace_, pac-em-a, _inclined to peace_, _peaceful_.

-ER- Denotes one of many objects of the same kind, a small fragment
(er-o, _an item_), (par. 273):

sabl-o, _sand_, sabl-er-o, _a grain of sand_.

mon-o, _money_, mon-er-o, _a coin_.

-ESTR- Denotes a chief, leader, ruler, or head of (estr-o, _a
chief_), (par. 272):

ŝip-o, _a ship_, ŝip-estr-o, _a captain of a ship_.

imperi-o, _an empire_, imperi-estr-o, _an emperor_.

-ET- Denotes diminution of degree (et-a, _little_, _small_),
(par. 277):

mont-o, _a mountain_, mont-et-o, _a hill_.

rid-i, _to laugh_, rid-et-i, _to smile_.

-ID- Denotes the young of, offspring, descendant (id-o,
_offspring_), (par. 279):

ŝaf-o, _a sheep_, ŝaf-id-o, _a lamb_.

Izrael-o, _Israel_, Izrael-id-o, _an Israelite_.

-IG- Denotes the causing, making, or rendering anything to be in
the state implied by the root (ig-i, _to cause_, _to make_), (par.

mort-i, _to die_, mort-ig-i, _to kill_.

pur-a, _clean_, pur-ig-i, _to clean_, _purify_.

-IĜ- Denotes the action of becoming, turning to, and has sometimes
a reflexive force (iĝ-i, _to become_, _to be made_), (par. 280):

ruĝ-a, _red_, ruĝ-iĝ-i, _to become red_, _to blush_.

riĉ-a, _rich_, riĉ-ig-i, _to become_, or _grow rich_, or _to
get rich_.

-IL- Denotes the tool or instrument or means by which something is
done (il-o, _a tool_, _means_), (par. 281):

tranĉ-i, _to cut_, tranĉ-il-o, _a knife_.

pres-i, _to print_, pres-il-o, _a printing press_.

-IN- Denotes the feminine gender (in-o, _a female_), (par. 282):

frat-o, _a brother_, frat-in-o, _a sister_.

leon-o, _a lion_, leon-in-o, _a lioness_.

-IND- Denotes worthiness, deserving of something, worthy of
(ind-o, _worth_, _merit_), (par. 275):

laŭd-i, _to praise_, laŭd-ind-a, _praiseworthy_.

estim-o, _esteem_, estim-ind-a, _estimable_, _worthy of esteem_.

-ING- Denotes a thing used for holding _only one_ object (ing-o,
_a socket_, or _sheath_), (par. 278):

plum-o, _a pen_, plum-ing-o, _a penholder_.

kandel-o, _a candle_, kandel-ing-o, _a candlestick_.

-ISM- Denotes a theory, system, doctrine, school of thought
(ism-o, _an "ism"_), (par. 293):

real-a, _real_, real-ism-o, _realism_.

protestant-o, _a protestant_, protestant-ism-o, _protestantism_.

-IST- Denotes a person occupied with the idea contained in the root
(par. 272):

drog-o, _a drug_, drog-ist-o, _a druggist_.

ŝtel-i, _to steal_, ŝtel-ist-o, _a thief_.

-NJ- See ĈJ, page 29, and par. 274.

-OBL- Denotes a numeral multiple (par. 284):

du, _two_, du-obl-a, _double_.

tri, _three_, tri-obl-a, _triple_.

-ON- Denotes a numeral fraction (par. 284):

kvar, _four_, kvar-on-o, _a fourth_.

kvin, _five_, kvin-on-o, _a fifth_.

-OP- Denotes a numeral collective (op-a, _collective_), (par.

du, _two_, du-op-e, _by twos_.

dek, _ten_, dek-op-e, _by tens_, _ten together_.

-UJ- Denotes that which contains, produces, encloses, or bears, a
quantity or more than one article (uj-o, _a receptacle_), (par.

ink-o, _ink_, ink-uj-o, _an inkpot_.

plum-o, _a pen_, plum-uj-o, _a pen box_ (not a penholder).

turk-o, _a Turk_, Turk-uj-o, _Turkey_.

-UL- Denotes a person or being characterized by the idea implied in
the root (par. 272):

riĉ-a, _rich_, riĉ-ul-o, _a rich man_.

avar-a, _avaricious_, avar-ul-o, _a miser_.

-UM- Has no defined meaning. The meaning of a word with um is
suggested by the context and the signification of the root to which
it is joined. It is rarely used (par. 285):

kol-o, _a neck_, kol-um-o, _a collar_.

plen-a, _full_, plen-um-i, _to fulfil_.

man-o, _a hand_, man-um-o, _a cuff_.

55. LIST OF PREFIXES (Prefiksoj).

BO- Denotes any relationship resulting from marriage (par. 286):

  patro, _a father_, bo-patro, _a father-in-law_.

  filino, _a daughter_, bo-filino, _a daughter-in-law_.

DIS- Denotes division, dissemination, separation, etc., (dis-e,
_separately_), (par. 287):

  ĵeti, _to throw_, dis-ĵeti, _to throw about_, _to scatter_.

  ŝiri, _to tear_, dis-ŝiri, _to tear in pieces_.

EK- Denotes the beginning of an action, or its short duration
(par. 288):

  kanti, _to sing_, ek-kanti, _to begin to sing_.

  brili, _to shine_, ek-brili, _to flash_.

EKS- Denotes late, formerly, like the English _ex-_.

  kolonelo, _colonel_, eks-kolonelo, _ex-colonel_.

  edziĝo, _a wedding_, eks-edziĝo, _a divorce_.

GE- Denotes persons of both sexes taken together (par. 286):

  patro, _a father_, ge-patroj, _parents_, or _father and mother_.

  mastro, _a master_, ge-mastroj, _master and mistress_.

MAL- Denotes the direct opposite of any idea (mal-e, _on the
contrary_), (par. 289):

  forta, _strong_, mal-forta, _weak_.

  estimi, _to esteem_, mal-estimi, _to despise_.

MIS- Denotes mis-, amiss, wrongly, erroneously.

RE- Denotes, as in English, repetition, again, back (re-e,
_again_), (par. 290):

  iri, _to go_, re-iri, _to go again_.

  diri, _to say_, re-diri, _to repeat_.


On reference to par. 254, it will be seen that prepositions are
frequently used as prefixes. A good many other particles also are
used in the same way, e.g.:--

  ĈEF   par. 272 (_g_)
  DUON  par. 286
  FI    par. 270
  FOR   par. 287
  FUŜ   par. 270
  MEM   par. 291
  SIN   par. 291
  PRA   par. 286
  VIC   par. 292

ELISION (Elizio).

56. Elision is not common in Esperanto, except in poetry, where it
is used, when required, for the purpose of rhythm. Some prose writers
use it, but it is better to avoid its use.

57. The letter _A_ in the article la may be elided when the article
is preceded by a preposition ending in a vowel, for then the _L_ of
the article can be sounded with the preposition and the full
pronunciation given to the first letter of the following word, e.g.,
de l' kreo de l' mondo (for de la) = _since the creation of the
world_. (Pronounce de l' as del).

In poetry the letter _A_ of the article is occasionally elided before
a word beginning with a vowel.

The final _O_ of the substantive may also be elided, e.g., kant'
(for kanto) = _a song_. The tonic accent (par. 17) remains on the
same syllable on which it would fall if no elision had taken place.

Note that kant' may not be used as an abbreviation of anything else
but kanto. Thus, it cannot represent kanton, kantoj, kante,
kantas, etc.

The dropped letter is in all cases noted by an apostrophe.

  _Ĝis la bela sonĝo de l' homaro_ (_de l'_ for _de la_)
  _Por eterna ben' efektiviĝos_ (_ben'_ for _beno_).
  Till the beautiful dream of humanity
  Shall be realized for an eternal blessing.

  _Pri l' tempoj estontaj pensante_ (_pri l'_ for _pri la_)
  Thinking of times to be.
  _L' espero, l' obstino kaj la pacienco._
  Hope, tenacity, and patience.


58. Questions are asked in two ways, viz.--either by the
interrogative adverb ĉu = _whether_, or by one of the interrogative
words kia = _what kind of_, kial = _why_, kiam = _when_, kie =
_where_, kiel = _how_, kies = _whose_, kio = _what_, kiom =
_how much_, or _how many_, kiu = _who, which_.

(_a_). Ĉu is used when none of the other words in a sentence are
used in an interrogative sense. It is, in fact, the general word for
interrogations answerable by "yes" or "no."

Examples.--_Ĉu vi komprenas?_ = Do you understand? _Ĉu li legas?_ =
Does he read? _Ĉu vi havas mian libron?_ = Have you my book? _Ĉu vi
havas tion, kion mi bezonas?_ = Have you what (that which) I want?
_Ĉu Johano iris lernejon?_ (or, _al lernejo?_) = Did John go (_or_,
has John gone) to school? _Ĉu vi pruntos al mi krajonon?_ = Will you
lend me a pencil? _Ĉu li estos foririnta, antaŭ ol vi alvenos?_ =
Will he have gone away before you (will) arrive? _Ĉu vi estus tion
farinta, se mi estus tie?_ = Would you have done that if I had been

When the verb following ĉu is in the Imperative mood, it shows
the ellipsis of some other verb expressing "wish, desire, etc."
(see pars. 200, 237 (_m_)).

Examples.--_Ĉu mi iru kaj kunpremu la gorĝon de tiu ĉi hundo...?_
(Zamenhof, "La Rabistoj") = Shall I go and squeeze the throat of this
dog...? Here the full phrase would be, _Ĉu vi volas, ke mi iru...?_
= Do you wish me to go...? _Ĉu mi aĉetu por vi libron?_ = Shall I
buy you a book? _Ĉu ni luu fiakron?_ = Shall we take a cab?

The verb is sometimes omitted when a question is preceded by an

Examples.--_Hodiaŭ estas merkredo, ĉu ne?_ (or, _ĉu ne vere?_) =
To-day is Wednesday, isn't it? _Ili diris al vi la veron, ĉu ne?_ =
They told you the truth, didn't they? _Ili ne diris al vi la veron,
ĉu?_ = They didn't tell you the truth, did they?

(_b_). The following examples show the use of the nine interrogatives
kia, kial, kiam, etc.

Examples.--_Kian leteron vi skribis?_ = What kind of letter did you
write? _Kial vi ne respondis?_ Why did you not answer? _Kiam li
alvenos?_ = When will he come? _Kie estas la poŝtoficejo?_ = Where
is the post-office? _Kiel vi faris tion?_ = How did you do that?
_Kies domo estas tiu?_ = Whose house is that? _Kion vi konsilas al mi
fari?_ = What do you advise me to do? _Kiom da ĉevaloj estas tie?_ =
How many horses are there? (at that place)? _Kiom kostas tio?_ = How
much does that cost? _Kiu estas en la ĝardeno?_ = Who is in the
garden? _Kiun vi vidis en la preĝejo?_ = Whom did you see in the
church? _Kiu estas tie?_ = Who is there?

(_c_). Of the above, those ending in a consonant are invariable.
Those ending in a vowel can take the accusative _N_, but kia and
kiu are the only words which take the plural _J_ (par. 142).

Examples.--_Kien vi iras?_ = Whither are you going? _Kiajn
tranĉilojn vi bezonas?_ = What kind of knives do you need? _Kiujn
librojn vi aĉetis?_ = Which books did you buy? _Kiuj estas la tagoj
de la semajno?_ = Which are the days of the week?

(_d_). From kiom the adjective kioma = _how much, how many'th_ is
formed, and this also may be used as an interrogative.

Example.--_Je kioma horo vi venos?_ = At what o'clock (hour) will you

(See correlative words, pars. 147-157. For further examples see pars.
64, 170. For place of interrogative see par. 91.)


59. Double negatives are hardly ever used in Esperanto, for, if
employed, they would, as in English, have an affirmative meaning.

(_a_). Ne = _no_, _not_, is the word in general use to imply
negation. It immediately precedes the word or words it modifies.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi ne vidis lin?_ = Did you not see him? _Mi devas
ne iri_ = I must not go.f[11] _Mi ne devas iri_ = I am not obliged
to go.[11] _Ne mi, sed li, havas katon_ = It is not I, but he, who
has a cat. _Mi ne havas katon_ = I have not (got) a cat.


[11] This distinction, however, is not observed by all writers.

(_b_). The nine correlative words, nenia, nenial, neniam, nenie,
neniel, nenies, nenio, neniom, neniu, also imply negation.

Examples.--_Li havas nenian sperton_ = He has no kind of experience.
_Li ne havas ian sperton_ = He has not any kind of experience.
_Nenial li subite foriris de Londono_ = For no reason he suddenly
left London. _Mi nenion trovis_ = I found nothing. _Mi ne trovis
ion_ (_ion_, not _nenion_, here) = I did not find anything. (See
correlative words, pars. 147-157).

(_c_). Nek = _nor_ and nek ... nek = _neither ... nor_ have also a
negative meaning.

Examples.--_Nek mi nek li estis tie_ = Neither I nor he was there.
_Mi vidis nek Johanon nek Georgon_ = I saw neither John nor George.

Nek is generally used in the second clause of a sentence, although
the first is negative.

Examples.--_Mi ne scias la francan lingvon, nek la anglan, nek la
turkan_ = I do not know the French language, or (nor) English, or
(nor) Turkish. _Nenio estas al mi pli kara, nek dolĉa, ol vi_ =
Nothing is dearer to me or (nor) sweeter than you. _Mi ne renkontis
lin, nek lian fraton_ = I did not meet him or (nor) his brother.

(_d_). Compound words with ne, sen, mal, have also a negative
signification, and such words are often employed with a negative to
express an affirmative assertion. (See par. 289.)

Examples.--_La okazo ne estis neatendita_ = The event was not
unexpected. _Lia riĉeco ne estis senlima_ = His fortune was not
unlimited. _Li ne estis malhonesta_ = He was not dishonest.

60. Double Negative.--Occasionally a double negative is used to
give strong force to a negation. Dr. Zamenhof, in his translation of
Hamlet, Act I., Scene 5, renders "Lay your hands again upon my sword:
swear by my sword, never to speak of this that you have heard" by
Metu viajn manojn denove sur la glavon, kaj ripetu, ke vi neniam al
neniu diros pri la apero de la nokto, lit. = _Lay your hands again
upon the sword, and repeat, that you never, to no one, will speak of
the apparition of the night_.

Some Esperantists do not consider this a double negative, but it
undoubtedly is, according to the literal English translation. Another
explanation of the passage is to supply mentally an omitted kaj
after the word neniam.

61. Of course, when two negatives refer to different verbs, expressed
or unexpressed, this is not a double negative.

Examples.--_Mi ne volis, ne skribi al vi_ = I did not wish, not to
write to you. _Ne nur ne malamiko, sed kunbatalanto li estis_ = (He
was) not only not an enemy, but he was a comrade in arms (fellow

62. Two negatives may be used in such an expression as "could not
help," etc.

Example.--_Li ne povis ne kisi la malgrandulon_ = He could not help
kissing the little one. Lit.:--He could not not kiss the little one.

QUESTIONS AND REPLIES (Demandoj kaj Respondoj).

63. Jes = _yes_ is the word used to answer a question

Examples.--_Ĉu vi vidis mian patron? Jes!_ = Did you see my father?
Yes. _Jes_, with the conjunction _ke_, is also used for "it is so,"
as, _mi vin certigas, ke jes_ = I assure you that it is so.

Ne = _no_, _not_, is used in a similar way to answer a question

Example.--_Mi vin certigas, ke ne_ = I assure you that it is not so.

64. To give force to affirmative or negative replies one can add to
ne or jes any suitable adverb, as certe = _certainly_, ja =
_indeed_, kompreneble = _of course_, etc., etc., or repeat the verb
of the interrogation without its complement, in the same way as in
English we often repeat the auxiliary of the verb.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi faris tion?_ = Did you do that? _Jes! Jes! Mi
faris_, or _Ne! Ne! Mi ne faris_ = Yes, yes, I did, _or_ No, no! I
did not. _Ĉu vi finis vian laboron?_ = Have you finished your work?
_Jes! mi finis_, or _Ne, mi ne (finis)_ = Yes, I have, _or_, No, I
have not. _Ĉu vi mortigis tiun birdon?_ = Did you kill that bird?
_Jes! Certe mi mortigis_, or, _Certe jes!_ or, _Ne, kompreneble, mi
ne mortigis_, or, _Kompreneble ne!_ = Yes! Certainly I did, _or_, No!
Of course, I didn't! _Ĉu vi deziras kafon?_ = Do you want coffee?
_Jes, mi deziras_, or _Ne, mi ne deziras; mi jam havas_ = Yes, I do,
_or_, No, I do not; I have (some) already.

64 (_a_). When the verb is omitted in the reply, the case must be
used which would have been used had the verb been expressed.

Examples.--_Kiom kostis la ĉapelo? Naŭ ŝilingojn (aŭ, ĝi kostis
naŭ ŝilingojn)_ = What did the hat cost? Nine shillings (_or_, it
cost nine shillings). _Kien vi iras? En la ĝardenon (aŭ, mi iras en
la ĝardenon)_ = Where (whither) are you going? Into the garden
(_or_, I am going into the garden). _Kiom pezas la kesto? Dek naŭ
funtojn_ = What does the chest weigh? Nineteen pounds; but, _Kiom
estas la pezo de la kesto? Dek naŭ funtoj_ = what is the weight of
the chest? Nineteen pounds.

THE ACCUSATIVE (La Akuzativo).

65. Accusative: when used.--The accusative is used in Esperanto:--

(1). To show the direct object of a verb.

(2). To show motion towards something (Rule 13, par. 94).

(3). To show a preposition has been omitted (Rules 8 and 14, par.

The following are examples of these three uses:--

66 (1). To show the direct object of a verb.

(_a_). After transitive verbs the accusative is used to show the
direct object.

Examples.--_Johano vidas la knabon_ = John sees the boy. _Georgo
aĉetis bonan ĉevalon_ = George bought a good horse. Now in either
of these sentences the order of the words can be changed without
altering the meaning. _La knabon vidas Johano_ would still mean "John
sees the boy," because _Johano_, being in the nominative, is clearly
the subject, and _knabon_, being in the accusative, is clearly the
object. But if we inverted the words in English, the sense would be
entirely changed (see order of words, pars. 73-93).

(_b_). After participles.--The accusative is also used after active
participles (adjectival or adverbial) to denote the object.

Examples.--_Johano estis rigardanta la knabon, kiam mi lin vidis_ =
John was looking at the boy, when I saw him. _Johano, vidante la
knabon, donas al li pomon_ = John, seeing the boy, gives him an
apple. _Georgo estis aĉetinta ĉevalon_ = George had bought a horse.
_Georgo, aĉetinte ĉevalon, donis ĝin al sia frato_ = George,
having bought (_or_, after buying) a horse, gave it to his brother
(par. 212 (_d_)).

(_c_). When a verb is omitted.--The accusative is also used in
exclamations and in expressions in which some verb expressing "wish"
or "desire" is understood (see par. 64 (_a_)).

Examples.--_Peston al la tranĉilo: Mi tranĉis al mi la fingron!_ =
Plague on the knife! I have cut my finger! _Bonan tagon, Sinjoro_ =
Good day, sir. _Saluton al vi, sinjorino_ = (lit.) Salutation to you,
madam. In reply to a question the accusative is used whenever the
verb in the reply, which is omitted, governs the accusative,
as:--_Kiom kostas tiu ĉi krajono? (Ĝi kostas) du pencojn_ = How
much does this pencil cost? (It costs) twopence. _Kiom estas la kosto
de tiu ĉi krajono? (Ĝi estas) du pencoj_ = What is the price of
this pencil? (It is) twopence.

67 (2). To show motion towards something.

(_a_). Accusative of direction.--To show direction towards which
movement (physical or otherwise) is made the accusative is used, and
this is generally called "the accusative of direction." It will be
observed, however, that we can also use a preposition to show the
motion, and, if such preposition in itself shows movement, its
complement must be in the nominative, since all prepositions govern
that case; but if the preposition does not in itself denote movement,
then its complement must be in the accusative.

Examples.--_Mi iras Romon (aŭ, al Romo)_ = I am going to Rome. _Li
kuris en la ĝardenon_ = He ran _into_ the garden. The preposition
_en_ does not show movement, therefore _ĝardenon_ is in the
accusative, but _Li kuris en la ĝardeno_ = He ran _in_ the garden.
This means he was already in the garden, and was running in it. _Sur
la danan tronon mi havas rajtojn_ = On the Danish throne I have

(_b_). Adverbs also take the accusative of direction.

Examples.--_Kien vi iras? Mi iras nenien hodiaŭ_ = Where (whither)
are you going? I am going nowhere to-day. _Ĝi falis teren_ (or, _sur
la teron_) = It fell to the ground (_or_, on to the ground; lit.,
earthwards). _Li iris hejmen kaj restis hejme_ = He went home and
remained at home.

68. (3). To show that a preposition has been omitted.

As stated in Rule 8, par. 94, every preposition in Esperanto governs
the nominative case.

By Rule 14 we are told that every preposition has a defined and
constant meaning, but that if we _must use some preposition_, and the
direct sense does not show what special preposition we are to take,
we can then either use the indefinite preposition _je_, or the
accusative without a preposition. The following are examples under
this head in which the accusative may be used:--

(_a_). After doubtful verbs.--From the foregoing remarks it follows
that if we do not know whether a verb governs the accusative or not,
we can always use the accusative, if no ambiguity is occasioned
thereby. Otherwise some preposition should be employed instead.

For instance, we can say:--_Obeu vian patron_, or, _Obeu je via
patro_, or, _Obeu al via patro_ = Obey your father. _Ŝi helpis al
sia frato_, or, _Ŝi helpis sian fraton_ = She helped her brother.
_Li pardonis sian filon_, or, _Li pardonis al sia filo_ = He forgave
his son. But in phrases where doubt as to meaning may arise we must
always use a preposition, as:--_Li pardonis al sia filo lian kulpon_
= He forgave his son his fault. Not _Li pardonis sian filon lian
kulpon_, for the _two_ accusatives here would create confusion. _Li
legis tion en la dua de Marto_, or, _Li legis pri tio la duan de
Marto_ = He read that on the 2nd of March.

(_b_). Duration or any point of time.

Examples.--_Mi restis tie kvar semajnojn_ (or, _dum_ or _tra_, _kvar
semajnoj_) = I remained there (during) four weeks. _La proksiman
lundon_ (or, _en la proksima lundo_) _mi veturos Londonon_ (or, _al
Londono_) = Next Monday I shall go to London. _Printempon_ (or, _en
printempo_) _floroj aperas_ = In spring flowers appear. _Li venos
dimanĉon_ (or, _en dimanĉo_) = He will come on a Sunday. Similarly
the accusative may be used for dates, as:--_Washington_ (pronounced
_Ŭaŝington_) _estis naskita la dudek-duan_ (or, _en la dudek-dua_)
_de Februaro_ = Washington was born on the 22nd of February. _La 23an
Marton, 1906a_, or _Je la 23a de Marto, 1906_ = 23rd of March, 1906.

(_c_). Price, weight, measure.

Examples.--_La libroj kostis dek ŝilingojn_ (or, _po dek ŝilingoj_)
_por dekduo_ = The books cost ten shillings (_or_, at the rate of ten
shillings) a dozen. _La ĉambro estas alta dek du futojn_ (or, _je
dek du futoj_) = The room is twelve feet high. _La kesto pezas tridek
funtojn_ (or, _je tridek funtoj_) = The chest weighs thirty pounds.

69. General Remarks on the Accusative.

From the foregoing examples we see the important part the accusative
_N_ plays in the construction of Esperanto, the clearness it gives to
the meaning of a sentence, and the advantage it affords in permitting
words to be placed in almost any order, The following examples will
further illustrate this.

(_a_). Qualifying and Predicative Adjectives.--An adjective is
termed "qualifying" when its noun or pronoun actually possesses the
quality which the adjective denotes; and the adjective then agrees
with the noun or pronoun both in case and number. But a "predicative"
adjective, although it agrees in number, is always in the nominative
(pars. 36, 108).

Examples.--_Mi trovis la belajn rozojn_ (_or, rozojn belajn_) = I found
the beautiful roses. _Mi trovis la rozojn belaj_ = I found the roses
beautiful. In the first example the assertion is that beautiful
roses were found; but in the second you assert only that you
found, or discovered, that they were beautiful; they might, in
someone else's opinion, have been the contrary.

(_b_). Qualifying Adverbs are invariable.

Examples.--_Li skribis al mi tute malveran raporton pri la afero_ =
He wrote me an entirely false statement of the matter. _Mi pensis, ke
ŝi estas treege bela_ = I thought (that) she was (is) extremely

(_c_). Nouns and Pronouns in apposition have like cases and

Examples.--_Vi serĉas la princon, Hamleton_ = You seek the Prince,
Hamlet. _La diablo lin prenu, la sentaŭgulon_ = The devil take him,
the wretch!

N.B.--Note the difference in case of two nouns in the following
sentences:--_Kuracisto havis du infanojn, filon kaj filinon; li nomis
sian filon Johano, kaj sian filinon Mario. Kiam li parolis pri ili
kun mi, li ĉiam nomis sian filon Johanon kun voĉo de amo, sed sian
filinon Marion antipatie_ = A doctor had two children, a son and a
daughter; he named his son, John, and his daughter, Mary. When he
spoke to me about them, he always named his son, John, in voice of
affection, but his daughter, Mary, with antipathy.

N.B.--In this example, when the nouns (_Johano_ and _Mario_) are in
the nominative, they express what is _predicated_ or said about the
objects (_filon_ and _filinon_). But when they agree in case with the
objects (_filon_ and _filinon_), this shows they are nouns in
apposition (see pars. 108, 109).

(_d_). Proper names.--In the case of non-Esperanto names it is
possible to indicate the accusative, where desired, by the addition
of _N_ after a vowel, or _ON_ after a consonant. This is the plan
adopted by Zamenhof in _La Malnova Testamento_. Or the name may be
regarded as a foreign word and left unchanged for the accusative.

Examples.--_David_, _Davidon_. _Noa_, _Noan_. _Sara_, _Saran_.
_Robinson_, _Robinsonon_. _Smith_, _Smithon_ (or simply _Smith_). Of
course, proper names which have been converted by use into Esperanto
are treated like other nouns in O, as, _Londono_, _Londonon_;
_Berlino_, _Berlinon_. _Jones iris Berlinon, kaj renkontis Arturon
Brown_ = Jones went to Berlin and met Arthur Brown.


70. Capital Letters (Majuskloj) may be used as they are in English,
but as their use varies in different languages, it is as well to
follow the majority of Esperanto writers. We, therefore, advise the
student to--

Use capital letters, as in English, except:--

(_a_). For words derived from the names of places, as:--La angla
nacio = _The English nation_. Li estas franco kaj loĝas en
Francujo = _He is a Frenchman and lives in France_. Sur la danan
tronon mi havas rajtojn = _On the Danish throne I have rights_.

(b). For the names of the days of the week, as:--Mi alvenos lundon
= _I shall arrive on a Monday_.[12]

(_c_). For the pronoun "I" = _mi_.

In the _Fundamento_, Zamenhof used capital letters to begin the names
of months. In his mature style he also used capitals for nouns and
adjectives of nationality, e.g. _Angla_, _Anglo_, _Dana_, _Franco_.


[12] Note that _lundon_ means "on _a_ (or, _some_) Monday." If we
wish to say "on Monday," meaning "_next_ Monday," the full
translation would be _Mi alvenos la proksiman lundon_ = I shall
arrive on (the next) Monday (see par. 68 (_b_)). _Mi venas lunde_ =
I come on Mondays.

PUNCTUATION (Interpunkcio).

71. Punctuation is only necessary to make clear the sense we wish
to convey in writing. Happily it is not so important in Esperanto as
in English, where a simple comma may make a great difference in the
meaning of a sentence. Hence the verbosity of law documents in which
stops are not used.

Every writer is free to use in Esperanto his own national or
individual method of punctuation. Nevertheless, Zamenhof and the best
writers follow a definite international usage, and the student is
strongly advised to study and imitate their writings in this respect.

It is the custom, for instance, to separate every clause in a
sentence by a punctuation mark. Accordingly, words like ke, por
ke, ĉu, kiu, when they introduce a secondary sentence within
the main sentence, are usually preceded by a comma. This aids the
reader, and helps in the formation of a uniform international style.

When two verbs joined by kaj have the same subject, no comma is
needed; but a comma is used if the subjects are different. Li staras
kaj parolas (one subject). Li staras, kaj mi parolas al li (two

Use a comma after ho when it is part of an exclamation, but not in
naming the person spoken to. Ho Dio! Ho, tute ne!

With abbreviations like S-ro, S-ino, D-ro, it is usual to
insert a hyphen, but no following stop, thus: F-ino Jones.

72. The following is what Dr. Zamenhof has written on the subject in
the "Esperantisto." We give it in Esperanto, so that the student can
see the punctuation for himself:--

La reguloj pri la uzado de la interpunkcioj estas en nia lingvo
pli-malpli tiaj samaj, kiel en ĉiuj aliaj lingvoj; sekve ĉiu povas
uzadi en Esperanto la interpunkciojn tiel, kiel li uzas ilin en sia
nacia lingvo. Estas vere, ke en diversaj detaloj la uzado de la
interpunkcioj estas malegala en diversaj lingvoj; sed ĉar la objekto
ne estas tre grava, tial ni pensas, ke ne venis ankoraŭ la tempo por
difini en nia lingvo severajn regulojn por tiuj ĉi detaloj. En tiuj
ĉi dubaj detaloj ĉiu povas uzi en Esperanto la interpunkciojn tiel,
kiel li uzas ilin en sia nacia lingvo, kaj nur la uzo iom post iom
ellaboros por tiuj ĉi negravaj detaloj difinitajn regulojn.

_Translation._--The rules regarding the use of stops are in our
language more or less the same as in all other languages, therefore
everyone can continue using in Esperanto stops in such a manner as he
uses them in his national language. It is true that in several
details the use of stops is different in various languages, but since
the matter is not very important, we think the time has not yet come
to lay down in our language strict rules for these details. In these
doubtful details everyone can use in Esperanto the stops he uses in
his national language, and only custom, little by little, will work
out for these unimportant details definite rules.

ORDER OF WORDS. (Ordigo de Vortoj).

The hints in this chapter should be considered not as hard and fast
rules to be learned by heart, but simply as an endeavour to state the
usual practice of good writers. The best guide for the student is the
study of the best authors, coupled with obedience to his own common
sense and feeling for beauty of style and clarity of expression. (See
par. 93.)

73. Since Esperanto has eliminated the defects of other languages,
and embraced only the good points of each, its flexibility as regards
the order of words in a sentence is great. This is principally owing
to the fact that the accusative _N_ clearly distinguishes the
object from the subject, to the agreement in case and number of
the adjective with the noun it qualifies, and to the fact that
prepositions and conjunctions do not interfere with the proper
functions of other words. In English the accusative case is
distinguished only in the pronouns _he_ (_him_), _she_ (_her_), etc.
It is true that English has a possessive case, which in Esperanto is
applied only to the correlative group of words ending in _-ES_,
viz., ies, kies, etc. (see pars. 106 (_b_), 154); but even this
doubtful advantage is lessened by the fact that the apostrophe _S_ in
English is useless _in speech_ in the plural when the word ends in
_S_. For instance, when one says, "_That is my brothers' house_,"
does one mean it belongs to one brother or more? Certainly, as
_written_, with the apostrophe _after_ the _S_, the meaning is two or
more, but, as _spoken_, one would naturally suppose it belonged to
one brother only. So, to be clear, we should have to fall back on
the Esperanto mode of expression, and say, _That is the house
of my brothers_ = Tio estas la domo de miaj fratoj; even then
Esperanto is clearer than English, for the pronoun (miaj) is a
plural form, whereas in English _my_ is the same for both numbers.

74. Owing to the above advantages, words may be arranged in almost
any order in Esperanto, and yet be intelligible; but of course it is
advisable that they should follow one another in the natural sequence
of our thoughts. The first point is, that the meaning of a sentence
should be absolutely clear, and the second, that the sounds should be
as harmonious as they can be, combined with clearness of expression.
The student is advised to read the "Fundamenta Krestomatio," by Dr.
Zamenhof, which will familiarize him with the construction of the
language, and he will then rapidly acquire a knowledge as to the best
order for words.

75. Place of the subject and object.--The subject is usually placed
before and the object after the verb.

Examples.--_Mia fratino aĉetis libron_ = My sister bought a book.
_Rikardo manĝas kukon_ = Richard is eating a cake. _Kukon manĝas
Rikardo_ means exactly the same, and would he quite intelligible, but
the mind would not grasp the meaning so rapidly, and it would be
absurd, without a reason, to place words in such an unnatural order.

76. Position for emphasis.--Words are often placed out of the usual
order, as they are in English, to give emphasis, or for the sake of

Examples.--_Lin mi renkontis, ne ŝin_ = Him I met, not her. _Belon
mi trovis ĉie, bonon nenie_ = Beauty I found everywhere, good

77. Place of the predicate.--The predicate, or what is said about
the subject, is usually placed after the verb.

Examples.--_Li estos kontenta_ (or _Li kontentiĝos_) _se vi donos al
li ŝilingon_ = He will be satisfied if you (will) give him a shilling.
_Ŝi fariĝus pli sana, se la vetero estus pli varma_, or _Ŝi pli
saniĝus, se la vetero pli varmiĝus_ = She would get better if
the weather became warmer. But after the word _kiel_ it is
preferable to put the predicate before the verb, as:--_Kiel
malsana li ŝajnas!_ = How ill he seems! _Kiel li ŝajnas malsana_
would be quite possible and correct, but Esperanto inclines to follow
the English order of words here, as also in many other cases where in
other languages the construction is quite different.

78. Place of the direct complement.--We have stated that the object
is placed usually after the verb, but it may equally correctly
precede it.

Examples.--_Mi lin malamas_, or, _Mi malamas lin_ = I detest him. If,
however, the object be followed by an explanatory phrase, it is
better to place it after the verb, as:--_Mi vidis lin kuŝantan sur
la lito_ = I saw him lying on the bed. _Mi renkontis ŝin, ĝuste
kiam ŝi estis eliranta_ = I met her just as she was going out (see
par. 29).

79. Place of the indirect complement.--The complement is said to be
indirect when it is governed by a preposition (see Syntax, par. 31).
It is usually placed after the verb.

Examples.--_Zorgu pri tio_ = Take care of (about) that. _Alkonduku
lin al mi_ = Bring him to me. _La domo estas konstruata de mia patro_
= The house is being built by my father. _Mi ĝin donis_ (or, _donis
ĝin_) _al li por lia nepino_ = I gave it to him for his
granddaughter. Of course, we can place it before the verb if we wish,
just as we can in English, and as we probably should in the following
phrase:--_El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke...._ = From the said rule,
it follows that....

80. Place of circumstantial complements (see Syntax, par.
32).--These complements, which mark the time, place, manner, cause,
etc., of an action, are usually placed first or last in a sentence.

Examples.--_En printempo floroj aperas_ = In spring flowers appear.
_Nur kelke da knaboj ludadis sur la kampo_ = Only a few boys were
playing in the field; or, _Sur la kampo ludadis nur kelke da knaboj_.
In a sentence like the following the complement might be placed last,
as:--_Mi kriegis pro la dolorego_ = I howled with the intense
pain. But in one like the following, where there are two or more
circumstantial complements, they naturally should come first in
the sentence, as:--_Kun la haroj malordigitaj, kaj la okuloj
eksaltantaj el la kapo de_ (or, _pro_) _teruro, ŝi kuregis laŭ
la strato_ = With dishevelled hair, and eyes starting out of her
(the) head with terror, she rushed down the street.

81. The complements of nouns, adjectives, or participial
adjectives, usually follow them.

Examples.--_La amo al_ (or, _por_) _Dio_ = Love to (for) God.
_Mirigita de liaj vortoj, mi eliris el la domo_ = Astonished at his
words, I left (went out of) the house.

82. Place of the infinitive.--The infinitive being really a noun,
takes its place, according as it is the subject, predicate, or
complement. When it is the subject, it generally precedes the verb,
unless one wishes to place it otherwise for the sake of emphasis.

Examples.--_Scii estas utile_ = Knowledge (to know) is useful. _Honte
estas mensogi_ = It is shameful to lie. If the predicate, it
usually follows the verb, as:--_Tion fari estas agi malsaĝe_ = To do
that is to act foolishly. If the complement, it follows the word of
which it is the complement, as:--_Mi tre deziras paroli kun vi_ = I
want very much to speak with you. _Ni trinkas por sensoifiĝi, kaj ni
manĝas por satigi nin_ (or, _por satiĝi_) = We drink to allay
thirst (to become without thirst), and we eat to allay hunger (to be
satiated). _Mi devas iri hejmen_ = I must go home. _La elekto tion
fari restas ĉe vi_ = The option of doing that rests with you. _Li
estos tre feliĉa vin vidi morgaŭ_ = He will be very glad to see you
to-morrow. _La deziro kontraŭdiri_ = The desire of contradicting (to

83. Place of the noun.--The noun is placed according as it is the
subject, predicate, complement (direct, indirect, or circumstantial),
(see pars. 76-80).

84. Place of the adjective.--The position of the adjective varies
in national languages. In English it is nearly always placed before
the word it qualifies, and we may say that this is generally its
place in Esperanto. The following remarks and examples of the four
classes of adjectives, "qualifying," "predicative," "possessive," and
"demonstrative," will give an idea of its position, in accordance
with the sense or emphasis wished to be conveyed.

(_a_). A qualifying adjective may either precede or follow the word
it qualifies.

(In either position the meaning is precisely the same grammatically.
It is considered by some that it throws a shade of emphasis on the
adjective to place it after the noun it qualifies, especially when
the adjective is the last word in the sentence.)

Examples.--_La malfeliĉa knabo_ (or, _knabo malfeliĉa_) _perdis
sian monujon_ = The unfortunate boy lost his purse. _Li renkontis
maljunan virinon_ (or, _maljunulinon_), _tre grasan, kiu portis
grandan korbon, plenan de maturaj pomoj_ = He met an old woman, very
fat, who was carrying a large basket, full of ripe apples.

(_b_). A predicative adjective is usually placed after the verb,
and noun or pronoun, to which it relates.

Examples.--_La papero estas blanka_ = The paper is white. _Ili trovis
la manĝaĵojn bonaj_ = They found the eatables good. _Mi pensis, ke
mi vidas ilin mortigantaj la homon_ = I thought (that) I saw (see)
them killing (that they are killing) the man.

N.B.--A predicative adjective does not agree in case, when its noun
or pronoun is in the accusative (pars. 69 (_a_), and 108 (_b_)).

(_c_). A possessive adjective usually precedes the word to which it
relates. If we wish to speak in an affectionate strain, we can place
it after the noun.

Examples.--_Mia patrino kaj miaj gefratoj donis al mi donacon en mia
naskotago_ = My mother and my brothers and sisters gave me a present
on my birthday. _Ne ploru, patrino mia!_ = Do not weep, mother dear!
(_or_, mother mine!). _Johano mia, ne faru tion!_ = John dear, do
not do that.

(_d_). A demonstrative adjective usually precedes the word to which
it relates.

Examples.--_Tiu sinjorino estas mia fratino_ = That lady is my
sister. _Du ŝilingoj ne sufiĉos por aĉeti tiun libron_ = Two
shillings will not buy that book.

(_e_). To show emphasis, adjectives can, as in English, be placed
first in phrases.

Examples.--_Bona, malavara kaj ĝentila, li estas estimata de ĉiuj_
= Kind, generous and courteous, he was esteemed by all. _Feliĉa
estas la homo, kiu ne havas malamikojn_ = Happy is the man who has no

85. Place of the pronoun.--As in English, a personal pronoun may
follow or precede the verb.

Examples.--_"Jes," diris li_ (or, _li diris_), "_vi estas prava_" =
"Yes," said he, "you are right." _"Kial," ekkriis la homo, "vi faris
tion?"_ = "Why," cried the man, "did you do that?"

86. Place of the verb.--The verb is, as a rule, placed after the
subject, but this does not mean that it must follow it immediately,
for it can be separated by predicates, complements, and adverbs.

Examples.--_La lingvo Esperanto, kreita de doktoro Zamenhof, estas
jam uzata en la tuta mondo civilizita_ = The language Esperanto,
created by Dr. Zamenhof, is already used in the whole civilized
world. In sentences like the following it is, as in English, often
placed before the subject. _"Kien ni iros," diris mi al li, "kiam via
amiko alvenos?"_ = "Where shall we go," said I to him, "when your
friend arrives (shall arrive)?" _Nun alvenas la horo de la sukceso
por la lingvo internacia_ = Now comes the hour of (the) success for
the international language. _Aperis sur la monteto la figuro de
rajdanto_ = There appeared on the hill the figure of a horseman. (For
the place of the Infinitive, see par. 82.)

87. Place of the participle varies as follows:--

(_a_). When forming the compound tenses of verbs, the participle
usually follows the auxiliary verb esti, though not necessarily
immediately after it (see (_d_)).

Examples.--_Mi estos fininta mian leteron, antaŭ ol li alvenos_ = I
shall have finished my letter before he arrives (will arrive). _Ŝi
estas tre amata de ĉiuj_ = She is very much loved by all.

(_b_). In a qualifying or predicative sense participles generally
follow their noun or pronoun.

Examples.--_Mi vidis lin riproĉeganta kaj batanta la knabon_ = I
saw him (that he is) rebuking and beating the boy. _Ĉu tio estas mia
hundo ĉasanta ŝafon?_ = Is that my dog chasing a sheep? _La
fraŭlino leganta la ĵurnalon estas tre bela_ = The young lady
reading the newspaper is very beautiful. _La konstruata domo_ (or,
_domo konstruata_) = The house under construction (being
constructed). _Mi imagis, ke mi vidas la homon kisanta la virinon_ =
I fancied (that) I saw the man kissing (that he is kissing) the

(_c_). An adverbial participle generally precedes its noun or

Examples.--_Vidante sian amikon, li haltis_ = (On) seeing his
friend, he stopped. _Leginte la libron, ŝi ekdormis_ = After reading
(_or_, having read) the book, she fell asleep (par. 212 (_d_)).

(_d_). For emphasis the participle may be put first in a sentence.

Examples.--_Tedita de vojaĝado, mi decidis reveni hejmen_ = Tired of
travelling, I decided to return home. _Amataj kaj estimataj de ĉiuj,
la fratoj havis multajn amikojn_ = Loved and esteemed by all, the
brothers had many friends.

Note.--If qualifying and predicative participles are not placed in
their natural position, viz., after their nouns or pronouns, the
sense may be entirely changed. For instance, in the following two
sentences the words are the same, but the sense varies with their
positions:--Ŝi, kuranta en la ĉambron, vidis mian hundon = _She,
(who is) running into the room, saw my dog_ (here kuranta is the
qualifying participle of ŝi). Ŝi vidis mian hundon kuranta en la
ĉambron = _She saw my dog (that he is) running into the room_ (here
kuranta is the predicative participle of hundon, and, being
predicative, does not take the accusative (see pars. 69 (_a_) and 108
(_b_)). The above two sentences might be altered as follows,
showing different meanings, by using in the first an adverbial
participle, and in the second a qualifying participle, as:--Kurante
en la ĉambron, ŝi vidis mian hundon = _(While) running
into the room, she saw my dog_. Ŝi vidis mian hundon kurantan
= _She saw my running dog_. A phrase is often clearer if the
conjunction ke be used instead of a predicative participle. For
instance, instead of Ŝi vidis mian hundon kuranta en la ĉambron,
we can say Ŝi vidis, ke mia hundo kuras en la ĉambron = _She saw
that my dog was (is) running into the room_; or, Ŝi vidis mian
hundon kuri en la ĉambron = _She saw my dog run into the room_.

88. Place of the adverb.--The adverb, as a rule, immediately
precedes or follows the word to which it refers, or which it

Examples.--_Li rapide kuras_, or, _Li kuras rapide_ = He runs
rapidly. _La virino zorge legis_ (or, _legis zorge_) _la leteron_ =
The woman read the letter carefully. _Li ĝentile demetis la
ĉapelon_ = He politely took off his hat.

N.B.--In this last example it is more elegant to place the adverb, as
in English, before the verb.

(_a_). To avoid ambiguity, care, however, must be taken not to
place the adverb in a position where it might be taken to refer
either to the word which precedes or the word which follows it. For
instance, if an adverb be placed between two verbs, it sometimes
happens that we cannot tell to which it refers, and the sense is thus
materially altered.

Example.--_Li ekstreme deziris saĝiĝi_ = He desired extremely to
become wise. _Li deziris saĝiĝi ekstreme_ = He desired to become
extremely wise. In this example, if we place the adverb between the
two verbs, and say _Li deziris ekstreme saĝiĝi_, the sentence might
be translated in either of the above two ways. See also remarks on
the use of _ne_ (par. 59 (_a_)). The word _nur_, also, similarly
modifies the word it precedes.

(_b_). Adverbs of comparison, such as: iom, multe, kiel, plej, pli,
sufiĉe, tiel, tiom, tre, tro, are usually placed before the words
to which they refer.

Examples.--_Li iom laciĝis kaj multe senkuraĝiĝis_ = He became
somewhat fatigued and much discouraged. _Kiel malavare li agis,
donante al sia frato tiom da mono, kiom li bezonis!_ = How generously
he acted in giving his brother as much money as he needed! _Li venos
pli aŭ malpli frue_ = He will come sooner or later (lit., more or
less early). _Vi agis plej saĝe, farante tion_ = You acted most
wisely in doing that. _Kio ajn okazos, li estis sufiĉe saĝa por
tion fari_ = At all events he was wise enough to do that. _Ŝi tre
amis sian fraton_ = She loved her brother very much. _Li tro
manĝadas_ = He eats too much.

(_c_). To give emphasis, adverbs and adverbial participles may
commence a sentence.

Examples.--_Ĉarme, bele kaj kortuŝe estis vidi la birdon zorgi pri
sia ido_ = Charming, beautiful and touching it was to see the bird
take care of its offspring. _Starante kun la brakoj etenditaj, li
paroladis al la popolamaso_ = Standing with arms outstretched, he
harangued the populace (see par. 245 (_a_)).

89. Place of the preposition.--The preposition always immediately
precedes its complement.

Examples.--_Skribu al mi_ = Write to me. _Li venis al mia domo kune
kun la du hundoj je la tria (horo)_ = He came to my house (to me)
along with the two dogs at 3 o'clock.

90. Place of the conjunction.--The conjunction always precedes the
verb to which it refers, but separated from it by the words which
logically intervene.

Example.--_Se iu hodiaŭ matene deziros min vidi, diru al ĝi, ke mi
estas tre okupita_ = If anyone (someone), this morning, should desire
to see me, tell him (or her) I am very busy.

N.B.--Note that _iu_ does not give the sex, therefore _ĝi_ is
rightly used; but, as in English, the sense would be clear without
the words _al ĝi_.

91. Place of the interrogative.--In direct questions the subject
usually precedes the verb.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi havas mian libron?_ = Have you my book? In
English, in many cases, we place the subject first; for instance, in
the present tense we often commence a question with "Do"; in the
past, with "Have" or "Did"; in the future, with "Shall" or "Will." If
we substitute _Ĉu_ for any of these words, we have the Esperanto
construction, as:--_Ĉu vi bezonas tiun plumon?_ = Do you want that
pen? _Ĉu vi faris tion?_ = Did you do that? _Ĉu li venos tien ĉi?_ =
Will he come here?

92. Place of the negative.--The negative ne = _not_, when it
relates directly to a verb, is placed immediately before such verb,
but otherwise in its natural position in the clause; i.e., it
negatives the word or words it precedes. The negative correlatives
nenia, nenial, etc., may be placed in almost any position,
according to the emphasis we wish to give to the word.

Examples.--_Mi lin ne vidis_, or, _Mi ne vidis lin_ = I did not see
him. _Ĉu vi ne vidis lin?_ or, _Ĉu vi lin ne vidis?_ = Did you not
see him? _Mi neniam renkontis ŝin_, or, _Neniam mi renkontis ŝin_,
or, _Mi ŝin renkontis neniam_ = I never met her. _Mi volas renkonti
ne nur Johanon, sed ankaŭ Georgon_ = I want to meet not only John,
but also George.

93. Order very similar to English.--The foregoing remarks show that
the order of words in Esperanto is very similar to the English
construction of sentences, and we can hardly do wrong if we follow it
nearly word for word. A slightly different order in Esperanto
sometimes makes an expression more elegant but this is generally
owing to harmony of sound rather than grammatical construction.

[In writing _original_ work in Esperanto it is well to cultivate a
style as international as possible, and use the normal, simple, and
logical order of words. In _translation_ work, when it is desired to
reproduce as far as possible the national or individual atmosphere of
the original, it is legitimate intentionally to reproduce in the
translation--so long as intelligibility is ensured, and as far as the
structure of the language permits--the characteristic order of words
in the original text. The wonderful flexibility of Esperanto is one
of the reasons why Esperanto is such an admirable language for
translation purposes.]



94. The following is the Complete Grammar of Esperanto, as given by
Dr. Zamenhof at page 254 of his "Fundamenta Krestomatio de la Lingvo
Esperanto," which he says is "a book that should be in the hands of
every earnest _student_ who desires to acquire a correct Esperanto
style." This book contains a series of Exercises, Fables, Legends,
Stories, Extracts from Scientific Articles, Articles on Esperanto,
Poetry, Translations from Hamlet and The Iliad, showing how well
Esperanto is adapted for every kind of subject.

It will be seen that the whole Grammar consists of sixteen short
Rules, which can be learnt in less than an hour. The Esperanto is
given alongside the translation. Remarks on the Rules, with examples,
will be found by referring to the paragraphs given after each Rule.



The twenty-eight letters and their pronunciation are given in pars.

N.B.--Printing offices which do not possess the letters _ĉ_, _ĝ_,
_ĥ_, _ĵ_, _ŝ_, _ŭ_, can use instead of them _ch_, _gh_, _hh_, _jh_,
_sh_, _u_.



  Aa, Bb, Cc, Ĉĉ, Dd, Ee,
  Ff, Gg, Ĝĝ, Hh, Ĥĥ, Ii,
  Jj, Ĵĵ, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn,
  Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Ŝŝ, Tt,
  Uu, Ŭŭ, Vv, Zz.

_Rimarko._--Presejoj, kiuj ne posedas la literojn _ĉ_, _ĝ_, _ĥ_,
_ĵ_, _ŝ_, _ŭ_, povas anstataŭ ili uzi _ch_, _gh_, _hh_, _jh_,
_sh_, _u_.



The Article.--There is no indefinite article; there is only a
definite article (_la_), alike for all sexes, cases, and numbers.

N.B.--The use of the article is the same as in other languages.
People to whom the use of the article presents a difficulty need not
at first use it at all.

(See pars. 96-102.)



_Artikolo_ nedifinita ne ekzistas; ekzistas nur artikolo difinita
(_la_), egala por ĉiuj seksoj, kazoj kaj nombroj.

_Rimarko._--La uzado de la artikolo estas tia sama, kiel en la aliaj
lingvoj. La personoj, por kiuj la uzado de la artikolo prezentas
malfacilaĵon, povas en la unua tempo tute ĝin ne uzi.


The Substantive.--Substantives have the termination _o_. For the
formation of the plural the termination _j_ is added. There are only
two cases: nominative and accusative; the latter is obtained from
the nominative by the addition of the termination _n_. The other
cases are expressed by the help of prepositions (the genitive by
_de_, the dative by _al_, the ablative by _per_ or other
prepositions according to sense).

(See pars. 103-106.)


La _substantivoj_ havas la finiĝon _o_. Por la formado de la
multenombro oni aldonas la finiĝon _j_. Kazoj ekzistas nur du:
nominativo kaj akuzativo; la lasta estas ricevata el la nominativo
per la aldono de la finiĝo _n_. La ceteraj kazoj estas esprimataj
per helpo de prepozicioj (la genitivo per _de_, la dativo per _al_,
la ablativo per _per_ aŭ aliaj prepozicioj laŭ la senco).


The Adjective.--The adjective ends in _a_. Cases and numbers as with
the substantive. The comparative is made by means of the word _pli_,
the superlative by _plej_; with the comparative the conjunction _ol_
is used.

(See pars 107-114.)


La _adjektivo_ finiĝas per _a_. Kazoj kaj nombroj kiel ĉe la
substantivo. La komparativo estas farata per la vorto _pli_, la
superlativo per _plej_; ĉe la komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion


The Numerals.--The cardinal numerals (they are not declined) are:
_unu_, _du_, _tri_, _kvar_, _kvin_, _ses_, _sep_, _ok_, _naŭ_,
_dek_, _cent_, _mil_. The tens and hundreds are formed by the simple
junction of the numerals. For the signification of ordinal numerals,
the termination of the adjective is added; for the multiple--the
suffix _-obl_, for the fractional--_on_, for the collective--_op_,
for the distributive--the word _po_. Besides these, substantival and
adverbial numerals can be used.

(See pars. 115-124.)


La _numeraloj_ fundamentaj (ne estas deklinaciataj) estas: _unu_,
_du_, _tri_, _kvar_, _kvin_, _ses_, _sep_, _ok_, _naŭ_, _dek_,
_cent_, _mil_. La dekoj kaj centoj estas formataj per simpla kunigo
de la numeraloj. Por la signado de numeraloj ordaj oni aldonas la
finiĝon de la adjektivo; por la multoblaj--la sufikson _-obl_, por
la nombronaj--_on_, por la kolektaj--_op_, por la disdividaj--la
vorton _po_. Krom tio povas esti uzataj numeraloj substantivaj kaj


The Pronouns.--Personal pronouns = _mi_, _vi_, _li_, _ŝi_, _ĝi_
(referring to thing or animal), _si_, _ni_, _vi_, _ili_, _oni_; the
possessive pronouns are formed by the addition of the adjectival
termination. Declension is as with the substantives.

(See pars. 125-138.)


_Pronomoj_ personaj: _mi_, _vi_, _li_, _ŝi_, _ĝi_ (pri objekto aŭ
besto), _si_, _ni_, _vi_, _ili_, _oni_; la pronomoj posedaj estas
formataj per la aldono de la finiĝo adjektiva. La deklinacio estas
kiel ĉe la substantivoj.


The Verb.--The verb is not changed in person or number. Forms of the
verb: the present tense (the time being) takes the termination
_-as_; the past tense (the time been, or having been) _-is_; the
future tense (the time about to be, or going to be) _-os_; the
Conditional mood _-us_; the Imperative (ordering) mood _-u_; the
Indefinite (infinitive) mood _-i_. Participles (with an adjectival
or adverbial sense): active present _-ant_; active past _-int_;
active future _-ont_; passive present _-at_; passive past _-it_;
passive future _-ot_. All forms of the passive are formed by help of
a corresponding form of the verb _esti_ and a passive participle of
the required verb. The preposition with the passive is _de_.

(See pars. 159-237.)


La _verbo_ ne estas ŝanĝata laŭ personoj nek nombroj. Formoj de
la verbo: la tempo estanta akceptas la finiĝon _-as_; la tempo
estinta _-is_; la tempo estonta _-os_; la modo kondiĉa _-us_; la
modo ordona _-u_; la modo sendifina _-i_. Participoj (kun senco
adjektiva aŭ adverba): aktiva estanta _-ant_; aktiva estinta
_-int_; aktiva estonta _-ont_; pasiva estanta _-at_; pasiva estinta
_-it_; pasiva estonta _-ot_. Ĉiuj formoj de la pasivo estas
formataj per helpo de responda formo de la verbo _esti_ kaj
participo pasiva de la bezonata verbo; la prepozicio ĉe la pasivo
estas _de_.


The Adverb.--Adverbs end in _e_; degrees of comparison as with

(See pars. 238-248.)


La _adverboj_ finiĝas per _e_; gradoj de komparado kiel ĉe la


The Preposition.--All prepositions require the nominative.

(See pars. 249-261.)


Ĉiuj _prepozicioj_ postulas la nominativon.


Pronunciation.--Every word is read as it is written.

(See pars. 5-19.)


Ĉiu vorto estas legata, kiel ĝi estas skribita.


Accent.--The accent is always on the penultimate syllable.

(See par. 17.)


La akcento estas ĉiam sur la antaŭlasta silabo.


Compound Words.--Compound words are formed by the simple junction
of words (the chief word stands at the end); the grammatical
terminations are also regarded as independent words.

(See pars. 39-50.)


Vortoj kunmetitaj estas formataj per simpla kunigo de la vortoj (la
ĉefa vorto staras en la fino); la gramatikaj finiĝoj estas
rigardataj ankaŭ kiel memstaraj vortoj.


Negation.--When another negative word is present the word _ne_ is

(See pars. 59-62.)


Ĉe alia nea vorto la vorto _ne_ estas forlasata.


Direction.--In order to show direction, words take the termination
of the accusative.

(See par. 67.)


Por montri direkton, la vortoj ricevas la finiĝon de la akuzativo.


Use of Prepositions.--Every preposition has a definite and constant
meaning; but if we have to use some preposition and the direct sense
does not indicate to us what special preposition we are to take,
then we use the preposition _je_, which has no meaning of its own.
Instead of the preposition _je_ we can also use the accusative
without a preposition.

(See par. 251.)


Ĉiu prepozicio havas difinitan kaj konstantan signifon; sed se ni
devas uzi ian prepozicion kaj la rekta senco ne montras al ni, kian
nome prepozicion ni devas preni, tiam ni uzas la prepozicion _je_,
kiu memstaran signifon ne havas. Anstataŭ la prepozicio _je_ oni
povas ankaŭ uzi la akuzativon sen prepozicio.


Foreign Words.--The so-called foreign words, that is, those which
the majority of languages have taken from one source, are used in
the Esperanto language without change, receiving only the
orthography of the latter language; but with various words from one
root it is better to use unchanged only the fundamental word, and to
form the rest from this latter in accordance with the rules of the
Esperanto language.

(See pars. 39, 52.)


La tiel nomataj vortoj _fremdaj_, t.e., tiuj, kiujn la plimulto de
la lingvoj prenis el unu fonto, estas uzataj en la lingvo Esperanto
sen ŝanĝo, ricevante nur la ortografion de tiu ĉi lingvo; sed ĉe
diversaj vortoj de unu radiko estas pli bone uzi senŝanĝe nur la
vorton fundamentan kaj la ceterajn formi el tiu ĉi lasta laŭ la
reguloj de la lingvo Esperanto.


Elision.--The final vowel of the substantive and the article can be
dropped and replaced by an apostrophe.

(See pars. 56, 57.)


La fina vokalo de la substantivo kaj de la artikolo povas esti
forlasata kaj anstataŭigata de apostrofo.


PARTS OF SPEECH (Parolpartoj).

95. There are nine parts of speech in Esperanto, as found in most
other languages, viz., the Article (Artikolo), Noun (Substantivo),
Pronoun (Pronomo), Adjective (Adjektivo), Verb (Verbo), Adverb
(Adverbo), Preposition (Prepozicio), Conjunction (Konjunkcio),
Interjection (Interjekcio).

Nouns, derived adjectives and adverbs, and verbs have distinctive
terminations. If a word ends in _-O_, it is a noun; if in _-A_, an
adjective; if in _-E_, an adverb; if in _-I_, _-U_, _-AS_, _-IS_,
_-OS_, or _-US_, a verb. If it ends in _-N_, it is in the accusative
case, and if in _-J_, it is plural.

Examples.--_Domo_ = a house. _Facila_ = easy. _Feliĉe_ = happily.
_Doni_ = to give (Infinitive). _Batu lin_ = beat him (Imperative and
Accusative). _Mi vidas la homojn_ = I see the men (Present tense and
Accusative plural). _Vi diris_ = you said (Past tense). _Ni iros_ =
we shall go (Future tense). _Se ili estus bonaj_ = If they were good
(Conditional mood and plural adjective).

THE ARTICLE (La Artikolo).

96. There is no word in Esperanto for the Indefinite Article. It
is, as in Latin, implied in the noun, if the sense in English
requires it.

Examples.--_Tio estas floro_ = That is a flower. _Patrino kaj filo_ =
Mother and son. _Ĉu vi vidas birdon sur tiu arbo?_ = Do you see a
bird on that tree?

97. The definite article is la = _the_. It is, as in English, the
same for all genders, numbers, and cases.

Examples.--_La patro_ = The father. _La patrino_ = The mother. _Donu
al mi la libron_ = Give me the book. _Ili estas la lernantoj
diligentaj_ = They are the diligent scholars.

98. As regards its use, la is used very nearly as the definite
article "the" in English, namely, to show that one is speaking of
something known or definite, as opposed to what is indefinite.

Examples.--_En la mezo de la korto mi vidis du infanojn el la apuda
vilaĝo_ = In the middle of the yard I saw two children of the
neighbouring village. In this sentence the yard and village are each
defined by the article _la_, as they are also in English by "the."
But if we omit the article the sentence runs:--_En la mezo de korto
mi vidis du infanojn el apuda vilaĝo_ = In the middle of a yard I
saw two children of a neighbouring village. In this case the children
might have been in _any_ yard, and have belonged to _any_ village in
the neighbourhood of the speaker.

99. There are, however, cases in which the article is often used in
Esperanto, though omitted in English, and also _vice versa_.

(_a_). It is usually used before nouns denoting the _totality_ of
persons or things.

Examples.--_La homo estas mortema_ = Man is mortal. _La homoj estas
mortemaj_ = Men are mortal. _La medicino estas scienco kaj la
pentrado arto_ = Medicine is a science and painting an art. _Kelkaj
kuracistoj pretendas, ke la vino estas malutila al la sano_ = Some
doctors maintain that wine is hurtful to health. _Sen la akvo nia
terglobo rapide fariĝus dezerto_ = Without water our earth would
rapidly become a desert. _La nokto estis tiel nigra, kiel la peĉo_ =
The night was as dark as pitch. _La azenoj amas la kardojn_ = Donkeys
love thistles. _La vento kaŭzas ofte teruran detruon en kelkaj
landoj_ = Wind often causes terrible ruin in some countries. (In this
case _la vento_ means wind in general, spoken of as a whole, but
"To-day we shall have wind" (meaning some wind) would be: _Hodiaŭ ni
havos venton_.) _Hajlo falas_ = Hail is falling (viz., some hail),
but _La hajlo estas tre malutila al la vinbero_ = Hail is very
injurious to grapes (to the grape), means hail in general.

(_b_). It is not used before proper names, for the simple reason
that they cannot be more definite than they are in themselves. In
English it is sometimes used and sometimes not.[13]

Examples.--_Danubo_ = The Danube. _Tibro_ = The Tiber. _Mediteraneo_
= The Mediterranean. _Alpoj_ = The Alps. _Unuiĝintaj Ŝtatoj
Amerikaj_ (or, _Usono_) = The United States of America.


[13] This is too strict. In practice the definite article is often
used before proper names, and one can say (e.g.) _la Alpoj_, _la
Mediteraneo_, etc.

(_c_). If, however, a proper name is preceded by a qualifying word,
the article is used.

Examples. _La glora poeto, Dante_ = The famous poet, Dante. _La
imperiestro de Japanujo_ = The Emperor of Japan. _La bona reĝino
Viktorio_ = The good Queen Victoria.

100. The article may be used sometimes where, in English, we use a
possessive pronoun.

Examples.--_Li havas doloron en la kapo_ = He has a pain in his (the)
head. _Ŝi prezentis al mi la manon_ = She offered me her hand. _Mi
malkovris la okulojn_ = I uncovered my eyes (see also par. 134(_a_)).

(_a_). It is also frequently used instead of a possessive pronoun in
speaking of one's own relatives, or when there is no doubt as to the
person to whom the article la refers.

Examples.--_Mi amas la patron_ = I love my (the) father. _Iru al la
patrino_ = Go to your (the) mother. _Kie estas la kuzo?_ = Where is
your (the) cousin? _La patro staras apud la filo_ = The father stands
by (at the side of) his (the) son.

101. The article is almost always used before numeral adjectives
showing the day, hour, month, etc., when these nouns are understood.

Example.--_Hodiaŭ estas la dudek-sepa (tago) de Marto_ = To-day is
the 27th of March.

(_a_). Its use is optional before the names of the seasons, and also
before each separate noun or adjective.

Examples.--_En la vintro_, or, _En vintro_ = In the winter. _En la
somero_, or, _En somero_ = In the summer. _La arboj, la floroj kaj la
kreskaĵoj de la ĝardeno_ (or, _La arboj, floroj kaj kreskaĵoj_) =
The trees, (the) flowers and (the) plants of the garden.

(_b_). It is not generally used after ĉiuj = _all_, or, _all the_.

Example.--_Mi ne vidis ĉiujn arbojn en la ĝardeno_ = I did not see
all the trees in the garden.

(_c_). It is not used after da (see par. 259).

N.B.--From the foregoing remarks it will be seen that the English
student will have no difficulty in the use of the article, if he be
careful to use it with words defining a _class_ or the _totality_ of
persons or things. He will get a good idea of its use if he will
carefully study the first few exercises in the "Ekzercaro," or
Exercises 1 to 4 in Part III.

In case of doubt whether the article should be used or not, it is
better to omit it.

102. Elision.--The final _A_ of the article may be omitted in
certain cases (see par. 56 and Rule 16, par. 94).

THE NOUN (La Substantivo).

103. A noun (in the singular number) in all its cases, except the
accusative, ends in _-O_. The accusative is formed by the addition of
_N_. In the plural it ends in _-OJ_, and the accusative plural is
formed by adding _N_ to these letters. Thus the root arb- is made
into a noun with its numbers and cases as follows:--

  Arb-o = _a tree_ (nominative, singular).
  Arb-on = _a tree_ (accusative, singular).
  Arb-oj = _trees_ (nominative, plural).
  Arb-ojn = _trees_ (accusative, plural).

Examples.--_Domo_ = A house. _La domo_ = The house. _La domoj_ = The
houses. _Rigardu la domojn_ = Look at the houses. _Knabo_ = A boy.
_La knabo_ = The boy. _Mi vidis la knabon_ = I saw the boy. _Knabino_
= A girl. _La knabino_ = The girl.

Declension of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns.

104. There are but two cases in Esperanto (Rule 2, par. 94), viz.,
the nominative and the accusative (or objective); the latter is
obtained from the nominative by adding _N_ to the singular or plural.
Other cases are expressed by the aid of prepositions, as:--

  Nominative    Mia bona patro     =  _My good father_.
  Accusative    Mian bonan patron  =  _My good father_.
  Genitive or}                        {_Of my good_
  Possessive }  De mia bona patro  =  {_father, or, My_
             }                        {_good father's_.
  Dative        Al mia bona patro  =  _To my good father_.
              { De mia bona patro =  _From_ (_by_, see par. 259 (9))
              {                                _my good father_.
  Ablative    { Kun mia bona patro  =  _With my good
              {                                father._
              { Per bona glavo      =  _With (by means
              {                                of) a good sword._

Note that per = _by_ is the instrumental ablative, meaning "by
means, or aid, or use, of," and that kun = _with_ means "in company
with," but not in an instrumental sense, as it is sometimes in
English, e.g., _I held him with both hands_ = Mi lin tenis per
ambaŭ manoj, not _kun_ ambaŭ manoj (see par. 259 (22)).


(_a_). In the plural the declension is the same, with the addition of
the plural termination _J_, as:--

  Genitive  De miaj bonaj filoj = _Of my good sons._
  Accusative  Miajn bonajn filojn = _My good sons._

Examples.--_La frato skribas, kaj la fratino legas_ = The brother is
writing and the sister reading. _La patro donis la libron al sia
filo_ = The father gave the book to his son. _Tiu ĉi kaŭĉuka
ringo_ (or, _ringo el kaŭĉuko_) _estas por la infaneto_ = This
india-rubber ring is for the baby. _Mi vidis Jozefon kun lia kuzo_ =
I saw Joseph with his cousin. _Venu, ni atendas Vin (Cin), Savinto de
la mondo_ = Come, we await You (Thee), O Saviour of the world. _Mi
lin salutis per la mano_ = I saluted him by the hand. _La domo estas
kovrita per ardezoj_ = The house is covered with slates. _Mi vidis
vian patron kun liaj du filoj_ = I saw your father with his two sons.
_Kie estas la domo de via patro?_ = Where is your father's house?

105. Ellipsis.--The case (nominative or accusative) of words in
Esperanto often depends upon the verb omitted when ellipsis occurs in
a phrase, and unless we write the sentence in full, or think what
the ellipsis is, we may not at first know what case to use to express
our meaning. A glance at the following examples will show how easy it
is to determine the case. The words in brackets show the ellipsis:--

_Mi konas lin pli bone, ol vi_ (_konas lin_) = I know him better than
you (do, _or_ know him).

_Mi konas lin pli bone, ol vin_ (_ol mi konas vin_) = I know him
better than you (than I know you).

_Petro amas Paŭlon tiom, kiom_ (_li amas_) _Johanon_ = Peter loves
Paul as much as (he loves) John.

_Petro amas Paŭlon tiom, kiom Johano_ (_amas lin_) = Peter loves
Paul as much as John (loves him).

N.B.--In the above sentences we cannot, in English, tell the meaning
until the ellipsis is supplied, whereas, in Esperanto, the meaning is
at once clear from the case of the noun or pronoun (par. 112).

_Li iris tien, kiel ankaŭ vi_ (_iris_) = He went there as well as
you (went).

_Mi vidis lin tie, kiel ankaŭ_ (_mi vidis_) _vin_ = I saw him there
as well as (I saw) you.

_Mi neniam vidis tian hundon, kia_ (_estas_) _via_ = I never saw such
a dog as yours.

105 (_a_). Elision.--The final _O_ of a noun may be omitted (par.
57, and Rule 16, par. 94).

106. Possession is (_a_) expressed by help of the preposition de.

Examples.--_La domo de la patro_ = The father's house, _or_, the
house of the father. _La libro de mia patrino_ = My mother's book,
_or_, the book of my mother. _La tranĉilo de Georgo_ = George's
knife. _Tio estas la domo de miaj fratoj_ = That is my brothers'
house (the house of my brothers). (See par. 73.)

(_b_). Possession is also denoted by the correlative words ending in
_ES_, viz.:--ies = _someone's_, _somebody's_, ĉies = _everyone's_,
kies = _whose_, nenies = _nobody's_, ties = _that one's_, _of those_
(see par. 154).

Examples.--_Ĉies ideo estis diversa_ = Everyone's idea was
different. _Kies domo estas tiu?_ = Whose house is that? _Ĝi estas
nenies domo_ = It is nobody's house. _Ĉu ĉi tio estas ies
tranĉilo?_ = Is this anyone's (someone's) knife? (see par. 154).

(_c_). An adjective is sometimes conveniently used when in English we
employ an apostrophe.

Examples.--_Unutaga laboro_ (for, _la laboro de unu tago_) = One
day's work. _La unuataga laboro_ (for, _la laboro de la unua tago_) =
The first day's work. _Lia unuataga laboro estis en la ĝardeno, kaj
poste li faris unutagan laboron en la domo_ = His first day's work
was in the garden, and then (afterwards) he did one day's work in the
house. _Mi atendis la kapitanan respondon_ = I awaited the captain's

(_d_). In speaking of places, the English preposition "of" is not

Examples.--_La urbo Londono_ = The City of London. _La Kolonio
Natalo_ = The Colony of Natal (see par. 253 (_a_)).

For numeral nouns, see par. 118; for participial, pars. 208, 209; for
predicative, par. 109; for compound nouns, par. 49; for form of
accusative with proper names, par. 69 (_d_); for the infinitive used
as a noun, par. 180.

THE ADJECTIVE (La Adjektivo).

107. The Adjective always ends in _-A_ in the singular. _J_ is
added to _A_ to form the plural. The accusative case is formed by the
addition of _N_ to the singular or plural termination.

Examples.--_Forta_ = Strong. _Saĝa_ = Wise. _Brava_ = Brave. _Forta
homo_ = A strong man. _Saĝa patro_ = A wise father. _Saĝaj patroj_
= Wise fathers. _La brava filo_ = The brave son. _La bravaj filoj_ =
The brave sons.

108. There are two kinds of adjectives, viz.:--(_a_) Qualifying or
attributive (apudmetita = _put adjacent_), and (_b_) Predicative

(_a_). A qualifying adjective is one placed before or after its
noun, with which it agrees both in number and case (par. 36).

Examples.--_Johano havas bonan panon_ = John has good bread.
_Vilhelmo akrigis la tranĉilojn malakrajn_ = William sharpened the
blunt knives.

(_b_). A predicative adjective, usually placed after the verb,
denotes what is said about the noun or pronoun to which it refers, or
denotes their state, condition, appearance, etc. It agrees with them
in number, but is never in the accusative case (par. 36).

Examples.--_La pomo estas bona_ = The apple is good. _Vilhelmo trovis
la tranĉilojn malakraj_ = William found the knives blunt. If the
adjective were in this sentence in the accusative, the meaning would
be quite altered, for, _Vilhelmo trovis la tranĉilojn malakrajn_
would mean, "William found the blunt knives," that is to say, he was
looking for blunt knives, and he found them. A predicative adjective
shows that ellipsis has taken place, and the omitted verb is
generally _esti_. For instance, the ellipsis in the above sentence
might be as follows:--William found (that) the knives (are)
blunt--_Vilhelmo trovis, ke la tranĉiloj estas malakraj_. If we
elide _ke_ and _estas_, the substantive takes the accusative
(_tranĉilojn_) and the adjective (_malakraj_) remains in the
nominative. Other examples are:--_La kutimo faris lin_ (_ke li
estu_) _indiferenta por tio ĉi_ (Hamleto V., 1) = Habit made him (to
be, lit., that he be) indifferent to this. _Kion vi intencas nun
fari, por vin montri_ (_ke vi estas_) _inda filo de via kara patro?_
(Hamleto IV.,7) = What do you now intend to do to show yourself (that
you are) a worthy son of your dear father? (see par. 105 on

109. Predicative Noun.--A noun also can be predicative (see par. 35).

Examples.--_La patro nomis sian filon Johano_ = The father named his
son John. Now in English it is not clear whether the father gave the
name of "John" to his son, or whether he made mention of his son
whose name was John. In Esperanto it is quite clear that he gave the
name, for otherwise "John" would be in the accusative (_Johanon_,
so:--_La patro nomis sian filon Johanon_ = The father named (made
mention of) his son John. _Ili nomis lin Adolfo_ = They called him
(gave him the name of) Adolphus.

110. Nominative or Accusative.--The rule, therefore, for qualifying
and predicative adjectives or nouns is:--

(_a_). The word will be in the accusative if the object already
possesses the quality in question.

(_b_). The word will be in the nominative if that quality, which it
did not before possess, or was not known to possess, is being given
to the object.

111. Participial Adjectives.--Participles are often used in
Esperanto to qualify nouns and pronouns, and they are then in reality
true adjectives. To distinguish them from other adjectives they are
called "Participial Adjectives" (Participaj adjektivoj).

Examples.--_Johano kaj Georgo estis perditaj_ = John and George were
lost. _Ni trovis ilin mortantajn_ = We found them (who were) dying.
_Ni estis finintaj, kiam vi alvenis_ = We had finished when you
arrived (see par. 209 (_b_)).

112. Comparison of Adjectives.

(_a_). The comparative of equality is tiel ... kiel = _as_,
_so_ ... _as_.

Johano estas tiel forta, kiel Georgo = _John is as strong as

(_b_). The comparative of superiority is pli ... ol = _more_
... _than_.

Johano estas pli forta, ol Georgo = _John is stronger than George._

(_c_). The comparative of inferiority is malpli ... ol = _less_
... _than_.

Johano estas malpli forta, ol Georgo = _John is less strong
(weaker) than George._

(_d_). The other modes of expressing comparison are:--

tia ... kia = _such_, _such a_, _such kind_ ... _as_.

sama ... kia = _the same_ ... _as_.

same ... kiel = _the same_ ... _as_.

Ju pli ... des pli = _the more_ ... _the more_.

Ju malpli ... des malpli = _the less_ ... _the less_.

Ju pli ... des malpli = _the more_ ... _the less_.

Ju malpli ... des pli = _the less_ ... _the more_.

Examples.--_Tia domo, kia tiu, estas malofte vidata_ = Such a house
as that is rarely seen. _Mia bastono estas tia sama, kia via_, or,
_Mia bastono estas same, kiel via_ = My stick is the same as yours.
_Ju pli mi lin konas, des pli mi lin estimas_ = The more I know him,
the more I esteem him. _Ju malpli mi dormas, des malpli mi sentas la
bezonon dormi_ = The less I sleep, the less I feel the want (need) to
sleep. _Ju pli mi lin vidas, des malpli li plaĉas al mi_ = The more
I see him, the less he pleases me. _Ju malpli mi manĝas, des pli mi
trinkas_ = The less I eat, the more I drink.

_Be careful to note_ that the second term in a comparison is in the
nominative or accusative, according as it is the subject or
complement, e.g., Mi amas mian fraton pli, ol mia fratino = _I
love my brother more than my sister (loves him)_. Mia fratino is in
the nominative, amas lin being understood. But Mi amas mian fraton
pli, ol mian fratinon = _I love my brother more than my sister_.
Here fratinon is in the accusative, and the meaning is perfectly
clear. In English we should have to add "does" to the first example
to make the phrase clear: "I love my brother more than my sister
does" (see par. 105).

113. Superlatives (_Superlativoj_).

(_a_). The superlative of superiority is la plej = _the most_.

(_b_). The superlative of inferiority is la malplej = _the

The preposition el = _out of_, _of_, is used with the superlative
when it relates to numbers, or something collective, as a "group,"
"society," etc. But when the superlative relates to the place or
position where the superiority is or was, then some other appropriate
preposition is used.

Examples.--_Johano estas la plej forta el la knaboj_ = John is the
strongest of the boys. _Petro estis la plej malforta el ĉiuj_ =
Peter was the weakest of (out of) all. _Georgo estas la malplej
kuraĝa knabo en la domo_ = George is the least courageous boy in the
house. _Ŝi estis la plej bela virino, kiun mi iam vidis_ = She was
the most beautiful woman whom I ever saw. _Tiuj ĉi estas la plej
grandaj arboj en la arbaro_ = These are the largest trees in the
wood. _Li estis la plej bona Esperantisto el la grupo_ (_klubo_,
_societo_) = He was the best Esperantist of the group (club,
society). _Metu la plej grandajn glasojn sur la tablon_ = Put the
largest glasses upon the table. _Ne ĵetu la plej grandajn ŝtonojn
en la puton, sed la plej malgrandajn_ (_malplej grandajn_) = Do not
throw the largest stones into the well, but the smallest (the least

(_c_). The superlative absolute is indicated by tre = _very_, or
treege = _exceedingly_, or troe = _excessively_, or some other
suitable adverb.

Example.--_Tiu virino estas tre malbela kaj treege grasa_ = That
woman is very ugly and exceedingly fat.

114. Degrees of intensity of adjectives can also be shown by the
aid of the suffixes _-EG-_ and _-ET-_ with or without an adverb. The
suffix _-EG-_ is stronger in its application than the adverb tre =
_very_. For instance, take the adjective bela = _beautiful_, or
_fine_. Tre bela = _very beautiful_, or _very fine_; but belega =
_magnificent_, or _superb_. So, the diminutive _-ET-_ shows more
diminution than the adjective malgranda = _small_, or _little_,
would show when qualifying a noun. For instance, malgranda rivero =
_a small river_, but rivereto = _a brook_, or _stream_. The
following list shows how twelve adjectives of varying shades of
intensity can be formed from the root varm-, between the extremes
tre varmega = _broiling hot_ and tre malvarmega = _intensely
cold_, supposing we were speaking of the weather:--

  Tre varmega = _Broiling hot_. Tre malvarmega = _Intensely cold_.
  Varmega = _Hot_. Malvarmega = _Bitterly cold_.
  Tre varma = _Very warm_. Tre malvarma = _Very cold_.
  Varma = _Warm_. Malvarma = _Cold_.
  Iom varma = _Warmish_. Iom malvarma = _Coldish_.
  Varmeta = _Mild_. Malvarmeta = _Cool_.

See remarks on the suffixes _-EG-_ and _-ET-_, par. 277.


Cardinal Numbers (_Numeraloj fundamentaj_).

115. The cardinal numbers are:--

(1) unu, (2) du, (3) tri, (4) kvar, (5) kvin, (6) ses, (7) sep, (8) ok,
(9) naŭ, (10) dek, (100) cent, (1,000) mil, (0) (zero, naught) = nulo.

Miliono (million) is a noun, the root being milion-.

(_a_). The numbers 11 to 19 are formed by simply placing (10) dek
before the first nine, as:--(11) dek unu, (12) dek du, (13) dek
tri, (14) dek kvar, (15) dek kvin, (16) dek ses, (17) dek sep,
(18) dek ok, (19) dek naŭ.

(_b_). The numbers (101 to 119), or (1,001 to 1,019), are formed by
the addition cent, or mil, as:--(101) cent unu, (102) cent du,
(110) cent dek, (116) cent dek ses, (1,001) mil unu, (1,006) mil ses,
(1,114) mil cent dek kvar.

(_c_). The tens, hundreds, and thousands are formed by prefixing one
of the numbers 2 to 9 before dek, cent, or mil, as:--(20) dudek,
(30) tridek, (40) kvardek, (200) ducent, (500) kvincent, (900)
naŭcent, (2,000) dumil, (4,000) kvarmil, (8,000) okmil.

(_d_). The intermediate numbers (21 to 29), (31 to 39), etc., are
formed by adding the required number to the tens, as:--(21) dudek
unu, (22) dudek du, (33) tridek tri, (96) naŭdek ses, (121)
cent dudek unu, (342) tricent kvardek du, (1,021) mil dudek unu,
(8,754) okmil sepcent kvindek kvar.

(_e_). The cardinal numbers never change their forms for case or

Examples.--_La du infanoj dividis inter si sep pomojn_ = The two
children divided between themselves seven apples. _Unu prenis tri kaj
la alia prenis kvar el la pomoj_ = One took three and the other took
four of the apples. _Kvin kaj sep faras_ (or, _estas_) _dek du_ = 5
and 7 make (are) 12.

(_f_). Unu is sometimes used in the plural, and unuj then means
_some_. It is used generally in relation with aliaj = _others_.

Examples.--_El ŝiaj multaj infanoj, unuj estas bonaj kaj aliaj
malbonaj_ = Among (out of) her many children, some are good and
others bad. _Li ekzamenis la pomojn, kaj trovis unujn bonaj kaj
aliajn malbonaj_ = He examined the apples, and found some good and
others bad. Note that _bonaj_ and _malbonaj_ are predicative
adjectives, and therefore in the nominative (see pars. 36, 108

(_g_). Unu is sometimes used when our indefinite article is
employed as a numeral.[14]

Example.--_Ĉar ĉiu el ni havas unu vortaron, prenu vian kaj lasu
mian_ = Since we have each _a_ dictionary, take yours and leave mine.


[14] This use of _unu_ is not recommended.

Ordinal Numbers (_Numeraloj ordaj_).

116. Ordinal numbers, being really adjectives, are, in Esperanto,
made such in the usual way by adding _A_ to the cardinals,
as:--unua = _first_, dua = _second_, tria = _third_, kvara =
_fourth_, kvina = _fifth_, sesa = _sixth_, sepa = _seventh_,
oka = _eighth_, naŭa = _ninth_, deka = _tenth_.

(_a_). If the cardinal is composed of two or more numbers, _A_ is
added to the last only, as:--dek-unua = _eleventh_, dek-dua =
_twelfth_, dek-naŭa = _nineteenth_, dudeka = _twentieth_,
dudek-unua = _twenty-first_, cent-tridek-naŭa = _hundred and

N.B.--Note that the ordinal numbers are linked by hyphens.

(_b_). The Ordinals follow all the rules of adjectives as to case and

Examples.--_Donu al li la trian, kaj prenu la kvaran_ = Give him the
third, and take the fourth. _La kvinaj etaĝoj de tiuj domoj estas
tre altaj_ = The fifth stories of those houses are very high.

(_c_). The Ordinals are usually used in speaking of pages, hours,
days, months, years, kings, etc.

Examples.--_Paĝo trideka_ = Page thirty. _Vidu paĝon kvardekan_
(or, 40an) = See page forty (40). _Henriko kvara_ = Henry IV. _La
dek-unua horo_ = 11 o'clock. _En la dek-sesa_ (_tago_) _de Aprilo_ =
On the 16th of April. _En la jaro mil-okcent-naŭdek-naŭa_ = In
1899. _Mil-naŭcent-kvara_ = 1904.

In asking questions about the above, the adjective kioma is often

Examples.--_Sur kioma paĝo vi vidis tion?_ = On what page did you
see that? _Kioma paĝo estas?_ = What page is it? _Kioma horo estas?_
= What o'clock is it? _Estas la dua_ = It is two o'clock. _Kiun daton
ni havas?_ = What is the date (or, day of the month)? _Hodiaŭ estas
la dudek-sepa_ (or, 27a) _de Marto_ = To-day is the 27th of March.

117. Ordinal adverbs are formed by adding _E_ to the cardinals,
as:--unue, _firstly_, due, _secondly_, sepe, _seventhly_, etc.

118. Substantives are formed from the cardinals by adding _O_. They
have various meanings, as:--Unuo = _a unit_, or _a one_. Duo = _a
duet_, or _a two_ (of cards). Trio = _a trio_, or _triplet_, or _a
three_ (of cards). Kvaro, etc. = _a four_, etc. (of cards, etc., up
to ten). Dek-duo = _a dozen_. Deko = _half a score_. Dudeko =
_a score_. Cento = _a hundred_. Milo = _a thousand_. Miliono =
_a million_.

Examples.--_Li havas dudekojn da ĉevaloj, centojn da ŝafoj, kaj
milojn da birdoj_ = He has scores of horses, hundreds of sheep, and
thousands of birds. _Tiuj ludkartoj estas la kvaro pika kaj la seso
kera_ = Those cards are the four of spades and the six of hearts.
_Tiu cifero estas oko_ = That figure is an eight.

Multiples (_Numeraloj multoblaj_).

119. Multiples are formed by the addition of the suffix _-OBL-_ to
the cardinals, and then adding _A_, _E_, or _O_ to mark the
adjective, adverb, or noun. They can also be formed into transitive
verbs by the suffix _-IGI-_, or intransitive by the suffix _-IĜI-_.

Examples.--_Unuobla_ = Single. _Unuoble_ = Singly. _Duobla_ = Double,
twofold. _Duoble_ = Doubly. _La duoblo_ = The double. _Duobligi_ = To
double, to duplicate. _Duobliĝi_ = To become double. _Triobla_ =
Triple, threefold. _Trioble_ = Trebly. _La trioblo_ = The treble
(of). _Triobligi_ = To treble, to triplicate. _Kvarobla_ = Fourfold,
quadruple. _Kvaroble_ = Quadruply. _Kvaroblo_ = A quadruple.
_Kvarobligi_ = To quadruple, to make fourfold. _Kvarobliĝi_ = To
become quadruple. _Sepobla_ = Sevenfold, septuple. _Centoblo_ = A
centuple. _Kvinoble sep estas tridek kvin_ = Five times (fivefold) 7
is 35. _Naŭoble ok estas sepdek du_ = Nine times (ninefold) 8 is 72.
_Kvaroble kvar estas dek ses_ = Four times four is 16. _Dudek estas
la kvaroblo de kvin_ = Twenty is the quadruple of five. _Duobla
fadeno estas pli forta ol unuobla_ = A double thread is stronger than
a single (one). _Kvarobligante sepdek kvin vi ricevas la centoblon de
tri_ = By quadrupling 75 you get the centuple of 3.

Fractional Numbers (_Numeraloj nombronaj_).

120. Fractional numbers are formed by the addition of the suffix
_-ON-_ to the cardinals, and then adding _A_, _E_, or _O_ to mark the
adjective, adverb, or noun, as:--Duona = _half_, duone = _by
halves_, duono = _a half_ (1/2), triona = _third_, trione = _by
thirds_, triono = _a third_ (1/3).

Examples.--_La kvarona parto de dudek kvar estas la duono de dek du,
tio estas ses_ = The fourth part of 24 is the half of 12, that is 6.
_Unu triono_ = One third (1/3). _Tri okonoj_ = Three eighths (3/8).
_Neniam faru ion poduone_ = Never do anything by halves. _Duone ses
estas tri_ = half of six is three.

The Collectives (_Numeraloj kolektaj_).

121. The collectives are formed by the addition of the suffix
_-OP-_ to the cardinals, and then adding _A_ or _E_ to mark
adjectives or adverbs, as:--Duopa = _double_, _two together_,
duope = _by twos_, _in pairs_, triope = _in threes_, _in
triplets_, dekope = _by tens_.

Example.--_Kvinope ili sin ĵetis sur min_ = Five together (five at a
time) they threw themselves upon me.

Reiteratives (_Numeraloj ripetaj_).

122. Reiteratives are formed by adding the adverb foje to the
cardinals, as:--Unufoje = _once_, dufoje = _twice_, trifoje =
_thrice_, kvarfoje = _four times_.

Examples.--_Hieraŭ mi renkontis lin unufoje_ (or, _unu fojon_), _sed
hodiaŭ dufoje_ (or, _du fojojn_) = Yesterday I met him once, but
to-day twice.

N.B.--Note that when the substantive _fojo_ is used, it is in the
accusative, as denoting point of time (par. 68 (_b_)).

Distributives (_Numeraloj disdividaj_).

123. Distributives are marked by the preposition po placed before
the cardinals, meaning _at the rate of_, _in the proportion of_.

Examples.--_Al ĉiu el la laborantoj mi pagis po kvin ŝilingoj_ = I
paid each of the workmen at the rate of five shillings. _Tiu ĉi
libro enhavas sesdek paĝojn; tial, se mi legos en ĉiu tago po dek
kvin paĝoj, mi finos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj_ = This book
contains 60 pages, therefore if I (shall) read (in) each day at the
rate of 15 pages, I shall finish the whole book in 4 days (see "_po_"
in list of prepositions, par. 259 (22)).

The Time of Day (_La horo_).

124. There are several possible ways of expressing the time of day.
"A quarter to three" (2.45) may be either:--

(_a_). Tri kvaronoj de la tria = _three-quarters of the 3rd_ (_hour_).

(_b_). La dua kaj tri kvaronoj = _the 2nd_ (_hour_) _and three-quarters_.

(_c_). Kvarono antaŭ la tria = _a quarter before the 3rd_ (_hour_).

The last example is the only one which would be easily understood by
an Englishman. Other nations use one or two of these methods, hence
we find a diversity of methods used in Esperanto also. There is,
however, one way used by nearly all nations, namely, that in railway
time tables, and it is to be hoped that this will come into general
use. Therefore to the question:--_Kioma horo estas?_ = What time
(hour) is it? we might simply say as follows:--

   2.0 =_La dua_ (_horo_).
   2.15 =_La dua_ (_horo_) _kaj dek kvin_ (_minutoj_).
   3.5 =_La tria_ (_horo_) _kvin_.
  10.2 =_La deka_ (_horo_) _du_.
  11.45 =_La dek-unua_ (_horo_) _kvardek kvin_.

In Italy, Belgium, etc., where the hours are numbered from one to
twenty-four, this system is equally applicable, as:--4.10 p.m. in
Italy = 16.10 = _La dek-sesa_ (_horo_) _dek_.

PRONOUNS (Pronomoj).

125. There are seven classes of Pronouns:--(1) Personal, (2)
Possessive, (3) Relative, (4) Interrogative, (5) Demonstrative, (6)
Distributive or Collective, (7) Indefinite.

As, however, the last five classes are so intimately connected with
other parts of speech, and as some of the pronouns represent two
classes, and some two parts of speech, it is better to treat them as
correlative words (see pars. 139-157), so under the head of
"Pronouns" we give only the personal and possessive.

Personal Pronouns (_personaj pronomoj_).

126. The personal pronouns are:--


  Singular.  1st Person.  Mi = _I_.
      "      2nd Person.  Vi = _you, thou_. (Ci = _thou_ is rarely used).
      "      3rd Person.  Li = _he_, Ŝi = _she_, Ĝi = _it_.
  Plural.    1st Person.  Ni = _we_.
      "      2nd Person.  Vi = _you_, _ye_.
      "      3rd Person.  Ili = _they_.


  Singular.  1st Person.  Min = _me_.
      "      2nd Person.  Vin = _you, thee_. (Cin = _thee_ is rarely used).
      "      3rd Person.  Lin = _him_,  Ŝin = _her_, Ĝin = _it_.
  Plural.    1st Person.  Nin = _us_.
      "      2nd Person.  Vin = _you_.
      "      3rd Person.  Ilin = _them_.

Oni = _one_, _people_, _they_, _we_ (like the French "on"), is an
indefinite pronoun of the 3rd person. Oni may be deemed singular or

Owing to the fact that in most languages the word corresponding to
oni is invariable, Esperanto authors have generally avoided the
accusative and possessive forms onin and onia, although they are
occasionally met with. These forms are, however, perfectly regular,
and may be used without hesitation if desired.

Si = _self_, _selves_, _oneself_, is a reflexive pronoun of the 3rd
person, singular or plural.

Vi, like "you" in English, represents both the singular and plural,
but when it refers to more than one person, words depending on it
take the plural form.

Ĝi, like "it" in English, is used to represent things, and also
persons and animals when the name does not reveal the sex.

Examples.--_Mi lin amas_ = I love him. _Li min vidas_ = He sees me.
_Ili trovis lin kaj min en la ĝardeno_ = They found him and me in
the garden. _Vi ne vidis nin_ = You did not see us. _Vi_ (plural)
_estas pli saĝaj, ol ili (estas)_ = You are wiser than they are.
_Ŝi vidis ilin en la dormoĉambro_ = She saw them in the bedroom.
_Oni diras, "Per mono oni povas aĉeti ĉion"_ = They (people) say
(it is said), "With money one (_or_, we) can buy everything. _Mi
vidis la domon, sed ĝi estis tro malgranda_ = I saw the house, but
it was too small. _Se oni estus riĉa_, or _riĉaj_ = If one were

(_a_).--In words like infano = _child_, persono = _person_,
individuo = _individual_, etc., the sex is not revealed; neither is
it in the general name of an animal, as:--leono = _a lion_, hundo
= _a dog_, birdo = _a bird_, etc., unless we add the feminine
suffix -ino. In all such cases, when we do not know the sex, we use
the pronoun ĝi. If, however, the sex is known, and we wish to
demonstrate it, we can use the pronouns li or ŝi respectively.
Zamenhof advises the use of li and ŝi for human beings only, and
of ĝi for all other animals, even when the sex of the animal is
known and indicated; the use of li or ŝi in such cases is
nevertheless legitimate if desired.

Examples.--_La infano forkuris, kiam mi parolis al ĝi_ (or _li_ if
we know the sex) = The child ran away when I spoke to it. _Tio estas
bela ĉevalino, ĝi_ (or, _ŝi_) _trotas bone_ = That is a fine mare,
she trots well. _Se iu vizitos min dum mi forestas, diru al ĝi, ke
ĝi revenu morgaŭ_ = If anyone (someone) should call upon (visit) me
whilst I am away, tell him or her (it) to come again to-morrow.[15]


[15] This use of _ĝi_ for a person is not recommended, and _li_ (or
_tiu_) would be better in a case where there is doubt as to the sex.

127. The word mem = _self_ or _selves_ is sometimes used with a
personal pronoun or noun to give emphasis.

Examples.--_Mi mem ĝin vidis_ = I myself saw it. _Ni mem ĝin
trovis_, or, _Ni ĝin trovis mem_ = We found it ourselves. _Vi venu
mem_ = Come yourself. _Ŝi mem parolos_ = She herself will speak. _Li
mem respondu_ = Let him answer (for) himself. _La virinoj venu mem_ =
Let the women come themselves.

128. Si is a reflexive pronoun of the 3rd person, and therefore
cannot refer to the pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons.[16] We
cannot say _Mi lavas sin_, or _Ni_, or _Vi lavas sin_, for "I wash
myself," "We wash ourselves," "You wash yourself." We must, in each
of these cases, use the pronoun which is the subject of the verb,
as:--Mi lavas min--Ni lavas nin--_Vi lavas vin_ = _I wash
myself_--_We wash ourselves_--_You wash yourself_ (or if vi = _you_
is plural), _You wash yourselves_. Si, therefore, is used for the
3rd person, singular or plural, when it refers to the _subject_ of
the verb. It takes the accusative termination _N_ when necessary, and
then represents "_himself_, _herself_, _itself_, _oneself_,

Examples.--_Li razis sin_ = He shaved himself. _Petro razis sin_ =
Peter shaved himself (_Petro razis lin_ would mean Peter shaved
_him_, viz., some other man referred to in the sentence). _Ŝi diris
al si_ = She said to herself (_Ŝi diris al ŝi_ would mean "She said
to her," viz., some other woman). _Ĝi vundis sin_ = It wounded
itself (_Ĝi vundis ĝin_ would mean "It wounded it," viz., some
other animal). _Ili mortigis sin_ = They killed themselves. _Li
pensis en si mem, ke ..._ = He thought to (in) himself that ... _La du
fratoj renkontas la rabistojn: la fratoj atakas kaj vundas ilin, sed,
tiel farante, ili vundas sin_ (or, _sin mem_) = The two brothers meet
the robbers: the brothers attack and wound them, but, in so doing,
they wound themselves. _Mia fratino havas amikinon, kiu faras ĉion
por si, kaj nenion por ŝi_ = My sister has a friend, who does
everything for herself, and nothing for her. _Oni kelkfoje tro
laŭdas sin_ = One (_or_ people) sometimes praises oneself (_or_
praise themselves) too much (see conjugation of a reflexive verb,
par. 170).


[16] The reason for the use of si is the avoidance of ambiguity.
Si is not used with the 1st and 2nd persons, because there is no
possibility of ambiguity in these cases.

129. The pronoun "it" is not expressed with impersonal verbs (see
par. 164).

Examples.--_Kiu estas tie? Estas mi_ = Who is there? It is I.
_Neĝas_ = It snows. _Pluvis_ = It rained. _Necesas, ke oni manĝu_ =
It is necessary to eat.

Possessive Pronouns (_Pronomoj posedaj_).

130. Possessive Pronouns are formed by adding the adjectival _A_ to
the personal pronouns. They are essentially adjectives, and follow
the adjectival rules as to the formation of the plural and the

131. They are mia = _my_, _mine_, via = _your_, _yours_, _thy_,
_thine_ (cia = _thy_, _thine_, like its personal pronoun, ci, is
rarely used), lia = _his_, ŝia = _her_, _hers_, ĝia = _its_,
nia = _our_, _ours_, ilia = _their_, _theirs_, sia = _his_
(_own_), _her_ (_own_), _hers_, _its_ (_own_), _their_ (_own_),
_theirs_, _one's_ (_own_).

Examples.--_Mia patro, via frato, lia fratino, ŝia onklo, kaj iliaj
onklinoj, estas en la domo_ = My father, your brother, his sister,
her uncle, and their aunts are in the house. _Mi vidis vian libron,
lian bastonon, ŝian ombrelon, kaj ilian keston en la stacidomo_ = I
saw your book, his stick, her umbrella, and their box in the station.
_Mi havas viajn librojn_ = I have your books. _Ĝia koloro estas
ruĝa_ = Its colour is red. _Mia fratino renkontis vian fraton kaj
viajn amikojn_ = My sister met your brother and your friends.

132. When a possessive pronoun stands alone, as in sentences like the
following, it may or may not be preceded by the article la, at the
writer's option, but many authors prefer to omit the article on the
ground that it is superfluous.

Examples.--_Ĉar ni ĉiuj havas_ (or, _ĉar ĉiu el ni havas_) _unu
vortaron, prenu (la) vian kaj lasu (la) mian_ = Since we have each a
dictionary, take yours and leave mine. _Ŝiaj infanoj estas pli
grandaj, ol (la) viaj_ = Her children are bigger than yours.

Note in the first example that _ĉiuj_ is in the plural because it is
in apposition to _ni_ (see par. 69 (_c_)).

133. Mia is sometimes placed after a noun to denote affection.

Examples.--_Patrino mia_ = Mother mine, or Mother dear. _Fratino mia_
= Sister dear.

134. When a possessive pronoun refers to two or more nouns, it may,
as in English, be repeated or not, but if it is not repeated the
possessive pronoun is usually put in the plural.

Example.--_Lia patro, lia patrino, kaj lia fratino_, or, _liaj patro,
patrino, kaj fratino, estis en la domo_ = His father, his mother, and
his sister were in the house.

134 (_a_). Personal pronouns, preceded by the preposition al, are
sometimes used in a possessive sense.

Examples.--_Mi kovris al mi la orelojn_ = I covered my (to myself
the) ears. _Li fermis al si la okulojn_ = He closed his (to himself
the) eyes (see also par. 100).

135. Sia, Lia, etc.--Great care must be taken not to use sia,
when the sense requires one of the other possessives of the 3rd
person, or _vice versâ_. Sia can _only_ refer to the _subject_ of
the sentence or proposition in which it occurs, and _being
reflexive_, it can never form _part_ of the _subject_ of a sentence,
as:--_Li diris al ni, ke_ lia (not, sia) _hundo ĵus mortis_ = He
told us that his dog had just died. Like its root si, it is used
for the 3rd person, singular or plural, and may represent "his (own),
her (own), hers, its (own), their (own), theirs, or one's (own)."

Since sia, being reflexive, can never form _part_ of the _subject_
of a sentence, we cannot say _Li_ kaj sia _edzino iris Parizon_,
because _li_ and _edzino_ are equally subjects of the _same_ clause.
But if we substitute kun for kaj, then li becomes the _sole_
subject, and we can correctly say, _Li_ kun sia _edzino iris
Parizon_, or, _Li iris Parizon_ kun sia _edzino_ = He went to Paris
_with_ his wife. If we use kaj we must say, _Li_ kaj lia _edzino
iris Parizon_ = He _and_ his wife went to Paris.

136. In the four following examples sia _refers to the subject_ of
the sentence:--

_Mia patrino forgesis sian libron_ = My mother forgot (_or_, has
forgotten) her book. _Tiuj infanoj perdis siajn gepatrojn_ = Those
children have lost their parents. _La hundo amas sian mastron_ = The
dog loves its master. _Oni devas ami sian najbaron, kiel sin mem_ =
One must love one's neighbour as oneself. N.B.--_Sin_ is here in the
accusative owing to ellipsis, the words _oni amas_ after _kiel_ being
understood (see par. 105).

137. In the following three sentences the possessive pronoun _does
not refer to the subject_ of the sentence, and therefore we use
lia, ŝia, ĝia, or ilia, as the case may be:--

_Li vidis mian amikon kaj lian edzinon_ = He saw my friend and his
(his friend's) wife. _Ŝi venis al mi hieraŭ, por ke mi redonu
ŝiajn leterojn al ŝi_ = She came to me yesterday in order that I
might return her letters to her. _La reĝo amas Johanon kaj lian
filon_ = The king loves John and his son.

N.B.--Here the English does not show whether it is John's son or his
own son whom the king loves, but in Esperanto it is clear it is
John's son, otherwise it would be _sian filon_; _lian filon_ is
in the accusative here, because the conjunction _kaj_ connects
like cases (see par. 266).

(_a_). Note in the following examples how the possessive varies in
accordance with the construction of the sentence.

_El ĉiuj siaj amikinoj, ŝi plej amas Marion_ = Of all her friends
(female), she loves Mary best. (Here _siaj_ refers to _ŝi_).

_El ĉiuj ŝiaj amikinoj, Mario estas le plej amata_ = Of all her
friends, Mary is the most loved. (Here _ŝiaj_ refers to some woman
not mentioned.)

_Leginte sian libron, li ekdormis_ = After reading (having read) his
book, he fell asleep. (Here _sian_ refers to _li_, understood in
_leginte_ = When _he_ had read his book, _he_ ...). _Leginte lian
libron, li ekdormis_ = After reading his book, he fell asleep. (Here
_lian_ refers to some man not mentioned, who might have lent him the

_Johano, legante sian libron, venkiĝis de dormo_ = John, while
reading his book, was (became) overcome by sleep.

138. The following are sentences more complicated, showing the
advantage of Esperanto over English, or indeed over most national
languages, in respect of its great clearness of expression:--

_Petro skribis al Paŭlo, ke li konduku al li sian hundon_ = Peter
wrote to Paul to bring him his dog (_sian_ refers to Paul because
_li_ = he (Paul) becomes the subject, and _sia_ always, as we have
said, refers to the subject of its own particular clause; if,
therefore, _lian_ had been the possessive, it would have been Peter's

_Post kiam la reĝo mortis, lia filo edziĝis kun sia/lia kuzino_
= After the king died, his son married his cousin. Here _sia_ would
refer to _filo_, the son's cousin, but _lia_ to _reĝo_, the king's

_Mia patrino petis sian filinon, ke ŝi donu al sia/ŝia fratino
sian/ŝian libron._ This sentence in English, whichever of the
possessives be used, would be "My mother requested her daughter to
give (that she give) to her sister her book." Now the mother is
the first subject in this sentence, therefore _sian filinon_
is the mother's daughter (_ŝian_ would mean someone else's
daughter). But afterwards _ŝi_ (the daughter) becomes the subject,
therefore _sia fratino_ would be the daughter's sister, and _ŝia
fratino_ the mother's. For the remainder of the sentence _ŝi_ (the
daughter) still remains the subject, therefore _sian libron_ would be
the daughter's book, and _ŝian libron_ the sister's or the mother's
book. _Ties libron_ would definitely specify it as the sister's book.

138 (_a_). From the examples given in paragraphs 128, 135, 136, and
138, we see that the reflexive pronoun si and the possessive sia
always refer to the _subject_ (noun or pronoun) of _their own_

(_b_). Si and sia are likewise used when the noun or pronoun to
which they refer is not expressed, but only understood.

Example.--_Tio estas nova metodo brosi sian_ (or, _la_) _ĉapelon!_ =
That is a new method of brushing one's hat!

(_c_). Phrases introduced by an infinitive or a participle may be
regarded as new sentences, the subject of which is mentally supplied:
i.e., the infinitive or the participle may be expanded to make the
full sentence implied.

Examples of Infinitive.--_Estas bone ne trompi_ (_ke oni ne trompu_)
_sin_ = It is well not to deceive oneself. _La patrino lasis
Marion legi_ (_ke ŝi legu_) _sian libron_ (Mary's book); _ŝian
libron_ (the mother's book). _La oficiro petis Aŭguston rigardi_
(_ke li rigardu_) _lin_ (him) _sin_ (himself). _La patro petis sian
filon, helpi_ (_ke la filo helpu_) _sian_ (the son's) _amikon_;
_lian_ (the father's) _amikon_.

Examples of Participle.--_La reĝo ordonis, ke ĉiuj renkontante_
(_kiam ili renkontis_) _lin, eliru. La princo montris viron,
starantan post li. La knabo vidis siajn fratinojn, ludantajn_
(_kiuj ludas_) _per sia_ (their own) _pupo_--_per lia_ (with his)
_pupo. La reĝo forveturis, ne sciiginte_ (_kaj ne sciigis_) _sian
ministron pri sia_ (the king's) _devo_--_pri lia_ (the minister's)

(_d_). Boirac names _lia_, _ŝia_, _ĝia_, etc., the direct or normal
form of the pronoun, "_La rekta formo_," and _sia_ the secondary or
accessory form, "_flanka kaj akcesora_." He points out that where the
use of the normal form could cause no possible ambiguity, the use of
the reflexive form, though always advisable if justified by rule, is
nevertheless not _obligatory_. It is even possible, as shown by
Millidge, that the non-use of si may in some cases be felt to be
somewhat clearer than its use, e.g., "_La Ĥino legas siajn skribajn
signojn en sia dialekto, kaj la aliaj popoloj de Azio legas tiujn
samajn signojn en ilia_ (instead of _sia_) _lingvo_ (_F.K._, p. 258).
In any case it is better, in case of doubt, to use the normal form.
It is worse to use the reflexive form when it should not be used,
than to omit it when it might be used.

CORRELATIVE WORDS. (Korelativaj Vortoj.)

139. The 45 correlative words (see table, par. 147) form a very
important part in the construction of the Esperanto language. Their
uses and meanings are very easily learnt and remembered, since they
have been exceedingly cleverly devised on a simple and uniform plan.
They are all to be found in the list of Primary Words given in Part V.

140. They consist of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs. Many
of them can be applied to denote not only one word, but also
expressions which require several English words to define clearly.

141. The words in the table (par. 147) are placed in series
horizontally and vertically. All the words in each of the vertical
series commence with the same letter, and all in each horizontal
series have the same termination. It will be seen that the letter _I_
is the first letter in the first vertical series, and that this is a
central letter in each of the other words in the table. The first
letter of a word conveys an idea of its meaning, and the terminal
letters following _I_ show how that idea is applied, and consequently
the full meaning of the word.

(_a_). The initial letters convey the following ideas:--

  I- that the word is "indefinite."
  Ĉ- that the word is "distributive" or "collective."
  K- that the word is "interrogative" or "relative."
  NEN- that the word is "negative" (nen- = ne, _not_,
    and _N_ added for euphony).
  T- that the word is "demonstrative."

(_b_). The terminal letters following _I_ denote that the idea is
to be applied, in accordance with the termination, as follows:--

  -A in relation to "quality" or "the kind of" (adjectival).
  -AL in relation to "motive" or "reason for" (adverbial).
  -AM in relation to "time" (adverbial).
  -E in relation to "place" (adverbial).
  -EL in relation to "manner" (adverbial).
  -ES in relation to "possession" (pronominal).
  -O in relation to "a thing" (substantival or pronominal).
  -OM in relation to "quantity" or "number of" (adverbial).
  -U in relation to "person" or "thing specified". (pronominal or adjectival).

142. The correlative words are all complete in themselves, but some
of them can be used as root-words, taking grammatical terminations
when required by the sense to be conveyed. Those ending in the vowels
_A_, _E_, _O_, _U_, must not _necessarily_ be presumed to be the
parts of speech these letters indicate; the letters are not
_grammatical_ terminations, they simply show, as before stated, how
the idea conveyed in the preceding letters is to be applied. Those
ending in a vowel all take the accusative _N_, and those ending in
_A_ and _U_ also take the plural _J_.

Theoretically it is possible for the words ending in _O_ also to take
the plural _J_; but in practice this is seldom useful.

143. The demonstrative pronouns, tio = _that_ (thing), tiu =
_that one_, _the former_, and sometimes ĉio, are followed by the
separate word ĉi = _near_, to express the demonstrative pronoun,
"this." Ĉi is invariable, but tio and tiu can be inflected as
before stated. Thus tio = _that_ (thing), tio ĉi = _this_
(thing) (lit., "that here"), tion ĉi (accusative) = _this_
(thing). Tiu = _that one_, _the former_, tiu ĉi = _this one_,
_the latter_. Tiuj = _those_, tiuj ĉi = _these_ (lit., "those
here"). Often ĉi is placed first, as:--Ĉi tiu = _this one_. In
fact, other things being equal, it is preferable to place ĉi
before rather than after the t- word, though both forms are equally
correct. Ĉio ĉi = _all this_.

144. The adverb, tie = _there_, is also followed by ĉi to
denote "here." Thus tie = _there_, tie ĉi = _here_, tien
(accusative) = _thither_, tien ĉi = _hither_. Occasionally ĉi
is placed first, thus: ĉi tie, ĉi tien.

145. The interrogative or relative series (viz., those commencing
with _K_) may be followed by the word ajn = _ever_, as kia ajn =
_whatever kind of_, kial ajn = _for whatever reason_, kiam ajn =
_whenever_, kie ajn = _wherever_, kiel ajn = _however_, kies
ajn = _whosesoever_, kio ajn = _whatever_, kiom ajn = _however
much_, _whatever quantity_, kiu ajn = _whoever_, _whichever_.

Some writers use ajn after other correlatives, but Dr. Zamenhof
himself has rarely used it except after the series _kia_, _kial_,
etc. However, he does not say it is wrong to extend its use, for when
asked the question whether it could be employed after the series
_ia_, _ial_, etc., he replied that it could, because, in Esperanto,
any word could be combined with any other. See par. 158 (_c_) (_d_).

146. Grammatical terminations and suffixes may be added to the
correlatives if required, thus making them nouns, adjectives, verbs,
adverbs, etc., as shown in the following examples. The hyphens are
given to show the construction of the words, but should not be used
in writing.

_Ĉiam-a_ = Everlasting, continual. _Ĉiam-e_ = Everlastingly,
forever. _Ĉie-a_ = Of everywhere. _Ĉi-tie-a_ (_ĉi tiea_) = Of
here. _Tie-a_ = Of there. _Ĉi-tie-ulo_ (_ĉi tieulo_) = A man of
this place. _Tie-ulo_ = A man of that place. _Kiom-a_ = Of what
quantity. _Kioma horo estas?_ = What time is it? _Neni-igi_ = To
reduce to nothing, to destroy completely. _Neni-iĝi_ = To become
nothing, to vanish. _Tiam-a_ = Of then, of that time. _Tiam-ulo_ = A
man of that time, a contemporary. _La kial-o_ = The why and
wherefore, the reason (cause). _Tiel-e_ = In that way.


                 Indefinite.     Distributive,  Interrogative   Negative.  Demonstrative.
                                  General or     and Relative.

  Quality         IA              ĈIA            KIA           NENIA        TIA
  Kind of         some (any) kind every kind of  what kind of? no kind of   that kind of
  (adjectival)      or sort of    every          of what kind? no, no such  such a
                  some (any)      of every kind  what a!       of no kind   of that kind
                  of some kind                   ... as        (not any
                                                                  kind of)

  Motive          IAL             ĈIAL           KIAL          NENIAL       TIAL
  Reason for      for some (any)  for every      for what      for no       for that
  (adverbial)     reason or cause reason/cause    reason/cause reason/cause reason/cause
                                  for all        why? wherefore             therefore

  Time            IAM             ĈIAM           KIAM          NENIAM       TIAM
  (adverbial)     at some         always         at what time? at no time   at that time
                  (any) time      every time     when          never        then
                  ever            for all time
                  once            ever

  Place           IE              ĈIE            KIE           NENIE        TIE
  (adverbial)     in some         in every place in what place in no place  in that place
                  (any) place     everywhere     where         nowhere      there
                  somewhere                                    (not         yonder
                  (anywhere)                                     anywhere)

  Manner          IEL             ĈIEL           KIEL          NENIEL       TIEL
  (adverbial)     in some         (in) every     in what       in no        in that
                  manner/way      manner/way     manner/way    manner/way   manner/way
                  somehow         (in) every way how?          nohow        thus, so,
                  (anyhow)        all ways       ... as        by no means  like (that)
                  (in any manner)                like          not at all   as ...
                                                                            in such a manner

  Possession      IES             ĈIES           KIES          NENIES       TIES
  (pronominal)    somebody's      everybody's    whose         no one's     that one's
                  (someone's)     everyone's     of which      nobody's     of that
                  (anyone's)      each one's                      of none   of those
                                  of each, of all

  Thing           IO              ĈIO            KIO           NENIO        TIO
  (not specified) something       everything     what (thing)  nothing      that (thing)
  (substantival   (anything)      all things     which         not anything
  or pronominal)                  all

  Quantity        IOM             ĈIOM           KIOM          NENIOM       TIOM
  (adverbial)     some quantity   every quantity what quantity no quantity  that quantity
                  somewhat        all, the whole how much      none         so much/many
                  rather, some    all of it      how many      none at all  as much/many
                  a little,
                    at all

  Individuality   IU              ĈIU            KIU           NENIU        TIU
  Person or thing some one        each one, each which one     no one       that one
  (pronominal or  (anyone)        everybody      who, he who   nobody       the former
  adjectival)                     _ĉiuj_=all,    which, that
                                  all the ...

Examples of the Use of Correlative Words.

148. In the following examples (pars. 149-157) we have taken the
correlative words in the table in the nine horizontal series, since
in this way we can best show how some of the words are used in pairs.

149. Series ending in A (quality, kind of), adjectival.

Ia = _some sort of_, _some_, _a_, _an_.

Ĉia = _every_ (_each_) _kind of_, _every sort of_.

Kia = _what a_! _what kind of_? _of what kind_, _... as_.

Nenia = _no_, _no such_, _no kind of_, _of no kind_, _not any kind of_.

Ia ajn, _of any kind_ (_whatever_).

Tia = _such a_, _that kind of_, _of that kind_.

Tia ... kia = _such ... as_.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi ne havas ian libron, kiu klarigos tion?_ = Have
you not some book which will explain that?

_Mi havas ian ideon kiel ĝin fari_ = I have some (_or_, an) idea how
to do it.

_Ekster ĉia dubo_ = Beyond any (every sort of) doubt.

_Tiaj frazoj troviĝas en ĉiaj libroj_ = Such (kind of) phrases are
found in all kinds (sorts) of (_or_, in any) books.

_Ni ne scias, kiel ili fariĝis tiaj, kiaj ili estas_ = We do not
know how they became what (such as) they are.

_Nenia antaŭa sperto estas necesa_ = No (kind of) previous
experience is necessary.

_Tian virinon oni ĉiam estimas_ = Such a woman one always esteems.

_Mi donis al li la libron tian, kia ĝi estas_ = I gave him the book
such as it was.

_Kiun aĝon li havas?_ = How old is he? (what age has he?)

_Kia estas la vetero?_ = How (what kind) is the weather?

_Komencante de (k)ia ajn momento_ = Commencing at any (whatever)

_Kia bela domo!_ = What a beautiful house!

_Kiaj estas la kondiĉoj?_ = What are the stipulations (or terms)?

_Ili estas fieraj, ni ne estas tiaj_ = They are proud, we are not so.

_Ŝi eksentis ion tian, kion ŝi mem komence ne povis kompreni_ = She
began to feel something such as she herself at first could not

_Mi ĵus eksciis iajn aferojn, kiuj ne plaĉas al mi_ = I have just
learnt some things that do not please me (that I do not like).

_Jen estas la monumento tia, kian oni priskribis_ = Here is the
monument such as they described.

_Via aĝo estas tia sama, kiel tiu de via frato_ = Your age is the
same as your brother's.

N.B.--Do not confuse the series ending in _A_ with that ending in _U_.

Examples.--_Kian libron vi bezonas?_ = What (sort of) book do you
want? _Kiun libron vi bezonas?_ = What (_or_ which) book do you want?
_Tia homo_ = Such a man, that sort of man. _Tiu homo_ = That man.
_Ĉiaj libroj_ = All (kinds of) books. _Ĉiuj libroj_ = All (_or_,
all the) books. _Mi ĝin prenos, kia ajn ĝi estas_ = I shall take it
whatever (sort of thing) it is.

150. Series ending in AL (motive, reason for), adverbial.

Ial = _for some reason or cause_ (_for any reason_)

Ĉial = _for all reasons_, _for every reason_, _for every cause_.

Ial ajn, _for any reason_ (_whatever_).

Kial = _why?_ _wherefore_, _for what reason_.

Nenial = _for no reason, or cause_.

Tial = _therefore_, _for that reason_.

Examples.--_Ial li subite forlasis Londonon_ = For some reason he
suddenly left London.

_Ĉial tio estas la plej bona_ = For every reason that is the best.

_Kial vi ne respondis?_ = Why did you not answer?

_Li nenial ĉesis skribi al mi_ = He for no reason ceased writing to

_Ŝi neniam volis sekvi mian konsilon, tial mi forlasis ŝin_ = She
never would follow my advice, therefore I forsook her.

_Mi ne povas imagi kial ajn li ĝin faris_ = I cannot imagine why
ever he did it.

151. Series ending in AM (time), adverbial.

Iam = _ever_, _at some time_ (_any time_), _once_, _one day_, _once
upon a time_.

Ĉiam = _always_, _for all time_, _ever_, _at every time_.

Kiam = _when_, _at what time_, _as_ (relating to time).

Neniam = _never_, _at no time_.

Tiam = _then_, _at that time_.

Examples.--_Se iam mi venos_ = If ever I come (shall come).

_Ĉiam skribu legeble_ = Always write legibly.

_En tiaj okazoj ĉiam mankas io_ = On such occasions something is
always wanting.

_Kiam vi skribis tiel?_ = When did you write like that (thus)?

_Kiam la pastro venos, diru al li la veron_ = When the priest comes
(shall come), tell him the truth.

_Tiam, kiam mi estis riĉa, mi ne estis feliĉa_, or, _Kiam mi estis
riĉa, tiam mi ne estis feliĉa_ = At that time when (_or_, when) I
was rich I was not happy, _or_, When I was rich then I was not happy,
or the sentence might be simply _Kiam mi estis riĉa, mi ne estis
feliĉa_ = When I was rich I was not happy.

_Mi neniam skribas longajn leterojn_ = I never write long letters.

_Mi neniam aŭdis tion_ = I never heard that.

_Sendu lin al mi, kiam ajn li venos_ = Send him to me whenever he

_Kiam ajn li venos?_ = Whenever will he come?

N.B.--Kiam is used after tiam, and any word denoting "time"
except antaŭ = _before_, when ol is generally used, though
kiam is used occasionally after antaŭ also (see par. 259 (3)).

Examples.--_Unutage, kiam_ = One day, when. _Iun tagon, kiam_ = On a
day, when. _Tuj kiam_ = As soon as, immediately when. _Samtempe,
kiam_ = At the same time, when. _De l' tempo kiam_ = From the time
when, since. _Post kiam_ = After. _Antaŭ ol li venis_ = Before he

152. Series ending in E (place), adverbial.

Ie = _somewhere_ (_anywhere_), _in some_ (_any_) _place_.

Ĉie = _everywhere_, _in every place_, _in all places_.

Ie ajn, _anywhere_ (_whatever_).

Kie = _where_, _in what place_, _in which place_.

Tie = _there_, _yonder_, _in that place_. Ĉi tie or tie ĉi =
_here_, _in this place_.

Examples.--_Mi ne povis trovi mian libron ie en la ĉambro_ = I could
_not_ find my book _any_where in the room.

_Ĉu vi metis ĝin ien?_ = Did you put it anywhere (somewhere)?

_Ĉie mi trovis amikojn_ = Everywhere I found friends.

_Tion oni povas aĉeti ĉie_ = That can be bought (one can buy)
anywhere (everywhere).

_Kien vi iras?_ = Where are you going?

_Mi iras nenien_ = I am going nowhere.

_Kie estas la poŝtoficejo?_ = Where is the post office?

_Ĝi estas tie, kie staras tiu domo_ = It is there where that house

_Kien vi iras?_ = Whither are you going?

_Mi iras tien_ = I am going thither.

_Ĉu vi estas ĉi tie?_ = Are you here?

_Li venas ĉi tien_ = He is coming here.

_Kie ajn li estas?_ = Wherever is he?

_Kie ajn li estas, li ne estas tie ĉi_ = Wherever he is, he is not

153. Series in EL (manner), adverbial.

Iel--_somehow_ (_anyhow_), _in some way_, _in some manner_.

Iel ajn, _in any way_ (_whatever_).

Ĉiel = _in every way_, _in every manner_, _in all ways_.

Kiel = _how_, _in what manner_, _like_, ... _as_.

Neniel = _nohow_, _in no manner_, _not at all_, _by no means_.

Tiel = _thus_, _in that manner_, _like_ (_that_), _so_, _as_ ...

Tiel ... kiel (in comparison) = _as ... as_; _so ... as_.

Examples.--_Iel li ĉiel sukcesas_ = Somehow he succeeds in every

_Mi havis nenian ideon, kiel ĝin fari_ = I had no idea how to do it.

_Kiel vi fartas?_ = How do you do? _or_, How are you?

_Ŝi neniel povis lin kompreni tiel longe, kiel li parolis la lingvon
francan_ = She could nohow (_or_, not at all) understand him as long
as he spoke in the French language.

_Same kiel la prudento estas donita al la homo, tiel la instinkto
estas donita al la besto_ = Just as reason has been given to man, so
instinct has been given to beasts.

_Kaj tiel plu_ (often written _k.t.p._) = And so on, and so forth.

_Kiel eble plej baldaŭ (k.e.p.b.)_ = As soon as possible.

_Li estas tiel forta, kiel vi_ = He is as strong as you.

_Kiel ajn malmulte_ = However little.

154. Series ending in ES (possession), pronominal; relate to thing
or person, singular or plural.

Ies = _somebody's_, _someone's_ (_anyone's_, _anybody's_).

Ĉies = _everyone's_, _each one's_, _of each_, _of all_.

Kies = _whose_, _of whom_, _of which_.

Nenies = _no one's_, _nobody's_, _of none_.

Ties = _that one's_, _of that_, _of those_.

Examples.--_Ĉies devo estas nenies_ = Anybody's (everybody's) duty
is nobody's.

_Ies perdo ne estas ĉiam ies gajno_ = Someone's loss is not always
somebody's gain.

_Ĉies ideo estis diversa_ = Everyone's idea was different.

_Kies libro estas tiu ĉi?_ = Whose book is this?

_Kies plumon vi uzas?_ = Whose pen are you using?

_La domo, kies tegmenton vi vidas, apartenas al mia patro_ = The
house the roof of which you see belongs to my father.

_El kies ĉiuj paŝoj, oni povas konkludi, ke ili estas lacaj_ = From
all of whose steps we can conclude that they are tired.

_Tiu libro estas tre malpura, kies ajn ĝi estas_ = That book is very
dirty, whosesoever it is.

_Ties opinio ne multe valoras_ = That one's opinion is not worth

_Mi neniam sekvas ties konsilon_ = I never take (follow) that one's
(his, her, their) advice.

N.B.--Be careful not to use _kies_ for "of which," when these words
do not mean possession. We cannot say _La afero kies ni parolis_ for
"The affair of which we spoke"; we must say _La afero, pri kiu ni

155. Series ending in O (thing (not specified) indefinite),
substantival or pronominal.

Io = _something_.

Io ajn, _anything_ (_whatever_).

Ĉio = _everything_, _all things_, _all_.

Kio = _what_ (_thing_), _which_.

Nenio = _nothing_, _not any thing_.

Tio = _that_ (_thing_). Ĉi tio or tio ĉi = _this_ (_thing_).

Examples.--_Kio estas tio, kion vi skribas?_ = What is that (_or_,
that which) you are writing?

_Io estis sub la tablo, sed mi ne povis vidi ion tie_ = Something was
under the table, but I could not see anything (something) there.

_Li vidis ion, kion li tre amis_ = He saw something he liked very

_Estas tempo por ĉio_ = There is a time for everything.

_Ĉio_ (_tio_) _ĉi montras, ke_ ... = All this shows that ...

_Ĉio, kion mi havas, estas_ (_la_) _via_ = All I have is yours.

_Kio estas tio ĉi, kion mi vidas?_ = What is this that I see?

_Nenio estas preta_ = Nothing is ready.

_Mi nenion trovis_ = I found nothing.

_Tio havas malbonan odoron, kio ajn ĝi estas_ = It (that) has a bad
smell, whatever it is.

_Li ne diris eĉ unu vorton pri ĉio tio ĉi_ (or, _ĉio ĉi_) _al
iu_ = He did not say even one word about all this to anyone.

156. Series ending in OM (quantity), adverbial.

Iom = _somewhat_, _some quantity_, _rather_, _a little_, _some_.

Ĉiom = _all_, _all of it_, _the whole_, _every quantity_.

Kiom = _how much_, _how many_, _what quantity_.

Neniom = _none_, _none at all_, _no quantity_.

Tiom = _so much_, _so many_, _as much_, _as many_, _that quantity_.

Tiom ... kiom = _as much_ (_many_) ... _as_.

Examples.--_La vetero estas iom pli varma_ = The weather is somewhat
(a little) warmer.

_Jen estas sukero, prenu iom, sed ne ĉiom_ = Here is sugar, take
some, but not all (the whole).

_Kiom da ĉevaloj vi havas?_ = How many horses have you?

_Mi havas neniom_ = I have none (none at all).

_Tiom pli bone_ = So much the better.

_Tiom estas malfacile memori_ = So much is difficult to remember.

_Donu al mi tiom da akvo, kiom da vino_ = Give me as much water as

_Kiom vi scias_ = As far (much) as you know.

_Kiom eble_ = As far (much) (many) as possible.

_Kiom ajn da teo tiu kesto povas enhavi, tiu ĉi povas enhavi duoble
tiom_ = Whatever quantity (however much) of tea that chest will (can)
hold, this one will hold twice as much.

157. Series ending in U (persons or specified things), pronominal
or adjectival.

Iu = _someone_, _somebody_.

Iu ajn, _anyone (whatever)_.

Ĉiu = _everyone_, _each one_. Ĉiuj = _all_, _all (of) the_....

Kiu = _who_, _which_, _that_, _which one_.

Neniu = _nobody_, _no one_, _no_.

Tiu = _that (one)_, _the former_. Ĉi tiu, or tiu ĉi = _this one_,
_the latter_. Tiuj, _those_; Ĉi tiuj, _these_.

Examples.--_Iu estas tie_ = Someone is there.

_Mi ne vidis iun_ = I did not see anyone (someone).

_Ĉiu aĝo havas siajn devojn_ = Each age has its duties.

_Ŝi legis ĉiun libron, kiun ŝi povis ricevi_ = She read every book
she could get.

_Kiu estas en la ĝardeno?_ = Who is in the garden?

_Mi konis ĉiun viron, kiun mi renkontis_ = I knew every man whom I

_Mi legis ĉiujn librojn, kiujn vi pruntis al mi_ = I read all the
books that you lent to me.

_Tiu pano estas freŝa, sed tiu ĉi estas pli freŝa_ = That bread is
new, but this is newer.

_Tiu, kiu havas la harojn nigrajn_ = He who has the black hair.

_Neniu estis tie, tial mi vidis neniun_ = No one was there, therefore
I saw nobody.

_Tiu homo, kiu ajn li estas, ne estas malsaĝulo_ = That man, whoever
he is, is not a fool.

_Ŝi fariĝis edzino de iu bankiero, kiun ŝi konis pli bone, ol_
ĉiun _alian_ = She became wife of a certain (someone, a) banker,
whom she knew better than _any_one (everyone) else.

Ĉiu _vorto povas esti kombinata kun ĉiu alia_ = Any (each) word
can be combined with _any_ (each) other word.

_Li pli sincere malĝojis je li, ol_ (k)iu _ajn el liaj parencoj_ =
He was more sincerely sorry for him, than _any_ of his relations.

_La pafilo povos en_ ĉiu _tempo (ĉiam) esti ŝargita_ = The gun
can be (will be able to be) loaded at _any_ time.

_Li ne permesos al_ (k)iu ajn _tion fari_ = He will not allow
_anyone_ (whatever) to do that (see par. 158 (_d_)).

158. General Remarks.--The foregoing remarks on the correlative
words show the importance of a correct knowledge of their true
meanings. Twenty or more of them will be found in nearly every page
of the "Krestomatio." Note the following difference in meaning of
those ending in:--

(_a_). -_AL_ and -_EL_. It will be noticed that the series _AL_
represent phrases in English commencing with "for," as:--"for some
reason," "for every reason," etc.; whereas in the series _EL_ the
phrases commence with "in," as:--"in some way," "in every way." Bear
in mind that -_AL_ relates to _motive_, and -_EL_ to _manner_. Note
the difference of meaning in tial and tiel when followed by ke.
Tial, ke = _for the reason that_, _forasmuch as_, _because that_.
Tiel, ke = _in such a manner that_, _so that_. Some beginners seem
to think that kial and kiel have no difference in meaning, which
is equivalent to using "why" and "how" indiscriminately. Kial li
faras tion? = _Why_ (_for what reason_) _is he doing that?_ Kiel li
faras tion? = _How_ (_in what way_) _is he doing that?_

(_b_). -_O_ and -_U_. The series _O_ is rarely used in the plural; it
relates to things which are not mentioned by name or referred to by a
personal pronoun. _Examples_.--Kio estas tio? = _What is that?_
Kiu estas tiu? = _Who is that?_ Tiu estas mia frato, kiu
promenadas kun sia edzino = _That is my brother who is walking with
his wife._ Tio estas, kion mi bezonis = _That is what I wanted._
Tio, kio kreskas en mia ĝardeno, estas arbo = _That which is
growing in my garden is a tree._ Tiu arbo, kiu kreskas en mia
ĝardeno, estas kverko = _That tree, which is growing in my garden,
is an oak._

Tio is sometimes used for "it," relating to both persons and
things, as:--_Tio_ (or, _ĝi_) _estis mi, kiu lin vidis_ = It was I
who saw him. _Tio estas ponto_ = It (that) is a bridge.

(_c_). -_I_: "_ANY_" (= _SOME_). It will be seen from the table of
Correlative Words on pages 98, 99, that the words in the column
commencing with _I_ have as their main idea _indefiniteness_,
corresponding to the English _some_ (_or other_). Thus: Li estas ie
= _he is somewhere_ (_or other_). Mi manĝos ion = _I shall eat
something_ (_or other_). Iu faris tion = _Someone_ (_or other_)
_did that._

In English, especially in a sentence which is negative,
interrogative, or suppositional, the word _any_ is often used in this
sense instead of the word _some_. In such cases (as shown in brackets
in the table) the i- words may be translated with _any_; thus: Ĉu
vi manĝis ion? = _Did you eat anything_ (_something_)_?_ Mi ne
manĝos ion = _I shall not eat anything._ Se li estus ie en la
ĉambro = _If he were anywhere_ (_somewhere_) _in the room._ Ĉu iu
faris tion? = _Did anyone_ (_someone_) _do that?_ Mi ne konas iun,
kiu povus = _I do not know anyone who could._ Se iu faris tion
= _If anyone did that_....

(_d_). "_ANY_" (= _ANY WHATEVER_). Sometimes, however, the word _any_
is used not with the meaning of _some_ (as in the preceding
paragraph), but with the meaning _any whatever_. Take, for example,
the questions: _What will you eat for breakfast? Where shall we go?_
The answers might be: _Oh, anything_ (_you like_, _it doesn't matter
what_); and _Anywhere_ (_you like_). This meaning of _any_ (_any
whatever_) may be expressed in various ways: (1) By a k-word
followed by ajn, thus: Kion ajn, Kien ajn (the words vi volas
or similar words being understood). (2) By an i-word followed by
ajn, thus: Ion ajn, Ien ajn. Method 1 is usually adopted by
Zamenhof, but method 2 is increasingly used. (3) Sometimes a
ĉ-word may be used. Thus, the sentence: _Anyone could do that_,
may be translated: Kiu ajn (or, Iu ajn, or, Ĉiu) povus tion

(_e_). _AJN_. The word ajn is used not only as shown in the
preceding paragraph, but also after the k-series, to correspond to
the English _-ever_ (see par. 248 (_b_)). It is also occasionally
used with the ĉ-series and the nen-series, thus: Mi serĉis lin
ĉie ajn = _I looked for him absolutely everywhere._ Li estas nenie
ajn = _He was nowhere at all, absolutely nowhere._

THE VERB (La Verbo).

159. There are no irregular verbs in Esperanto. Every verb is
conjugated exactly the same.

160. The following are the grammatical terminations of all verbs,
from which it will be seen that there are only three tenses (see
pars. 214-236), three moods (see pars. 171-202), and six
participles (see pars. 203-213).

TENSES. (Indicative Mood.)

  -AS, Present, as: Mi faras = _I do_, or, _make_.
  -IS, Past, as: Vi faris = _you did_, or, _have_ (or, _had) done_.
  -OS, Future, as: Ili faros = _they will do_.


-US, as: Se mi farus = _if I did_, or, _should_ (or, _would) do_,
or, _were to do._


-U, as: Diru al li, ke li tion faru = _tell him to do that_
(lit., _that he do that_). Ni faru tion = _let us do that_.


-I, as: Fari = _to do_.


-ANTA, Active, Present, as: Faranta = _doing_.
  Farante (adv.) = _in_ (_when_, or, other prep.) _doing_.

-INTA, Active, Past, as: Farinta = _having done_.
  Farinte (adv.) = _in having done_.

-ONTA, Active, Future, as: Faronta = (_being_) _about to do._
  Faronte (adv.) = _on being about to do_.

-ATA, Passive, Present, as: Farata = _being done_, or, _done_.
  Farate (adv.) = _on being done_.

-ITA, Passive, Past, as: Farita = _been done_, or, _having been done_.
  Farite (adv.) = _on having been done_.

-OTA, Passive, Future, as: Farota = (_being_) _about to be done_.
  Farote (adv.) = _on being about to be done_.

N.B.--For examples of the noun-participles see par. 209.


There are two classes of verbs--transitive and intransitive.

Transitive Verbs (_transitivaj verboj_).

161. A transitive verb has two forms or voices, the active and
the passive.

(_a_). A verb is in the active voice when the subject is acting
upon the object. The object then, being governed by the verb, must be
in the accusative case; as:--Johano batis la hundon = _John beat
the dog_. Here Johano is the subject acting upon hundon, the
object; therefore hundon is in the accusative.

(_b_). A transitive verb is in the passive voice when the subject
is acted upon; as:--La hundo estis batata de Johano = _The dog was
(being) beaten by John_. The preposition "by" or "with," preceding
the complement of a verb in the passive voice, is de or per. De
is used for the agent, and per for the means or manner, as:--La
domo konstruita de mia patro estas kovrita per ardezoj = _The house
built by my father is (having been) covered with slates_.

Intransitive Verbs (_netransitivaj verboj_).

162. An intransitive verb expresses an action confined to the
actor, as:--Johano dormas = _John sleeps_, or, _is sleeping_.
Intransitive verbs have therefore no object and no passive voice.

Auxiliary Verb (_helpa verbo_).

163. There is but one auxiliary verb in Esperanto, esti = _to
be_. This verb is used to form the passive voice, and also all the
compound tenses of the active voice. The verb havi = _to have_ is
in no sense an auxiliary, but is an ordinary active verb denoting
ownership, and governing the accusative case, as: Mi havas libron =
_I have a book_.

In Esperanto the following and other verbs are often used where
English would usually employ "to be," viz., kuŝi = _to lie_;
sidi = to be situate; sin trovi = _to find oneself_; troviĝi
= _to be found_; stari = _to stand_; farti, or, stati = _to be_
(_well_ or _ill_).

Examples.--_La krajono kuŝas (estas) sur la tablo_ = The pencil is
(lies) on the table. _Sur la kameno staris (estis) fera kaldrono, en
kiu sin trovis (estis) bolanta akvo; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovis
(estis) apud la pordo, la vaporo iris sur la korton_ = On the hearth
was (stood) an iron kettle, in which was (found itself) boiling
water; through the window, which was near the door, steam went out
into (on to) the yard. _Kiel statas via tuso?_ = How is your cough?

Impersonal Use of Verbs.

164. Verbs used impersonally (_senpersone_) express a fact or
action without indicating any person as the subject or actor. In
English they are used only in the third person singular, preceded by
"it," but in Esperanto they are entirely impersonal. The following
are cases of their impersonal use:--

(_a_). Verbs which relate to the weather.

Examples.--_Pluvas_ = It rains. _Pluvos_ = It will rain. _Fulmis_ =
It lightened. _Neĝus_ = It would snow. _Hajlis_ = It hailed.

(_b_). Verbs which are generally used with the subject expressed, but
occasionally without.

Examples.--_Okazas_ = It happens. _Ŝajnos_ = It will seem.
_Prosperis al mi trovi_ = It was my fortune to find.

(_c_). The verb esti = to be, when used with an adjective-adverb,
or passive participle-adverb.

Examples.--_Estas pli bone forkuri_ = It is better to run away.
_Estas dirite, ke_ ... = It is said that ...

(_d_). In the compound tenses the participle takes the adverbial
form, since there is no noun or pronoun with which it can agree (see
par. 245).

Examples.--_Se estus pluvinte hieraŭ, ni ne estus povintaj eliri_ =
If it had (should have) rained yesterday, we should not have been
able to go out. _Mi tondigos la herbon, kiam estos pluvinte_ = I
shall get the grass cut, when it has (will have) rained.

Reflexive Verbs (_refleksivaj verboj_).

165. Reflexive verbs show the action of the subject on itself. They
are used only when the subject really acts on itself, and not, as in
many other languages, on other occasions (see par. 128 on the use of
the reflexive pronoun si, and par. 170, conjugation of a reflexive

Examples.--_Mi lavas min_ = I wash myself. _Li lavis sin_ = He washed
himself. _Vi razos vin_ = You will shave yourself. _Ili vestis sin_ =
They dressed themselves.

166. When there are more subjects than one, and the act goes from one
to another of the subjects, the word reciproke, or the expression
unu la alian, may be used. With the latter the personal pronoun is
not repeated.

Examples.--_Ili batis sin reciproke_, or, _Ili batis unu la alian_ =
They beat one another. _Ili ĵetis terbulojn al la kapo unu de la
alia_ = They threw clods (lumps of earth) at one another's heads.


The following are the simple tenses and moods of esti, by the aid
of which all the _compound_ tenses in the active voice and _all_ the
tenses in the passive voice of every verb in Esperanto are formed.
The compound tenses of esti, such as mi estas estanta = _I am
being_, etc., are very rarely used.


Esti = _to be_.


  Present, Estanta = being.
  Past, Estinta = _been_, or, _having been_.
  Future, Estonta = _about to be_, or, _going to be_.

Note that participles take the plural _J_ and accusative _N_ if
required (see par. 207); also the adverbial _E_ (see par. 209 (_c_)).



  Mi estas = _I am._
  Vi, ci estas = _You (thou) are (art)._
  Li, ŝi, ĝi, oni estas = _He_, _she_, _it_, _one is_.
  Ni estas = _We are._
  Vi estas = _You are._
  Ili estas = _They are._

N.B.--The pronoun ci = _thou_ is rarely used.


  Mi estis = _I was._
  Vi estis = _You were._
  Li, etc. estis = _He was._
  Ni estis = _We were._
  Vi estis = _You were._
  Ili estis = _They were._


  Singular. Mi estos = _I shall be._
            Vi estos = _You will be._
            Li, etc. estos = _He will be._
  Plural.   Ni estos = _We shall be._
            Vi estos = _You will be._
            Ili estos = _They will be._


The Conditional or US mood has no tenses (see par. 192). We can
show its meaning best by using the conjunction se, which frequently
introduces it. It has no time value in itself, and may relate to the
past, present, or future.

  Sing.   (Se) Mi estus = _(If) I should be_, _were_, _had been_.
          (Se) Vi estus = _(If) you would_, _were_, _had been_.
          (Se) Li, etc. estus = _(If) he would_, _were_, _had been_.
  Plural. (Se) Ni estus = _(If) we would_, _were_, _had been_.
          (Se) Vi estus = _(If) you would_, _were_, _had been_.
          (Se) Ili estus = _(If) they would_, _were_, _had been_.


The imperative or U mood has no tenses.

The following is its form and meaning in a chief proposition (see
par. 199).

  Singular. Mi estu = _Let me be._
            Estu = _Be_, or, _be you_, or, _be thou_.
            Li, ŝi, ĝi, estu = _Let him_, _her_, _it be_.
  Plural.   Ni estu = _Let us be._
            Estu = _Be_, or, _be you_, or, _be ye_.
            Ili estu = _Let them be_.

The following is its meaning in a dependent proposition, which is
usually introduced by the conjunction ke = _that_ (par. 200).

  Sing.   (Ke) Mi estu = _(That) I_        }
          (Ke) Vi estu = (That) _you_      }
          (Ke) Li, etc. estu = (That) _he_ }(_may_, _might_, _should_) _be_.
  Plural. (Ke) Ni estu = (That) _we_       }
          (Ke) Vi estu = (That) _you_      }
          (Ke) Ili estu = (That) _they_    }


The conjugation of the compound forms is given in par. 169. When
simple forms sufficiently convey the meaning, they are preferable to
the compound forms.


  Simple _Present_, Teni = _To hold._
  Compound _Present_, Esti tenanta = _To be holding._
  Compound _Past_, Esti teninta = _To have held._
  Compound _Future_, Esti tenonta = _To be about_ (or, _going_) _to hold_.


  _Present_, Tenanta = _Holding._
  _Past_, Teninta = _Having held._
  _Future_, Tenonta = _About_ (or, _going_) _to hold_.


Present (Simple).

  Sing.   Mi tenas = _I hold_, _am holding_, _do hold_.
          Vi (or, ci) tenas = _You hold_, _are holding_, _do hold_.
          Li, ŝi, ĝi tenas = _He_, _she_, _it holds_, _is holding_,
                                 _does hold_.
  Plural. Ni tenas = _We hold_, _are holding_, _do hold_.
          Vi tenas = _You_ (or, _ye_) _hold_, _are holding_, _do hold_.
          Ili tenas = _They hold_, _are holding_, _do hold_.

N.B.--Ci = _thou_ is rarely used. Vi = _you_ is used, as in
English, for both singular and plural; but when vi is plural, the
participle in compound tenses takes the plural _J_.

Past (Simple).

Mi, vi, etc., tenis = _I_, _you_, etc., _held_, _have_ (or,
_had_) _held_, _was holding_, _did hold_.

Future (Simple).

Mi, vi, etc., tenos = _I_, _you_, etc., _shall hold_, or,
_shall be holding_.


The translation of this mood into English depends upon the context,
viz., whether we use the auxiliaries "should," "would," "were,"
"had," or simply the English past tense. It is frequently introduced
by the conjunction se = _if_ (see pars. 190-194).

(Se) mi tenus = (_If_) _I held_, or, _should hold_, or, _should
be holding_, or, _were holding_, or, _were to hold_, or, _had held_.


  Singular. Mi tenu = _Let me hold._
            Tenu = _Hold._
            Li, ŝi, ĝi, tenu = _Let him, her, it hold._
  Plural.   Ni tenu = _Let us hold._
            Tenu = _Hold._
            Ili tenu = _Let them hold._

  Sing.   (Ke) mi tenu = (_That_) _I_      }
          (Ke) vi (or, ci) tenu = (_That_) }
             _you_ (or, _thou_)            }
          (Ke) li tenu = (_That_) _he_     }_may_, _might_, _should hold._
  Plural. (Ke) ni tenu = (_That_) _we_     }
          (Ke) vi tenu = (_That_) _you_    }
             (or, _ye_)                    }
          (Ke) ili tenu = (_That_) _they_  }

(See remarks on the Imperative mood, pars. 195-202).


169. The following shows the compound tenses in the active and
passive voices, and the compound forms of the conditional and
imperative moods:--For the three persons of the plural add _J_ to the
participle (see pars. 173, 174, 235, 236).

  The Present in the
      Mi estas tenanta = _I am holding._
      Mi estas tenata = _I am_ (_being_) _held._
      Mi estis tenanta = _I was holding._
      Mi estis tenata = _I was_ (_being_) _held._
      Mi estos tenanta = _I shall be holding._
      Mi estos tenata = _I shall be_ (_being_) _held._

  The Past in the
      Mi estas teninta = _I have held._
      Mi estas tenita = _I have been_, or, _was held._
      Mi estis teninta = _I had held._
      Mi estis tenita = _I had been held_, or, _was held_,
        if the action is completed.
      Mi estos teninta = _I shall have held._
      Mi estos tenita = _I shall have been held._

  The Future in the
      Mi estas tenonta = _I am about_ (or, _going_) _to hold._
      Mi estas tenota = _I am about_ (or, _going_) _to be held._
      Mi estis tenonta = _I was about_ (or, _going_) _to hold._
      Mi estis tenota = _I was about_ (or, _going_) _to be held._
      Mi estos tenonta = _I shall be about to hold._
      Mi estos tenota = _I shall be about to be held._


Active Voice (Compound Form) and the Passive Voice.

  Se mi estus tenanta = _If I should be_, or, _were_, _holding_.
  Se mi estus tenata = _If I should be_ or, _were (being) held_,
    or, _if I be held._
  Se mi estus teninta = _If I should have held_, or, _if I had held._
  Se mi estus tenita = _If I should have been held_, or, _if I had
    been_, or, _were, held._
  Se mi estus tenonta = _If I should be_, or, _were, about to hold._
  Se mi estus tenota = _If I should be about to be held._

N.B.--In the active voice use the simple form instead of the present
and past participle, unless the compound form is necessary to
emphasize the meaning. For instance, in the sentence "He would not
have struck me if you had held him," we use the past participle to
show the anteriority, but we need not use it for the first clause; so
we say:--_Li ne frapus min, se vi estus teninta lin_. If we use the
simple form, _Li ne frapus min, se vi tenus lin_, it would be
read:--"He would not strike me if you held him," unless the context
clearly showed the action was completed. We could, however, use the
adverb _antaŭe_ instead of the compound form, and say:--_Li ne
frapus min, se vi antaŭe tenus lin_ = He would not have struck me if
you had held him (lit., if you beforehand held him) (see par. 226 (_a_)
and remarks on the Conditional mood, pars. 190-194).


Active Voice (Compound Form) and the Passive Voice.

(Por ke) mi estu tenanta = _(In order that) I may be holding._

(Por ke) mi estu tenata = _(In order that) I may be held._

(Por ke) mi estu teninta = _(In order that) I may have held_, or,
_might hold_.

(Por ke) mi estu tenita = _(In order that) I may have been held_,
or, _might be held_.

(Por ke) mi estu tenonta = _(In order that) I may be about to hold._

(Por ke) mi estu tenota = _(In order that) I may be about to be held._

(See remarks on the Imperative mood, pars. 195-202.)



Present (Simple).

  Singular. Mi lavas min = _I wash myself._
            Vi lavas vin = _You wash yourself._
            Li, ŝi, ĝi, lavas sin = _He, she, it washes himself_,
              _herself, itself_.
  Plural.   Ni lavas nin = _We wash ourselves._
            Vi lavas vin = _You_, _ye wash yourselves._
            Ili lavas sin = _They wash themselves._

Present (Compound), with the Three Participles.

  Ili ne estas lavantaj sin = _They are not washing themselves._
  Ĉu ni estas lavintaj nin? = _Have we washed ourselves?_
    (lit., _are we having washed ourselves?_)
  Mi estas lavonta min = _I am about_ (or, _going_) _to wash myself_.

Past (Simple).

  Ŝi ne lavis sin = _She did not wash herself._
  Ĉu ni lavis nin? = _Did we wash ourselves?_
  Ĉu ili ne lavis sin? = _Did they not wash themselves?_

Past (Compound), with the Three Participles.

  Kiam vi estis lavantaj vin? = _When were you washing yourselves?_
  Ni estis lavintaj nin = _We had washed ourselves._
  Kiam li estis lavonta sin? = _When was he about_ (or, _going_)
    _to wash himself_?

Future (Simple).

  Ĉu ni lavos nin? = _Shall we wash ourselves?_
  Li ne lavos sin = _He will not wash himself._

Future (Compound), with the Three Participles.

  Ŝi estos lavanta sin = _She will be washing herself._
  Kiam li estos lavinta sin? = _When will he have washed himself?_
  Mi estos lavonta min = _I shall be about_ (or, _going_)
    _to wash myself_.


  Se li lavus sin = _If he should wash himself._
  Ĉu ŝi lavus sin, se...? = _Would she wash herself, if...?_

Conditional (Compound), with the Three Participles.

  Se ni estus lavantaj nin kiam.... = _If we should be washing
    ourselves when_....
  Ĉu ili estus lavintaj sin, se.... = _Would they have washed
    themselves if_...?
  Se li estus lavonta sin kiam.... = _If he should be about to
    wash himself when_....

IMPERATIVE, OR "U" MOOD (Simple Form).

  Singular. Mi lavu min = _Let me wash myself._
            Mi ne lavu min = _Let me not wash myself._
            Lavu vin = _Wash yourself._
            Ne lavu vin = _Do not wash yourself._
            Li lavu sin = _Let him wash himself._
            Li ne lavu sin = _Let him not wash himself._
  Plural.   Ni lavu nin = _Let us wash ourselves._
            Ni ne lavu nin = _Let us not wash ourselves._
            Lavu vin  = _Wash yourselves._
            Ne lavu vin = _Do not wash yourselves._
            Ili lavu sin = _Let them wash themselves._
            Ili ne lavu sin = _Let them not wash themselves._

MOODS (Modoj).

171 (_a_). The moods in Esperanto differ from those in English.
They are three in number, the Conditional, Imperative, and
Infinitive. Dr. Zamenhof makes no mention of any other mood. In
Rule 6 (see par. 94) he mentions only the three tenses:--Present,
ending in _-AS_, Past, in _-IS_, Future, in _-OS_; the Conditional
(kondiĉa) mood in _-US_, the Imperative (ordona) mood in _-U_,
and the Infinitive (sendifina) mood in _-I_; the three Active
Participles:--Present, _-ANT-_, Past, _-INT-_, Future, _-ONT-_,
and the three Passive Participles:--Present, _-AT-_, Past, _-IT-_,
Future, _-OT-_. These twelve forms serve amply to represent all
the various tenses and moods in English. However, to make the
forms of the verb clearer to the student accustomed to the use
of our indicative mood, we have called the tenses _-AS_, _-IS_,
_-OS_, by that name.

(_b_). There is no Subjunctive mood, and it is not required. This
mood has been defined as one governed by conjunctions, but since
conjunctions have no bearing on any mood in Esperanto, it is clear
that a mood, under the name of "subjunctive," is not required (see
remarks on ke, par. 198).

The English Subjunctive, in the Present and Perfect, is represented
by the Esperanto Imperative, and in the Pluperfect, Future, and
Future Perfect, by the Esperanto Conditional mood. The auxiliaries
"may" and "might" of the English Subjunctive are often rendered by
the aid of such verbs as _permesi_, _povi_, or some word expressing
possibility, as _eble_ (see par. 237 (_m_)).

172. The mood to be used in Esperanto is determined solely by the
meaning the speaker wishes to convey, and as Esperanto is a purely
logical language, we must be careful not to pedantically copy our
own, but to use the logical mood and tense required by the ideas we
wish to convey. If, therefore, we translate English literally into
Esperanto, we may, in some points, be misunderstood by a foreigner,
although our translation might be perfectly clear to an Englishman.
For instance, our verbs in the present and past tenses of the
Indicative and Subjunctive moods have the same inflection in the
first person singular and in the three persons of the plural. In
Esperanto there is no such ambiguity. In such a phrase as "If they
were rich, they would be happy," we must be careful to use the proper
mood. Both the first and second propositions are conditional or
suppositive, therefore in Esperanto the Conditional mood is logically
employed, as:--Se ili estus riĉaj, ili estus feliĉaj = _If they
were rich, they would be happy_. There is nothing of the past in the
first proposition; the idea to be conveyed is of something that has
not occurred, but which might occur.


173. The Infinitive mood in the active voice is formed by adding
_-I_ to the root of the verb for the simple tense, and by the
auxiliary verb esti = _to be_ with one of the active participles
_-ANTA_, _-INTA_, _-ONTA_ of the verb for the compound tenses, as:--

  Present (simple), Skribi = _To write_.
  Present (compound), Esti skribanta = _To be writing_
    (lit., _to be being-writing_).
  Past (compound), Esti skribinta = _To have written_
    (lit., _to be having-written_).
  Future (compound), Esti skribonta = _To be about to write_
    (lit., _to be being-about-to-write_).

174. The passive voice is formed by the verb esti and one of the
passive participles, _-ATA_, _-ITA_, _-OTA_.

Present, Esti skribata = _To be written_ (lit., _to be

Past, Esti skribita = _To have been written_ (lit., _to be

Future, Esti skribota = _To be about to be written_.

175. The Infinitive mood expresses the state of action denoted by the

176. In Esperanto the infinitive is almost always used without a
preposition, whereas in English the preposition "to" nearly always
precedes the verb.

Examples.--_Mi volas lerni danci_ = I wish to learn to dance. _Li
devigis min kuri_ = He compelled me to run. _Mi hontas esti laŭdata
de li_ = I am ashamed to be praised by him. _Mi devas peni atingi
tiun rezultaton_ = I must try to attain that result.

177. The only prepositions that can be used before the infinitive
are:--(_a_). Por = _To_, or, _in order to_. (_b_). Anstataŭ =
_Instead of_. (_c_). Antaŭ ol = _Before_. (_d_). Krom =
_Except_, or, _besides_.

178. Por is used before the infinitive, when in English for the
word "to" we could substitute the words "in order to" or "for to";
or, in some cases, when we could use "for" or "of" with a participle
instead of the infinitive (par. 259 (24)).

Examples.--_La plej bonaj metodoj por ricevi ĝin_.... = The best
methods to (in order to) obtain it (_or_, for, _or_, of obtaining
it).... _Mi havas ion por diri al vi_ = I have something to (for to)
say to you. _Kion vi havas ankoraŭ por skribi?_ = What have you
still to (for to) write? _La tempo por legi_ = The time to read (for
reading). _Tio estas malfacila por kompreni_ = That is difficult (for
to) understand.

179. Anstataŭ, Antaŭ ol and Krom are used before the
infinitive, when in English we use the participle or a simple tense.

Examples.--_Anstataŭ trinki_ = Instead of drinking. _Anstataŭ agi
honeste, li fariĝis ŝtelisto_ = Instead of acting honestly, he
became a thief. _Antaŭ ol manĝi_ = Before eating. _Antaŭ ol
foriri, ili surmetis la ĉapelojn_ = Before going away (before they
went away), they put on their (the) hats. _Ne ekzistas alia bono por
la homo krom manĝi kaj trinki_ = There is nothing better for a man,
than that he should eat and drink (than eating and drinking) (Pred.
II, 14; III, 12).

180. As in English, the infinitive is used:--

(_a_). As the subject when the act demonstrated is general.

Examples.--_Erari estas home_ = To err is human. _Bone pensi kaj bone
agi sufiĉas por vivi bone kaj feliĉe_ = To think well and to act
well suffice for living well and happily.

(_b_). As the complement to explain an idea.

Examples.--_Vivi estas agi; kiu ne agas, tiu ne vivas_ = To live is
to act; he who acts not, lives not. _Li ĉesis kuri_ = He ceased to
run (running, _or_, from running).

181. The infinitive, used thus as the subject, resembles a noun, but,
of course, never takes the article before it. The qualifying word,
used as its predicate, takes the adverbial _-E_. The infinitive, when
used as the subject, can always be changed into the noun by
substituting _-O_ or _-ADO_ for _-I_; the noun then takes the
article, since it is used in a general sense (see 99 (_a_)).

Examples.--_Scii estas utile_ = To know (_or_, to have knowledge) is
useful; or, _La scio estas utila_ = Knowledge is useful. _Legi estas
agrabla okupo_, or, _La legado estas agrabla okupo_ = Reading is an
agreeable occupation.

182. The infinitive, or its noun, is used for the gerund, or a
gerundial phrase in English.

Examples.--_Promenadi estas sanige_, or, _La promenado estas saniga_
= Walking is healthy. _Instrui infanojn diligentajn_ (or, _La
instruado al infanoj diligentaj_) _estas agrabla okupo_ = Teaching
diligent children is an agreeable occupation.

183. Occasionally another mood, a participle, or the suffix _-EBLA_
is used for our infinitive (par. 275 (_c_)).

Examples.--_Vi bone faris, ke vi venis_ (or, _venante_) = You did
well to come (that you came). _Diru do al li, ke li al mi respondu_ =
Tell him, then, to answer me. _Estos pli saĝe, se ni ne piediros
domen_ = It will be wiser not to walk (go on foot) home (lit., if we
shall not walk). _Estus malfacile renkontebla sindonemo pli plena, ol
lia_ = It would be difficult to meet with more complete devotion than
his. _Ŝi ŝajnis (esti) forgesinta, ke ŝi estas maljunulino_ = She
seemed to have forgotten that she was (is) an old woman.

184. Sometimes the infinitive is used when we use another mood or the

Examples.--_Mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros por gliti_ = I shall
take my skates and go skating. _Mi ĉesos kanti, se vi farados tiom
de bruo_ = I shall cease singing if you go on making so much noise.
_Mi kredis vidi ŝipon_ = I thought I saw a ship.

185. In the following examples it will be seen that the infinitive
(present or past) is used in Esperanto after a noun, adjective, or
participle, when in English a participial form is usually employed,

_La deziro morti_ = The desire of dying (to die). _La ĝojo esti
venkinta_ = The joy of having conquered. _Tro laca marŝi_ = Too
tired for walking. _Lerta paroli_ = Clever in speaking. _Bona por
manĝi_ = Good for eating.


186. As stated in par. 171 (_a_), the indicative is not an Esperanto
mood, but we use the name in order to explain more clearly to the
English student the present, past, and future tenses of Esperanto

The Indicative mood, in the Active Voice, has three terminations,
viz., _-AS_ for the Present, _-IS_ for the Past, and _-OS_ for the
Future simple tenses. For the Compound tenses the auxiliary verb
esti = _to be_, is used with one of the three Active participles of
the verb, _-ANTA_, _-INTA_, _-ONTA_.

187. The Passive Voice is formed by the auxiliary esti with one
of the Passive participles, _-ATA_, _-ITA_, _-OTA_.

188. By the Indicative mood we express something as actually true,
either affirmatively, or negatively, or interrogatively. It is
therefore the mood of certainty.

Examples.--_La patro venas_ = Father comes, _or_, is coming. _Patrino
venis_ = Mother came, has come, _or_, did come. _Kiam mia frato
venos, ni foriros_ = When my brother comes (shall come), we will go
away. _Se li estas malsana, mi senkulpigas lin_ = If he is ill, I
excuse him. _Li estis juste rekompencita_ = He had been justly
rewarded. _Oni devas pardoni al li_ = One must pardon him. _Li estis
amata de ĉiuj_ = He was (being) loved by all. _Mi estas vestita du
horojn_ = I have been dressed for two hours (lit., I am
having-been-dressed two hours).

189. The Indicative is therefore obligatory in Esperanto after
verbs, adjectives, participles, and nouns expressing in a positive
manner what one thinks or feels about an act presented as certain.

Examples.--_Mi esperas, ke li venos hodiaŭ_ = I hope that he will
come to-day. _Ŝi ne estas certa, ĉu Petro sukcesis_ = She is not
sure whether Peter succeeded (_or_, has succeeded). _Mi ne dubas, ke
li venos_ = I do not doubt that he will come. _Mi timas, ke la
respondo alvenos, dum mi estos promenanta_ = I fear that the answer
will arrive whilst I am (shall be) taking a walk. _Mi timas, ke li
venos, kaj eble difektos la ĝardenon_ = I fear that he will come,
and possibly (perhaps) damage (_or_, and may damage) the garden. _Mi
ne dubas, ke ŝi estos vestita kiam mi alvenos_ = I do not doubt that
she will be (will have been) dressed when I arrive. _Ĉu vi opinias,
ke li estas juste rekompencita?_ = Do you think that he has been
justly rewarded?


190. In the Active Voice the Conditional mood is formed by adding
_-US_ to the root of the verb for the simple form, and by _ESTUS_ and
one of the participles _-ANTA_, _-INTA_, _-ONTA_ for the compound
forms. These compound forms are not often used.

191. In the Passive Voice it is formed by _ESTUS_ and one of the
participles _-ATA_, _-ITA_, _-OTA_.

192. It shows that the matter spoken of is conditional, namely, that
it depends on supposition; that an act had not taken place (past),
and was not taking place (present), but that it might happen or have
happened if something else actually occurred. In English the
pluperfect, future, and future perfect tenses of the Subjunctive mood
represent the Conditional mood in Esperanto.

193. After the conjunction "if," expressing a supposition, both the
chief and dependent propositions are in the Conditional mood in
Esperanto, when the act is conditional.

Examples.--_Se li estus riĉa, li havus multajn amikojn_ = If he were
rich, he would have many friends. _Se vi volus, vi estus feliĉa_ =
If you wished, you would be happy. _Se ni estus avertitaj, ni estus
defendintaj vin_ = If we had been (should have been) warned, we
should have defended you. _Se li forirus, li riskus, ke la patrino ne
trovus lin_ = If he went (should go) away he would risk that his
(the) mother would not find him.

193. (_a_). Note the various ways in which estus may be translated
with the present and past passive participles in the following two

(1). _Se li estus sendata Berlinon, li estus devigata lasi sian
edzinon hejme._

(2). _Se li estus sendita Berlinon, li estus devigita lasi sian
edzinon hejme._

(1). If he were (should be) sent to Berlin he would be compelled to
leave his wife at home.

(2). If he had (should have) been sent to Berlin he would have been
compelled to leave his wife at home.

194. As in other languages, the Conditional is used in Esperanto to
attenuate or soften an expression that would be harsh or imperative,
if the verb were in the Indicative; in fact, such attenuation implies
some unexpressed condition.

Example.--_Mi volus, ke tiu laboro estu finita hodiaŭ vespere_ = I
should like that work (to be) finished this evening. Here the
condition might be, "if you possibly can do it" (see par. 202 as to
_estu_, Imperative mood, for the Infinitive).

THE IMPERATIVE or "U" MOOD (Ordona Modo).

195. In the Active Voice the Imperative (or "U") mood is formed by
adding _-U_ to the root of the verb, or by estu and one of the
participles _-ANTA_, _-INTA_, or _-ONTA_ for the compound forms;
but the latter are very rarely used.

196. In the Passive Voice it is formed by estu and one of the
participles, _-ATA_, _-ITA_, or _-OTA_.

197. The "U" mood implies order (ordono), purpose (celo),
entreaty (peto), wish (volo), obligation (devo), fitness
(konveno), necessity (neceso), merit (merito), intention
(intenco), etc. It will be seen that the Esperanto u has a wider
application than what is usually understood by the "Imperative" mood,
for it may indicate not only a direct command or order, but also
desire or expediency of any degree, expressed or understood.

198. The ending u is used not only in a chief but also in a
dependent proposition, and in the latter case it is usually
introduced by the conjunction ke = _that_; but it must be borne in
mind that conjunctions have no more influence in the Imperative than
they have in other moods (pars. 171, 263), although when ke is
followed by the Imperative we translate the phrase into English
either by some tense of the Subjunctive mood, or, perhaps, more
frequently, by the Infinitive.

199. In a chief proposition it is used to command or entreat, and
when the verb of a chief proposition is in the Imperative, if the
dependent proposition also contains an order of entreaty, its verb
will, naturally, likewise be in the Imperative.

Examples.--_Venu tien ĉi_ = Come here. _Donu al mi tiun libron_ =
Give me that book. _Li venu tien ĉi tuj_ = Let him come here at
once. _Ni iru Parizon morgaŭ_ = Let us go to Paris to-morrow. _Do ne
maltrankviligu vin_ (or, _Vi do ne maltrankviliĝu_) _pri la afero_ =
Do not then trouble yourself about the matter. _Ordonu, ke li venu_
= Order him to come (that he come). _Diru al ŝi, ke ŝi foriru_ =
Tell her to go away (that she go away). _Atentu, ke vi ne falu_ =
Take care not to fall (_or_, lest you fall). _Ni ne toleru, ke li
tiamaniere kontraŭstaru al ni_ = Let us not suffer him in that way
to oppose us (_or_, Let us not tolerate that he oppose us in that
manner). _Ni zorgu, ke li nenion povu difekti_ = Let us take care
that he can damage nothing. _Diru al li, ke mi deziras, ke li estu
silenta_ = Tell him that I desire him to be silent (that he be
silent). For other examples see par. 237 (_m_).

200. In a dependent proposition the ending u is also used when
the verb in the chief proposition, although not in the Imperative,
implies order, entreaty, wish, etc., as mentioned in par. 197. And
also after such verbs as, to advise, invite, write, etc., etc., when
the idea to be conveyed is in the nature of an order, wish, etc.
(pars. 58 (_a_), 237 (_m_) (3)).

Examples.--_Mi ordonis al li, ke li donu al mi la libron_ = I ordered
him to give me the book. _Mi petas, ke vi sendu al mi la hundon_ = I
beg you to send me the dog. _Li ne postulis, ke mi fermu la
fenestron_ = He did not require me to shut the window. _Mi volas, ke
vi skribu al via frato_ = I wish you to write to your brother. _Estas
necese, ke ni tien iru_ = It is necessary for us to go thither. _Vi
meritas, ke oni pendigu vin_ = You deserve to be hanged (that they
hang you). _Mi bezonas, ke li venu_ = I want him to come (I have need
that he come). _Mi ne volis, ke li venu_ = I did not wish him to come
(that he should come). _Ŝi konsilis, ke mi ne sendu la leteron_ =
She advised me not to send the letter (she advised "do not send the
letter"). _Mi lin tien ĉi invitis, ke li klarigu la aferon_ = I
invited him here to explain (that he might explain) the matter. _Ili
skribis, ke mi ne venu hodiaŭ_ = They wrote to me not to come to-day
(They wrote that I should not come to-day, _or_, They wrote "do not
come to-day").

201. The expression por ke = _in order that_, _to the end that_,
_so that_, etc., is always followed by the Imperative, because this
expression implies "order."

Examples.--_Por ke vi povu pagi tiun ĉi ŝuldon, estas necese, ke vi
kunportu sufiĉe grandan sumon da mono_ = In order to be able to pay
(in order that you may be able to pay) this debt it is necessary
for you to bring (that you bring) a sufficient large sum of money.
_Por ke vi estu elektata, vi bezonas batali kun ekstrema energio_
= In order to be elected (that you may be elected), you need
to fight with extreme energy. _Por ke oni rekompencu vin,
konvenas, ke vi tion meritu_ = In order that they may reward you, it
is fitting that you merit it. _Mi volas ĉion fari, por ke vi estu
kontenta pri mi_ = I wish to do everything to satisfy you (so that
you may be satisfied with me). _Respondu al mi antaŭ morgaŭ, por ke
mi sciu, kion mi devos diri al li_ = Answer me before to-morrow, so
that I may know what I must (shall have to) say to him. _Mi volas, ke
li estu ordonata atendi mian alvenon_ = I wish that he may be ordered
to await my arrival, _or_, I wish him to be ordered to await my

201 (_a_). The compound forms of the Imperative in the active voice
are very rarely used, but they are occasionally useful to give
exactitude to an expression.

Examples.--_Mi deziras, ke li estu min atendanta en la stacidomo je
la dua horo morgaŭ posttagmeze_ = I desire that he be awaiting me in
the station at 2 o'clock to-morrow afternoon. _Estas necese, ke li
estu fininta sian laboron, je la tria horo_ = It is necessary that he
have (for him to have) finished his work at 3 o'clock. _Mi ne volas,
ke li estu fininta sian laboron, kiam mi alvenos, sed ke li estu
finonta ĝin_ = I do not wish that he shall have finished his work
when I (shall) come, but that he be about to finish it.

202. From the examples given of the use of the Imperative mood, we
see that in Esperanto the verb in a dependent proposition is almost
always preceded by the conjunction ke = _that_, and that the
English rendering generally puts the verb in the Infinitive, the
conjunction being omitted, or if it be retained, that the verb is in
the Subjunctive mood. It is not generally advisable to translate this
infinitive rendering literally into Esperanto, except when the
_actor_ of the _first_ verb is also the _actor_ of the _second_.

Examples.--_Mi volas lin vidi morgaŭ_ = I wish to see him to-morrow.
_La lernejestro deziris rekompenci la knabon_ = The schoolmaster
desired to reward the boy. _Ni bezonos forte labori, se ni deziras
fini la falĉadon hodiaŭ vespere_ = We shall need to work hard if we
wish to finish the mowing this evening.


There are three forms of the participle, viz.:--The adjectival in
_-A_, the adverbial in _-E_, and the substantival in _-O_.

203. In the active voice the adjectival is formed by adding
_-ANTA_, _-INTA_, _-ONTA_ to the root of the verb, as:--

Present, Skribanta = _Writing_ (lit., _being writing_).

Past, Skribinta = _Having written_.

Future, Skribonta = _About_ (_going_) _to write_.

204. In the passive voice by adding _-ATA_, _-ITA_, _-OTA_, as:--

Present, Skribata = _Being written_.

Past, Skribita = _Written_, or, _having been written_.

Future, Skribota = _About_ (or, _going_) _to be written_.

205. The active participles, preceded by the auxiliary verb esti
= _to be_, in its various moods and tenses, form the compound
tenses of the active voice.

206. The passive participles, with the verb esti, form all the
moods and tenses in the passive voice.

207. Participles, like adjectives, agree in number and case with
the nouns or pronouns to which they refer.

Examples. _Ni estas vidintaj la viron_ = We have seen the man. _Ŝi
vidis la virojn legantajn_ = She saw the men who were reading (the
reading men). _Ni vidas la krimojn elfaratajn ĉiutage sur la
stratoj_ = We see the crimes being perpetrated daily in the streets.

208. All the participles can be used as adjectives and also as
nouns and adverbs, by substituting _-O_ for _-A_ for a noun, and _-E_
for _-A_ for an adverb. The words still retain the signification of
the tense of the participle. Participial adjectives and adverbs in
the active voice govern the accusative.

209. Examples in the active voice.

(_a_). _Participial nouns_, as:--_La leganto_ = _The reader_ (_person
now reading_). La leginto = _The reader_ (_person who has been
reading_). La legonto = _The reader_ (_person about to read_).

Examples.--_La leganto havas bonan voĉon, sed la leginto havis pli
bonan; mi kredas, tamen, ke la legonto havos la plej bonan voĉon el
ĉiuj_ = The (present) reader has a good voice, but the (previous)
reader had a better; I believe, however, that the (coming) reader
will have the best voice of all. _Ĉi tiu_ (or, _tiu ĉi_) _ideo
okupis la grandan pensanton ĝis la fino de lia vivo_ = This idea
occupied the great thinker up to the end of his life.

(_b_). Participial adjectives agree with their nouns in number and
case, but when predicative they agree in number only (see remarks
on adjectives, pars. 36, 108, 110, also par. 87 (_d_)).

Examples.--_La mortanta viro vidis mortintan virinon sur la apuda
lito_ = The dying man saw a dead woman in the next bed. _Ŝi paliĝis
kaj aspektis kiel virino mortonta_ = She grew pale and appeared like
a woman about to die. In the above sentences participial nouns might
be used when the translation in English would be word for word the
same, as:--_La mortanto vidis mortintinon sur la apuda lito. Ŝi
paliĝis, kaj aspektis kiel mortontino._ This shows the wonderful
flexibility of Esperanto!

(_c_). Participial adverbs are invariable.

Examples.--_Legante ni lernas_ = In reading we learn. _Fininte sian
laboron, li iris hejmen_ = Having finished his work, he went home.
_Aĉetonte libron, li petas, ke mi pruntu al li tri ŝilingojn_ =
Being about to buy a book, he begs me to lend him (that I lend him)
three shillings.

210. Examples in the passive voice.

(_a_). Participial nouns, as:--La aludato = _The person being
spoken of_, or, _the person in question_. La aludito = _The
aforesaid_ (_person_). La aludoto = _The person about to be spoken

Examples.--_La pendigotino nun aperis sur la eŝafodo_ = The woman
about to be hanged now appeared on the scaffold. _La batito tute
meritis la punon, kiun la batinto donis al li_ = The beaten one quite
deserved the punishment that the beater gave him.

(_b_). Participial adjectives and adverbs. La konstruata domo =
_The house under construction_. La konstruita domo = _The
(actually) constructed house_. La konstruota domo = _The house
(about) to be constructed_. Konstruota does not show obligation to
construct, but simply that it is intended to build the house, and
that it will be eventually built.

Examples.--_Li venis al mi tute ne atendite_ = He came to me quite
unexpectedly. _Ne estas atendate ke li venos_ = It is not expected
(being expected) that he will come. _La domo estas vendota morgaŭ_ =
The house is to be sold to-morrow.

N.B.--Note that when the subject is not expressed, the participle
takes the adverbial form (see par. 245).

211. Relation of the participle to the subject.

(_a_). When a participle, relating to the subject of a sentence, but
not qualifying it, expresses the circumstances, manner, time,
occasion, etc., of an act, it takes the adverbial form. Zamenhof
states that the "ablative absolute" does not exist in Esperanto, as
its use would be against the spirit of the language.

Examples.--_Promenante sur la strato, mi falis_ = (While) walking in
the street, I fell. _Trovinte pomon, mi ĝin manĝis_ = Having found
an apple, I ate it (see par. 245 (_a_)).

(_b_). If, however, the participle does _not_ relate to the _subject_
of the sentence, we must either change the construction so as to make
the participial portion of the sentence relate to the subject, or
else use another mood with a conjunction, adverb, etc.

For instance, we might say in English, "The enemy having run away, we
crossed the bridge," but we cannot translate this literally into
Esperanto, because "having run away" does not relate to those who
crossed the bridge; therefore it would be wrong to say _La malamiko
forkurinte, ni transiris la ponton_. So we must change the
construction, thus:--"Having put to flight (made to run away) the
enemy, we crossed the bridge" = _Forkuriginte la malamikon, ni
transiris la ponton_. Or, another construction would be:--"After the
enemy ran away, we crossed the bridge" = _Post kiam la malamiko
forkuris, ni transiris la ponton_. In the sentence, "Swimming in the
lake, the man saw a large swan," it is not clear whether the man or
the swan was swimming, but in Esperanto there is no ambiguity. In the
sentence, _Naĝante sur la lago, la homo vidis grandan cignon_, the
participle, _naĝante_, relates to the man, the subject of _vidis_.
If we wish it to relate to the swan, we make it agree with _cignon_,
and say, _Naĝantan sur la lago_, etc. But it would be better to
alter the order, thus: _La homo vidis grandan cignon naĝantan (kiu
naĝis) sur la lago_.

212. Participial expressions with prepositions.

(_a_). Without can be rendered by the negative ne and an
adverbial participle, or by sen followed by a noun.

Examples.--_Li alvenis, ne avertinte min_ (or, _sen averto al mi_) =
He arrived without (not) having warned me. _Mi ne povos tion ĉi
fari, ne estante subtenata_ (or, _ne subtenate_, or, _sen subteno_) =
I shall not be able to do this without being supported. _Ni iru al la
danĝero, ne timante la morton_ (or, _sen timo pri la morto_) = Let
us go to the danger without fearing death.

(_b_). For can be rendered by ke = _that_ (or, pro tio, ke or,
tial, ke) and the indicative.

Examples.--_Mi estas al vi danka, ke vi avertis min_ = I am thankful
to you for having (that you) warned me. _Pardonu al mi, ke mi tiel
faras_ = Pardon me for so doing. _Pardonu al mi pro tio, ke mi tiel
faris_ = Pardon me for having done so (that I so did).

(_c_). Of, by por and the infinitive.

Example.--_Mi pripensis pri rimedo por deturni lin de lia projekto_ =
I reflected on a means of turning him from his project.

(_d_). After, by an adverbial past participle.

Example.--_"Kion ni faros?" li diris, sidinte momenton silente_ =
"What shall we do?" he said, after sitting (having sat) for a moment
in silence.

(_e_). Before, by antaŭ ol and the infinitive.

Example.--_Li ludis antaŭ ol labori_ = He played before working.

213. The participle for the adjective.

(_a_). Be careful not to use the participle terminations _-ANTA_,
_-INTA_ for simple adjectives that have a form of their own. Some
English words ending in "ing" and "ed" may be used either as
participles or as simple adjectives. Note that the participle denotes
_action_, whilst the adjective denotes _quality_, _state_, etc.

(_b_). Such words have, in Esperanto, an adjectival as well as a
participial form, and we must be careful to use the right one in
accordance with the sense.

Examples..--_Laboranta_ and _labora_ = Working. _Ĉarmanta_ and
_ĉarma_ = Charming. _Interesanta_ and _interesa_ = Interesting.
_Sufokanta_ and _sufoka_ = Suffocating. _Kontentigita_ and _kontenta_
= Satisfied; pleased, content.

(_c_). Observe the difference in meaning of the following:--

_Rigardu tiun homon, laborantan (kiu laboras) sur la kampo!_ = Look
at that man, working in the field! _Rigardu tiun homon laboran_
(better, _tiun laboriston_) _sur la kampo!_ = Look at that
working-man in the field! In the first sentence, _laborantan_, the
participle, denotes the action of the man: in the second, _laboran_,
the adjective, denotes his state, condition, etc. _Ŝi estas
ĉarmanta nin per sia kantado_ = She is charming us with her singing.
_Ŝi estas ĉarma, kiam ŝi kantas_ = She is charming when she sings.
It would be better, instead of using the participle _ĉarmanta_, to
say, _Ŝi ĉarmas nin per sia kantado._ _Mi ne estas kontentigita per
liaj respondoj_ = I have not been satisfied with his replies. _Mi ne
estas kontenta je li_ = I am not pleased with him.

THE TENSES (La Tempoj).

The Tenses, Active Voice.

214. The Tenses indicate the time of action, and its state of
completeness or incompleteness. They are either simple or compound.
The simple tenses are formed by adding -_AS_, -_IS_ or -_OS_ to the
root of the verb, and the terminations remain the same for all
persons and numbers. The compound tenses are formed by the auxiliary
verb esti = _to be_, and one of the participles of the verb which
must agree in number with its subject. Esti is conjugated in
exactly the same way as all other verbs.

215. The three Tenses used in Esperanto are the Present, Past, and

216. Duration of action of the verb.--(_a_). In English, to express
the continuance of an action, the present participle of a transitive
verb is used after the verb "to be" in all the moods and tenses--as
"I am loving," or "I was (have been, shall be, should be) loving";
imperative, "Be thou loving." If great exactness as regards time be
necessary, these forms can be represented in Esperanto word for word
as they are in English, viz., by the compound forms, mi estas
(estis, estos, estus) amanta, estu amanta.

(_a_). To show that an action is continuous or habitual, the suffix
_-AD-_ may be added to the verb (see remarks on suffix _-AD-_, par.
270 (1)).

Examples.--_Ŝi kantadas la tutan tagon_ = She keeps on singing the
whole day. _La birdoj flugadis de arbo al arbo_ = The birds were
(kept on) flying from tree to tree.

(_b_). The commencement of an action, or a sudden action, is shown by
adding the prefix _EK-_.

Examples.--_Ŝi ekkantis_ = She began to sing. _La lumo brilis_ = The
light shone. _La lumo ekbrilis_ = The light flashed (see remarks on
prefix _EK-_, par. 288).

217. Emphatic form of verb.--In English this form consists of the
verb, preceded by "do" or "did," and is confined to the present and
past tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods, and the
imperative mood of the active voice, as:--"I do love," "He does
love," "I did love," "Do love." This form in Esperanto can be
represented by the adverb ja = _indeed_, or by suitable adverbs,
such as tre, tre multe, vere, certe, efektive, etc.

Examples.--_Mi ja lin amas_ = I _do_ love him. _Mi tiel multe amis
ŝin_ = I _did_ so love her.

The Present.

218. The Present tense (simple) ends in _-AS_. It is used to
express not only what is happening at the moment, but also what
happens in all time, or what is understood to be present.

Examples.--_Mi kuras_ = I run, _or_ am running. _La vero ĉiam
venkas_ = Truth always conquers. _La aŭtoro diras en sia verko, ke_
.... = The author says in his book that.... _Kiun vi vidas?_ = Whom do
you see? _Mi vidas neniun_ = I see nobody. _Mi foriras, ĉar mia
patro min atendas_ = I am going away, for my father awaits (_or_
expects) me. _Mi ĉiam leviĝas tre frue_ = I always get up (rise)
very early. _Nenion oni faras sen peno_ = One does nothing without

219. The Present in place of the Past or Future.--In Esperanto, as
in other languages, the Present is often used for the Past or Future,
to give vividness to an expression.

Examples.--_Mi haltas, perdante la spiron, kiam subite mi aŭdas post
mi voĉon_ = I stop, losing breath, when suddenly I hear behind me a
voice. _Hodiaŭ plenaj de vivo, ni estas morgaŭ la akiro de la
tombo_ = To-day full of life, to-morrow we shall be (are) the prey
(acquirement) of the tomb.

220. Esperanto logically always employs the Present, even in a phrase
relating to what has past, if the action is present relatively to the
time in question.

Example.--_Ĉiuj, kiuj ŝin vidis povis pensi, ke ili vidas la
patrinon_ = All who saw her could think that they saw (see) her (the)
mother. In this sentence, what did they think? Their thought was, "We
see her mother," not "We saw her mother." The sight was present to
them, hence _ili vidas_.

221. Present in place of the Past.--If it is a question of the
truth of all time, or of a fact existing at the moment spoken of,
English generally uses the Past tense, but in Esperanto the Present
is always employed.

Examples.--_Ni eksciis, ke vi estas en Londono ok tagojn_ = We learnt
that you were (are) in London for eight days. _Ni kredis, ke vi estas
kuracisto_ = We believed that you were (are) a doctor. _Li instruis
nin, he ĉiam oni devas esti indulga_ = He taught us that one must
always be forbearing (merciful).

222. The Present tense (compound) is formed by the auxiliary
esti = _to be_ and one of the three participles, _-ANTA_, _-INTA_,
_-ONTA_. The compound tenses are seldom used in Esperanto, and their
use is to be avoided if the simple tenses suffice to convey our
meaning. Their use, therefore, is confined to giving exactitude to
the time of an action or to an idea (see par. 169).

Examples.--_Li estas vojaĝanta_ = He is travelling. The simple form,
_Li vojaĝas_, might mean that he travels generally, but possibly is
not at this moment on his way to any place. If, therefore, we wish to
convey that he is actually on his way to some place, we use the
compound form, or some additional word, as nun, e.g., _li nun
vojaĝas. Kiam la abeloj estas forflugontaj, ili zumadas laŭte_ =
When bees are about to fly away, they (are accustomed to) hum loudly
(see par. 216 (_a_)). _Esti skribanta_ = To be writing.

The Past.

223. The Past tense (simple) ends in -_IS_. It expresses
something that has passed. It is used for the three tenses in
English; the past, imperfect, and perfect; and sometimes for the
pluperfect, if its use does not cause ambiguity.

Examples.--_Mi skribis_ = I wrote, I was writing, _or_, I have
written. _Li venis antaŭ du horoj_ = He came two hours ago. _Pluvis
hieraŭ_ = It rained yesterday. _Se li estis malsana, li ne povis
veni_ = If he was ill, he could not come. _Ĉu vi lin vidis?_ = Did
you see (_or_, have you seen) him? _Li foriris, antaŭ ol mi alvenis_
= He had left before I arrived. _Mi promenis hieraŭ, kaj renkontis
vian amikon_ = I took a walk (_or_, I was walking, better
_promenadis_) yesterday, and met your friend.

224. The Past tense (compound) is formed by the auxiliary verb
esti = _to be_ and one of the three participles, _-ANTA_, _-INTA_,
_-ONTA_. This form should not be used when the simple form suffices
to convey the required meaning. It is better employed only when we
wish to give to an expression more exactitude as regards the state of
the subject at the time of the principal action than is conveyed by
the simple form (see pars. 169, 226 (_a_)).

Examples.--_Kiam li estis fininta sian laboron, li iris hejmen_ =
When he had finished his work, he went home. _Mi estis skribanta
leteron, kiam okazis tertremo_ = I was writing a letter when an
earthquake took place. _Ili interkonsentis kaj estis enirontaj la
landon, sed io okazis, kio ilin malhelpis_ = They mutually agreed,
and were about to enter the country, but something happened which
prevented them.

225. To show that something has just happened, or is very soon going
to happen, the words ĵus = _just_, or tuj = _immediately_, are
often used respectively.

Examples.--_Mi ĵus vidis tre belan pentraĵon_ = I have just seen a
very beautiful picture. _Ni estis tuj elirontaj, kiam ekpluvis_ = We
were on the point of (_or_, just) going out when it began to rain.

226. The past tense of esti (estis) and the past participle
(_-INTA_) of the verb correspond with the pluperfect in English. It
denotes an action that was completed at a time now past. As before
stated, it need not be employed when the simple past tense in _-IS_
sufficiently expresses the meaning wished to be conveyed.

Examples.--_Kiam ŝi estis rakontinta ĉion, kio okazis, ŝi
ekploris_ = When she had related everything that happened, she began
to weep. Here, in English, we should probably say "everything that
_had_ happened," but "_ĉion, kio estis okazinta_" is unnecessary in
Esperanto, as the meaning is quite clear with "_okazis_." _Li ne
estis parolinta du sekundojn, kiam mi diris al li "Silentu!"_ = He
had not spoken for two seconds when I said to him, "Be silent!"

226 (_a_). The adverb antaŭe = _beforehand_ (or jam, or jam
antaŭe) is sometimes used with the past and future simple tenses,
or with the simple forms of the Conditional or Imperative mood,
instead of the compound tenses or forms (see Part III, Exercise 8).

Examples.--_Kiam vi eniris en la ĉambron, la gastoj jam antaŭe
foriris (or, estis foririntaj)_ = When you entered the room, the
guests had departed (lit., already beforehand departed). _Kiam vi
venos al mi, mi jam antaŭe finos_ (or, _estos fininta_) _la laboron_
= When you have (will) come to me, I shall have finished the work.
_Li ne aĉetus la libron, se vi antaŭe ne donus_ (or, _estus
doninta_) _al li la monon_ = He would not have bought the book unless
you had given him the money (lit., if you beforehand should not give
him the money).

The Future.

227. The Future (simple) ends in _-OS_. The future (compound) is
formed by the auxiliary esti and one of the three participles,
_-ANTA_, _-INTA_, _-ONTA_, but the compound form should be used only
when we wish to express anteriority, that is to say, action taking
place previous to that of the principal action.

228. The future denotes an action yet to take place.

Examples.--_La patro venos post du tagoj_ = Father will come in two
days. _Ĉu vi pruntos al mi la libron?_ = Will you lend me the book?
_Kiam li alvenos?_ = When will he arrive? _Li venos la lundon
proksiman_ = He will come next Monday.

229. If we wish to mark a near future, we can use with the verb the
adverbs tuj = _immediately_, baldaŭ = _soon_, tre baldaŭ =
_very soon_.

Examples.--_Li tuj alvenos_ = He will arrive immediately. _Li tre
baldaŭ estos tie ĉi_ = He will very soon be here.

230. The future compound with the present participle is used when
we wish to mark that an action will be _going on_ at some particular
time in the future.

Example.--_Je la deka morgaŭ matene mi estos veturanta Parizon_ = At
10 o'clock to-morrow morning I shall be travelling to Paris.

231. The future compound with the past participle is used when we
wish to mark that an action will be _finished_ at some particular
time in the future (see par. 226 (_a_)).

Example.--_Mi estos fininta mian laboron je la sesa horo morgaŭ
vespere_ = I shall have finished my work at six o'clock to-morrow

232. The future for the present indicative or subjunctive.--Be
careful not to imitate English in using the present or subjunctive
for the future.

Examples.--_Se pluvos, li ne venos_ = If it rains, he will not come.
_Kion vi faros, kiam mi estos en la tombo?_ = What will you do when I
am in the grave? _Mi skribos la leteron dum vi ripozos_ = I shall
write the letter whilst you are resting. _Ŝi skribis al ni, ke ŝi
estos tie ĉi morgaŭ_ = She wrote to us that she would (will) be
here to-morrow (she wrote what? not "that she _would_," but "that
she will," so the future is the correct tense).

The Tenses, Passive Voice.

233. The tenses of the passive voice are formed by the simple tenses
of the auxiliary verb esti and the passive participles, _-ATA_,
_-ITA_, _-OTA_. All the tenses are therefore compound. As with the
active participles, _J_ is added to the three persons of the plural
in all the tenses.

234. The signification of the tenses is the same as in the active
voice, except, of course, that the subject of a passive verb is acted
upon. Since esti is the only auxiliary verb used in Esperanto, it
represents the two English auxiliaries, "to be" and "to have"; we
must, therefore, translate it accordingly.

235. Care must be taken in the use of these participles. For
instance, the participles of skribi = _to write_ used alone mean--

Present, Skribata = _Written_, or, _being written_ (action going

Past, Skribita = _Written_, or, _been written_ (lit., _having been
written_) (action completed).

Future, Skribota = _About to be_, or, _going to be_, _written_
(action about to occur).

236. The various tenses of the verb esti show the _time_ of the
action, and the three participles the state of the subject at that
time. Note carefully the various shades of meaning in the following

_La pordego estas fermata, ĉar la ludo estas ludota_ = The gate is
being shut, for the game is about to be played.

_La pordego estas fermita, ĉar la ludo estas ludata_ = The gate is
(_or_, has been) shut, for the game is being played.

_La pordego estis fermita, dum la ludo estis ludata_ = The gate was
(_or_, had been) shut whilst the game was being played.

_Kiam estos pendigata la homo?_ = When will the man be (being)

_Li estis pendigota morgaŭ, sed oni diras, ke li ne estos pendigata
ĝis mardo_ = He was to have been (was about to be) hanged to-morrow,
but they say he will not be hanged till Tuesday.

_Kaj kiam li estos pendigita, kie li estos enterigota?_ = And when he
is (has been) hanged, where is he to be buried? (lit., and when he
shall have been hanged, where will he be about to be buried?). Note
that after the interrogative _kiam_ the English present tense is
often future in Esperanto, as:--_Kiam li venos?_ When is he coming?
_or_, When will he come?

_Pasero estis kaptita kaj enmetita en kaĝon, sed kiam la pordeto de
la kaĝo estis malfermata, ĝi forflugis_ = A sparrow was (_or_, had
been) caught and put into a cage, but when the door of the cage was
being opened it flew away.

N.B.--In the above sentence we see that the sparrow _was_ (estis)
first in the state of _having been caught_ (kaptita); then in the
state of _having been put_ (enmetita) into a cage; then that the door
was in the state of _being opened_ (malfermata), and that during this
action the bird _flew away_ (forflugis).

(For examples of the passive conditional mood see par. 193.)

(For examples of the rare use of the passive imperative mood see par. 201.)



237 (_a_). Devi = _to be obliged to, to have to_, means to be
physically or morally obliged to do something, as:--Vi devas fari
tion = _You must (have to, are to) do that_. Vi ne devas fari tion
= _You are not obliged to do that_. If, however, the action is not
immediate, the future tense is used for "must," as:--Vi devos fari
tion morgaŭ = _You must (will have to) do that to-morrow._ In its
Conditional form devi may be used, like other verbs, to soften an
expression, and then it can be translated by "ought," as:--Vi devus
ne fari tion = _You ought not to (should not) do that._ Here devus
is used instead of the more peremptory form, devas; Vi devas ne fari
tion would mean _You must not (are not to) do that_ (see par. 194,
also pars. 237 (_o_), (_p_), on "should," "must," "ought," and par.
59 (_a_)).

Examples.--_Mi devas vin forlasi, ĉar oni atendas min_ = I must
(have to) leave you, for they are waiting for me. _Ĉu mi devas fari
tion tuj?_ = Must I (am I to) do that at once? _Ĉu mi devos veni
morgaŭ_ = Must I (shall I have to, am I to) come to-morrow? _Mi
devis skribi leteron_ = I had (have had) to write a letter. _Li devis
min vidi hodiaŭ, sed li ne povas veni_ = He was to see me to-day,
but he cannot come. _Ili devis vidi min hieraŭ, sed ili ne povis
veni_ = They were to have seen me yesterday, but they could not come.
_Li estis kolera hieraŭ, ĉar li devis iri lernejon_ = He was angry
yesterday, because he was obliged to (had to) go to school. _Sed por
tio ĉi mi devos atendi iom da tempo_ = But for this I shall have to
(I must) wait some time. _Se mi lin vidus, mi devus paroli kun li_ =
If I saw him, I should have to speak to him. _Se mi lin vidus, mi
estus devinta paroli kun li_ = If I had seen (saw) him, I should have
been obliged (have had) to speak to him. _La celo de ĉiu estas, aŭ
devus esti, bonfaradi_ = The aim of everyone is, or ought to (should)
be, to do good. _Li devus kolekti kaj aranĝi siajn faktojn_ = He
ought to (should) collect and arrange his facts. _Kiam vi estas tie,
vi devus vidi la kastelon_ = When you are there, you ought to see the
castle. _Kiam vi estis tie, vi devus vidi_ (or, _vi devus esti
vidinta_) _la kastelon_ = When you were there, you ought to have seen
the castle. _Mi devus tute ne aŭskulti ŝin_ = I ought not to listen
to her at all.

From these examples we see that the following is the meaning of
devi in its moods and tenses. The compound forms should not be used
unless absolutely necessary to render the meaning clear.


_Vi devas (paroli)_ = You must, have to, are to (speak).


_Mi devis (paroli)_ = I had to (speak); _or_, I was to (speak, or,
have spoken).

_Mi estas devinta (paroli)_ = I have been obliged, _or_, I have had
to (speak).

_Mi estis devinta (paroli)_ = I had been obliged to (speak).


_Mi devos (paroli)_ = I shall have to, I am to, I must (speak).


_Mi devus (paroli), se ..._ = I should have to, or, be obliged to
(speak), if ...

_Mi estus devinta (paroli), se ..._ = I should have had to, _or_,
have been obliged to (speak), if ...

_Conditional (softened sense)._

_Vi devus (paroli)_ = You ought to, or, you should (speak, or, have

_Vi devus (esti parolinta)_ = You ought to have, or, you should have

N.B.--Do not use _devi_ for "were to," when no obligation is implied.
Note the difference in meaning in the following sentences:--_Se ili
venus, mi vidus ilin_ = If (supposing) they were to come (if they
came), I would see them. _Ili devis veni la lastan semajnon, sed io
malhelpis ilin_ = They were to (have) come last week, but something
prevented them.

Also do not use _devi_ for "am to," "was to," etc., when these words
express not "obligation," but "_purpose_" or "_intention_." For
instance, "Are you to speak at the meeting?" may mean either (1) "Do
you intend to (Shall you) speak?" or, (2) "Have you to (Must you)
speak?" So we translate (1) _Ĉu vi intencas paroli (Ĉu vi parolos)
ĉe la kunveno?_ or, (2) _Ĉu vi devos paroli ĉe la kunveno?_ In
such a phrase as "You are to do that" the obligation is clear, so we
say _Vi devas tion fari._

Further, do not use devi in translating such a sentence as "The man
must be a fool," which is _La viro sendube estas malsaĝulo,_ not,
_devas esti ..._


237 (_b_). Kuŝi = _to lie, to be situated_, is sometimes used to
denote anything in a state of rest, or in a recumbent position. It
has, therefore, also the meaning of "to be."

Examples.--_La krajono kuŝas sur la libro_ = The pencil lies (is) on
the book. _La libroj kuŝas sur la breto_ = The books are (lie) on
the shelf.

Koni and Scii.

237 (_c_). Koni and scii are used in the same sense as the French
verbs _connaître_ and _savoir_.

Koni means _to know_, _to be acquainted with_, _to know a person_,
or, _thing_.

Examples.--_Mi konas vian fraton_ = I know your brother. _Li konas la
hundon, sed li ne konas ĝian posedanton_ = He knows the dog, but he
does not know its owner.

N.B.--It is never followed by the conjunction _KE_; _Mi konas, ke_,
is wrong. _Mi scias, ke vi_ ... = I know that you ...

Scii means _to know_, _to be aware of_, _to know something is_ or
_was happening_, etc.

N.B.--It is never used of persons.

Examples.--_Mi scias, ke li estas prava_ = I know that he is right.
_Mi sciis, ke li estis tie hieraŭ_ = I knew he was there yesterday.
_Mi ne sciis, ke vi konas lin_ = I did not know that you knew him.
_Mi konas la francan lingvon, sed mi ne scias ĝin_ = I know
(recognize) the French language (when I see it), but I do not know


237 (_d_). Lasi, like the English verb "to leave," has various

(1). To let remain, as:--_Li lasis la libron sur la tablo_ = He left
the book on the table.

(2). To leave in a place, not to take with one, as:--_Li lasis sian
edzinon en la domo_ = He left his wife in the house. _Lasu vian
bastonon tie ĉi_ = Leave your stick here.

(3). To lose restraint upon something, as:--_Li lasis fali la libron_
= He let the book fall.

(4). To leave in a certain state, as:--_Li lasis min en la plej
granda embaraso_ = He left me in the greatest embarrassment. _Li
lasis la domon tre malpura_ = He left the house very dirty.

(5). To leave to the care of someone, as:--_La juĝisto lasis la
infanojn al la patro_ = The judge left the children to the father.

(6). To have remaining at death, to leave behind one, as:--_Kiam li
mortis, li lasis_ (or, _postlasis_) _grandan riĉaĵon, kiun li
testamentis al diversaj bonfaraj institucioj_ = When he died,
he left great wealth, which he left to various charitable
institutions (note that to "leave," "bequeath," is _testamenti_).

(7). _Lasi_, followed by the preposition _en_, means to "leave in,"
or to "let into," according as the complement is in the nominative or
accusative, e.g.:--_Mi lasis la hundon en la domo_ = I left the dog
in the house. _Mi lasis la hundon en la domon_ = I let the dog into
the house.

(8). In the "Krestomatio," page 25, it is used in the sense to "leave
off," "cease," as:--_Aleksandro lasis sian paroladon pri batalo kaj
petis de ili panon_ = Alexander left off talking of battle, and asked
them for bread.

(9). _Lasi_, followed by an infinitive, means to "let," or, "allow,"
as:--_Lasu al mi ĝin fari_ = Let me do it, _or_, Leave it to me to
do. Sometimes we find it used in the sense "allow to be," as:--_Neniu
volis lasi rimarki, ke li nenion vidas_ = No one wished to let it be
noticed that he saw (sees) nothing. This imitates the idiom of some
national languages. It can be explained as an omission of _onin_ or
some other pronoun, thus:--_Neniu volis lasi onin_ (_nin_) _rimarki,
ke_ ... = No one wished to let people (us) notice that ...

(10). _Allasi_ = to admit (own the truth), as:--_Li allasis, ke li
estas malprava_ = He admitted he was (is) wrong.

(11). _Delasi_ = to allow to leave, as:--_Li delasis lin de la domo_
= He let him leave the house.

(12). _Enlasi_ (like _lasi en_) = to let go in, as:--_Enlasu min!_ =
Let me in!

(13). _Forlasi_ = to abandon, as:--_Li forlasis sian postenon_ = He
abandoned his post.

(14). _Preterlasi_ = to let pass, as:--_Li preterlasis la okazon_ =
He let the opportunity pass, _or_, He missed the opportunity. _Li ne
povis uzi sian bileton, ĉar ĝia limtempo preterlasiĝis_ = He could
not use his ticket because its time limit had expired.

(15). _Tralasi_ = to allow to pass through, as:--_Li tralasis la
homon tra la pordo_ = He let the man pass through the door. _Kiam ŝi
atingis la pordegon, ili ŝin tralasis_ = When she reached the gate,
they let her through.

Pesi and Pezi.

237 (_e_). Pesi = _to weigh_, _to examine by balance_ (transitive).

Pezi = _to weigh_, _to have weight_ (intransitive).

Peso = _the weighing_, _the act of weighing_.

Pezo = _the weight_, or, _heaviness of a thing_.

Pesilo = _the scales_, or, _the weighing machine_.

Pezilo = _a_ (_metal_) _weight_.

From the above words we see that the roots pes- and pez- both
signify "weight," and care must be taken to use the words in their
transitive or intransitive sense.

Examples. _Tiuj ĉi tabloj estas de granda pezo: mi kredas, ke ilia
pezo estas pli ol cent okdek funtoj_ = These tables are a great
weight; I believe that their weight is more than a hundred and eighty
pounds. _Tiu kesto estas tre peza; mi estas certa ke ĝi pezas
almenaŭ naŭdek funtojn; metu ĝin sur la pesilon, alportu la
pezilojn, pesu ĝin, kaj diru al mi la ĝustan pezon_ = That chest is
very weighty (heavy); I am certain that it weighs at least ninety
pounds; put it on the scales (weighing machine), bring the weights,
weigh it, and tell me the exact weight.


237 (_f_). Povi = _to be able_. Beginners sometimes find a
difficulty in dealing with this verb, owing to the irregularity of
the English equivalents. For instance, the beginner may say, "How can
'can' be both present and future, or 'could' both past and
conditional?" The following examples giving translations of povi in
its various tenses should be helpful in removing the difficulty.

Present, Mi povas = _I am able to_, _I can_.

Past, Mi povis = _I have been_ (or, _was_) _able to_, _I could_.

Future, Mi povos = _I shall be able to_, _I can_.

Future, Ni estos povintaj = _We shall have been able to_.

Conditional, Mi povus = _I should_ (or, _would_) _be able to_, or,
_I could_, or, _I might_.

Conditional, Li estus povinta = _He would have been able to_, or,
_He could have_.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi povas tion fari? Jes, mi povas_ = Are you able to
(can you) do that? Yes, I can. _Mi ne povas vidi la arbon, kiun vi
montras_ = I cannot see the tree which you point out. _Mi povis
fari tion, kion vi volis_ = I was (have been) able to do what
you wished. _Mi ne povis fari tion, kion vi postulis_ = I was
not (have not been) able to do (I could not do) what you required.
_Mi povos tion fari morgaŭ_ = I shall be able to (I can) do
that to-morrow. _Se vi povus veni mardon, mi povus vin vidi_ = If
you should be able to (if you could) come on a Tuesday, I could
see you. _Mi povus tion fari morgaŭ, se...._ = I could (should be
able to) do that to-morrow if.... _Ĉu li estos povinta plenumi la
laboraĵon, kiam vi lin vidos morgaŭ?_ = Will he have been able to
complete the work when you (will) see him to-morrow? _Se vi venus
hieraŭ, mi estus povinta vin vidi_ = If you had come yesterday, I
could have seen you. _Li povus veni, se li volus_ = He might (would
be able to) come if he wished (see pars. 237 (_l_), (_m_)).


237 (_g_). Sidi = _to sit_, _to be sitting_. Sidi has sometimes
the signification "to be" in some defined place.

Examples.--_En la ĉambro sidis nur kelke da homoj_ = In the room
were (sat) only a few (some) men. _La kuiristo sidas en la kuirejo_ =
The cook is (sits) in the kitchen. _En la kandelingo sidis brulanta
kandelo_ = In the candlestick was (sat) a burning candle.

Sin trovi.

237 (_h_). Sin trovi = _to find oneself_. This expression (or,
troviĝi = _to be found_, _to find oneself_, _to be_, or, _to be
situated_) is often used for the English verb "to be."

Examples.--_Sur la arbo sin trovis multe da birdoj_ = On the tree
were (found themselves) many birds. _Super la tero troviĝas aero_ =
Over the earth is air.

Ĉesi, Daŭri, Pasi, Fini, Komenci.[17]

237 (_i_). In English the following and many other verbs are used in
both a transitive and intransitive sense:--_to stop_, _to continue_,
_to pass_, _to finish_, _to commence_. In Esperanto ĉesi,
daŭri, pasi are intransitive; so, to make them transitive, we
must add _IGI_. On the other hand, fini and komenci are
transitive; therefore, to make them intransitive, we must add _IĜI_
(par. 280).

    Transitive.                             Intransitive.

  _Ĉesigu tiun bruon_ =                   _La pluvo ĉesis fali_ =
  Cease (stop) that noise.                The rain ceased to fall (stopped).

  _Li daŭrigis sian rakonton_ =           _La ventego daŭris unu horon_ =
  He continued his story.                 The storm lasted an hour.

  _Li pasigis du horojn en la budo_ =     _La tempo pasas rapide_ =
  He passed two hours in the booth.       Time passes rapidly.

  _Li finis sian laboron_ =               _La monato finiĝos morgaŭ_ =
  He finished his work.                   The month will finish to-morrow.

  _Ŝi komencos sian vojaĝon morgaŭ_ =     _La semajno komenciĝis hieraŭ_ =
  She will commence her journey tomorrow. The week commenced yesterday.


[17] The following is a list of the chief Esperanto verb roots whose
English equivalents are used both transitively and intransitively.
(E.g., _wakes_, in _he wakes her_, is transitive; in _she wakes_ it
is intransitive.) Esperanto follows international usage in giving
such verbs one meaning only, either transitive or intransitive.

Transitive Verbs (can be used in the passive, and with -ebla, -inda;
may be used intransitively with -iĝ-):--

Aplik, balanc, ban, ĉagren, etend, fend, ferm, fin, flar, fleks,
izol, klin, kolekt, komenc, lev, mezur, montr, mov, nask, paŝt,
renvers, romp, rul, renkont, sku, sving, sufok, ŝancel, ŝanĝ,
ŝir, tren, turn, vek, verŝ.

Intransitive Verbs (cannot be used in the passive, nor with -ebla,
-inda, unless made transitive by -ig-):--

Bol, brul, ĉes, daŭr, degel, dolor, dron, eksplod, fal, glit,
halt, kresk, krev, kuŝ, lum, odor, pas, pend, sid, son, sonor,
ŝpruc, ŝrump, ŝvel, velk.

Do, Did.

237 (_j_). The English verb "to do" is represented as follows:--

(1). In the sense of to "perform," "make," "commit," "execute," etc.,
it is represented by fari or agi.

Examples.--_Ne faru tion_ = Don't do that. _Batante la knabon, li
faris_ (or, _agis_) _malprave_ = He did wrong in beating the boy. _La
ĉambristino faris tion, kion mi ordonis_ = The chambermaid did what
I ordered.

(2). In interrogation and negation it is represented by the present
and past tenses (pars. 58, 63, 64).

Examples.--_Ĉu vi pensas, ke li venos?_ = Do you think that he will
come? _Ĉu vi lin vidis hieraŭ?_ = Did you see him yesterday? _Mi ne
konas lin_ = I do not know him.

(3). As an emphatic auxiliary, it may be represented by ja =
_indeed, in fact_, or other similar adverb: e.g., sincere (par.

Example.--_Mi ja esperas, ke li venos_ = I do hope he will come.

(4). As an inquiry after health.

Example.--_Kiel vi fartas?_ or, _Kia estas via sano?_ or, _Kiel vi
statas?_ = How do you do? or, How are you?

(5). To "do," in the sense of "to cheat," by trompi or friponi.
In the sense of "to suffice" by sufiĉi.

Examples.--_Li friponis min_ = He did (cheated) me. _Tio sufiĉos_ =
That will do.

(6). Followed by prepositions, it must be translated in accordance
with the sense of the phrases.


  To do away with (abolish) = _neniigi_, (destroy) = _detrui_.
  To do business = _komerci_, _fari negocon kun_.
  To do for, or away with (murder, kill) = _mortigi_.
  To do into (translate) = _traduki_.
  To do well (prosper) = _prosperi_.
  To do up (arrange) = _aranĝi_, (tie up) = _kunligi_, (repair) = _ripari_.
  To do with (make use of) = _fari uzon el_.
  To do without (dispense with) = _forlasi, ne bezoni_.


237 (_k_). The English verb to "get" must be translated in accordance
with its numerous meanings. For instance:--

(1). To "get," in the sense of to "become," may be rendered by iĝi
= _to become_, or the suffix _-IĜ-_.

Examples.--_Edziĝi_ = To get married (man). _Edziniĝi_ = To get
married (woman). _Leviĝi_ = To get up. _Alproksimiĝi_ = To get
near. _Laciĝi_ = To get tired. _Tediĝi_ = To get bored. _Ĉu vi
pretiĝas_ = Are you getting ready? _Mi malsatiĝas_ = I am getting
hungry. _Mi kutimiĝas je tio_ = I am getting accustomed (used) to
that. _Mallumiĝas_ (or, _Iĝas mallume_) = It is getting dark. _La
tagoj pli mallongiĝas_ = The days are getting shorter. _La infanoj
kuŝiĝis_ = The children got into bed (lit., lay down). _La
vespermanĝo malvarmiĝas_ = The dinner is getting cold; but
_malvarmumi_ = to get (or catch) a cold.

(2). To "get," in the sense of to "make," to "cause," is rendered by
igi = to make, or the suffix _-IG-_ added to a verb.

Examples.--_Igu ŝin veni al nia dancado_ = Get her to come to our
dance. _Mi presigos la libron baldaŭ_ = I shall get the book printed

(3). To "get," in the sense of to "have got," or to "possess," is not

Examples.--_Mi havas_ (or, _posedas_) _du ĉevalojn_ = I have got two
horses. _Kion vi havas?_ = What have you got?

(4). To "get," in the sense of to "procure," "fetch," is rendered by
havigi, or, venigi.

Examples.--_Mi havigos al mi tiom, kiom mi povos_ = I shall get as
much as I can. _Venigu al mi veturilon_ = Get me a carriage. _Venigu
la kuraciston_ = Send for (get) the doctor.

(5). "Get" is translated in various other ways according to its
meaning. Note the following examples:--

  _Alveni en_ = To get to, to arrive at.
  _Alkonduku mian ĉevalon_ = Get my horse.
  _Alportu al mi la mustardon_ = Get me the mustard.
  _Mi ricevis vian leteron_ = I got your letter.

(6). To "get," followed by prepositions, etc., must be translated in
accordance with the sense of the phrase.


  To get across = _transiri_.
  To get along, forward, on = _antaŭeniri_.
  To get at (attain, reach) = _atingi_.
  To get back (something lent) = _rericevi_, (to a place) = _reveni_.
  To get down = _deiri_, _malsupreniri_.
  To get off (be acquitted) = _senkulpiĝi_, (escape) = _forkuri_,
           (a horse or coach) = _deiri_.
  To get dirty = _malpuriĝi_.
  To get on (a horse or coach) = _supreniri_, (in learning) = _progresadi_,
           (in business) = _prosperi_.
  To get on with (continue) = _daŭrigi_.
  To get out (of doors) = _eliri_, (publish) = _eldoni_, or, _elirigi_.
  To get over (across) = _transiri_, (surmount) = _venki_.
  To get ready = _pretigi_ (trans.), _pretiĝi_ (intrans.).
  To get round (coax, allure) = _logi_, _allogi_, (persuade) = _konvinki_.
  To get up (rise) = _leviĝi_, (ascend) = _supreniri_.

Can and Could.

237 (_l_). "Can" and "could" are translated by povi = _to be able_,
except when "can" has the permissive sense of "may" (see par. 237 (_m_) (3)).

Examples.--_Mi ne povas lin vidi nuntempe_ = I cannot see him at
present. _Li ne povis iri hieraŭ_ = He could not go yesterday. _Li
povus iri hodiaŭ, se li volus_ = He could (would be able to) go to
day, if he would.

For other examples of "can" and "could," see povi, par. 237 (_f_).

May and Might.

237 (_m_). These verbs are used (1) as auxiliaries in the English
Subjunctive mood; also to express (2) wish, (3) permission, (4)
possibility, (5) power or ability.

(1). When used as auxiliary verbs, they can be expressed by the
Esperanto Imperative mood.

Examples.--_Li rapidas, por ke li alvenu ĝustatempe_ = He hastens
that he may arrive in time. _Li kuris rapide, por ke li ne maltrafu
la vagonaron_ = He ran quickly that he might not miss the train.

(2). When they express "wish," the Esperanto Imperative is also

Examples.--_Vi estu feliĉa!_ = May you be happy! _Via deziro
efektiviĝu!_ = May your wish be realized! _Ĉielo vin benu!_ = May
Heaven bless you! _Nenio difektu vian feliĉon!_ = May nothing mar
your happiness! _Ĉia beno estu via!_ = May every blessing be yours!

In the above examples ellipsis takes place both in Esperanto and
English, some such words as _mi deziras, ke ..._ = I wish that...,
being omitted (par. 66 (_c_)). _Ke vi prosperu, estas mia fervora
deziro!_ = That you may succeed, is my fervent desire! _Ke li vivu,
estis mia ĉiutaga preĝo!_ = That he might live, was my daily
prayer! _Mi mortu, se mi iom mensogas!_ = May I die, if I am lying at

(3). When they express "permission," some word denoting this must
be used, or the imperative may be used, the verb expressing
permission being omitted (par. 58 (_a_)). The English verb "can" is
sometimes employed to express the permissive sense of "may"; in
that case it is better to avoid the use of povi = _to be able_.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi (oni) permesas, ke mi parolu kun vi?_ = May (can)
I speak to you? (lit., Do you permit that I speak to you?) _Ĉu oni
permesas_, (or, _ĉu estas permesate_), _ke mi vidu la kastelon?_ =
May (can) I see the castle? _Mi permesas, ke vi tion faru, se vi
volas_, or, _Vi faru tion, se vi volas_ = You may (I permit that you)
do that, if you like. _Se mi estus permesita tion diri_ (or, _se
estus permesite_, or, _se oni permesus_, _ke mi tion diru_) = If I
might (were permitted to) say so (that).

The above questions may be shortened thus:--_Ĉu mi parolu kun vi?
Ĉu mi vidu la kastelon?_ in this sense. The ellipsis understood here
might, however, equally well be _Ĉu_ (_vi volas_, _ĉu necesas_,
_ĉu estas bone_, _ke_) _mi parolu? vidu la kastelon?_ = Shall I (Am
I to) speak (see the castle)?

(4). When they express "possibility," some word showing that the
action is more or less a matter of doubt must be used, as eble =
_possibly_, kredeble = _probably_, etc.

Examples.--_Eble li venos_ = He _may_ come, _or_, Maybe (possibly) he
will come. _Eble li tranĉos la fingron, se vi donos al li
tranĉilon_ = He may (possibly he will) cut his finger, if you (will)
give him a knife. _Eble li venus, se vi lin invitus_ = He might
(possibly he would) come, if you invited (were to invite) him. _Se vi
tien irus, eble_ (_kredeble_) _vi lin vidus_ = If you went (were to
go) there, you might (possibly, probably would) see him.

Note that the possibility of something happening varies with the
adverb used. "May" rendered by _eble_ throws greater doubt on the
contingency than _kredeble_.

(5). When they express "power," or "ability," povi = _to be
able_ can be used.

Examples.--_La malsano povas konduki el komplikaĵoj_ = The illness
may lead to complications. _Li povus tion fari, se li antaŭe volus_
(or, _estus volinta_) _ĝin fari_ = He might (could) have done that,
if he had wished to do it.

Shall and Will.

237 (_n_). These verbs are used in English to denote:--

  (1). Futurity.
  (2). Determination or will.

As they are sometimes misplaced, it would be well for the student,
not thoroughly conversant with their proper use, to consult some good
English Grammar.

(1). Futurity. As the auxiliary for the Future tense, "shall," in
_direct_ speech, is generally used for the first person, and "will"
for the second and third persons, as "_I_, or _we_, _shall go_,"
"_He_, _you_, or _they will go_," except in interrogation, when
"shall" is generally used for the second person, as "Shall you go?"
But in _indirect_ speech "shall" is used for all three persons, as,
"_He says he shall come._" "_You say you shall write._" In any of
these cases they are translated by the future in _-os_.

(2). Determination or Will. When the meaning is not futurity, but
_determination_ on the part of the speaker, then, in _direct_ speech,
"will" is used for the first person, and "shall" for the second and
third persons, as, "I _will_ do it, you cannot stop me." "You _shall_
not kill that bird." "Thou _shalt_ not steal." But in _indirect_
speech "will" is used for all the persons, as, "He says he _will_ go"
(it is his determination to go). "You say you _will_ try it" (you are
determined to try it). In such cases one must, in Esperanto, use not
the future, but the imperative, or some word expressing "will" or

N.B.--In some cases it is difficult to tell in which of the above
senses "shall" or "will" is used, unless the context makes it clear;
so, in writing, we have to underline the words, or, in speaking, to
emphasize them strongly when they mean "determination." Note
carefully their meaning in the following sentences. The number
prefixed to each example denotes the heading under which it comes.

Examples.--(1). _Mi revenos, kiam ili foriros_ = I shall come back
when they go away. (2). _Mi intencas ĝin fari, ĉu vi konsentos, aŭ
ne_ = I _will_ (intend to) do it whether you consent or not. (1). _Vi
mortigos tiun birdon, se vi rekte pafos_ = You will kill that bird if
you shoot straight. (2). _Mi ne permesas, ke vi mortigu tiun birdon_
= You _shall_ not (I do not allow you to) kill that bird. (1). _Mi
scias, ke vi ĝin faros_ = I know that you will do it. (2). _Mi
scias, ke vi povas ĝin fari, se vi volos_ = I know you can do it if
you _will_.

Note the difference in meaning of "shall" and "will" in the following
sentences:--I shall/will not see you to-morrow unless you come early.
If "shall" be used, it means that something will prevent the speaker
from seeing the individual; the speaker may be out, or engaged;
therefore, since the reason is unimportant, we can translate the
sentence, as in English, by the future, as:--(1). _Mi ne vidos vin
morgaŭ, se vi ne_ (or, _krom se vi_) _venos frue_. But if "will" be
used, determination on the part of the speaker is implied; nothing
prevents him; he could see you if he wished, but he _will_ not
(won't). Therefore, in Esperanto, we must express this determination,
and say (2). _Mi ne volas_ (or, _mi ne intencas_) _vin vidi morgaŭ,
krom se vi venos frue_ = I _will_ not (I do not intend to) see you
to-morrow unless you come early. (1). _Mi ne mortos sola_ = I shall
not die alone. (2). _Mi ne volas_ (or, _mi certe ne intencas_) _morti
sola_ = I _will_ not (I certainly do not intend to) die alone. (1).
_Ĉu vi estos_ (or, _ĉeestos_) _tie ĉi morgaŭ?_ = Will you be here
to-morrow? (1). _Jes, mi estos_ = Yes, I will. Note that "will" here
repeats the verb in the question, and is used instead of "shall."
(1). _Li diras, ke li venos, sed_ (1) _ĉu li venos?_ or, (2) _ĉu li
volos?_ = He says he will come, but will he? Here the words "but will
he?" must be translated in accordance with the sense to be conveyed,
viz.:--(1) will something prevent him? (2) will he have the will?

The phrase "Shall I do that?" can be translated by the future, _Ĉu
mi tion faros?_ = Is it a fact that I shall do that? or, _Ĉu estos
plej bone tion fari_ = Is it best to do that? or, _Ĉu estos
profite_, _saĝe_, _k.c._ = Will it be expedient, wise, etc., or,
_Ĉu decos, ke mi tion faru?_ = Will it be proper (right) to do that?
or, _Ĉu vi volas_ (or, _deziras_), _ke mi tion faru_, or, _Ĉu mi
faru tion?_ = Shall I (do you wish me to, Am I to) do that? (1). _Ĉu
vi iros?_ = Shall you go? (2). _Ĉu vi volas iri?_ = _Will_ you go?
_Ĉu vi volas, ke mi iru?_ or, _Ĉu mi iru?_ = Shall I go? Am I to
go? (pars. 58 (_a_), 237 (_m_) (3)). "Will I go" is bad English, and

Should and Would.

237 (_o_). "Should" and "would" follow the rules of "shall" and
"will" when employed in parallel circumstances. They express:--

(1). Supposition, or a future that is doubtful, conditional, or
merely supposed (par. 192), as "_I should do it if I knew how._"

(2). Duty or obligation (par. 237 (_a_)) as "He _should_ not do that."

(3). Determination, as "Nothing could influence him, he _would_ do it."

(4). The softening of an expression (par. 194), as "Would you
object to do that?"

(5). The future in _indirect_ speech (par. 232), as "_She said she
would (will) come._"

(6). Would, when it signifies _custom_ or _habit_, is sometimes
translated by adding the suffix _-AD-_ to the verb.

The following sentences will show how these various meanings may be
expressed in Esperanto. The number before each example shows under
which class of meanings it comes.

Examples.--(1). _Mi ĝin farus, se vi min permesus_ = I should do it
if you would permit me. (1). _Li min frapus, se li ne timus_ = He
would strike me if he were not afraid. (3). _Li insistis ĝin fari
malgraŭ la danĝero_ = He _would_ do it in spite of the danger. (4).
_Ĉu vi donus al mi tiun libron?_ = Would you give me that book? (1).
_Se vi vidus Johanon morgaŭ_ (2) _vi devus diri al li, ke li ne
aĉetu tiun domon_ = If you should see John to-morrow, you should
tell him not to buy that house. (5). _Ŝi diris al mi, ke ŝi venos_
= She told me that she would (will) come. (1). _Mi iomete suspektis,
ke ili venos_ = I had a slight suspicion that they would come. (6).
_Ili ofte rajdadis tra la arbaroj, kie la branĉoj tuŝadis iliajn
ŝultrojn, kaj la birdoj kantadis inter la freŝaj folioj_ = They
would often ride through the woods, where the branches would touch
their shoulders, and the birds would sing amid the fresh leaves.

Must, Ought.

237 (_p_). "Must" and "Have to" always signify physical or moral
obligation, and are stronger terms than "ought," which implies moral
obligation or duty. Compare "_You must_ (_have to_, _are to_) _go_"
with "_You ought to go._" The former can be rendered by devi, and the
latter, "ought," by _deci_, or some word implying moral obligation.
Devi is also used for "ought" in the Conditional mood; devus, in this
case, being the softened form of the Conditional mood (see par. 194).
Care must be taken not to translate "must" when it signifies "have
to" or "am to" by havi or esti (see par. 237 (_a_) on devi).

Examples.--_Li devas labori_ = He must (has to) work. _Mi devas havi
tiun libron_ = I must have that book. _Ĉio, kio troviĝas en tiu ĉi
libro, devas esti rigardata kiel deviga por ĉiuj_ = Everything
which is in this book must be regarded as obligatory for all.
_La "Fundamento de Esperanto" devas resti severe netuŝebla_ =
The "Fundamento de Esperanto" must remain strictly unalterable
(untouchable). _Vi devus ne fari tion_, or, _Ne decas, ke vi tion
faru_ = You ought not to (it is not proper, right that you should) do
that. _Vi devus viziti (Decas, ke vi vizitu) la patron_ = You ought
to see (it is proper that you should see) your father. _Li devus ne
forgesi_ (or, _esti forgesinta_) = He ought not to have forgotten.
_Decas, ke mi alportu miajn servojn al la reĝo_ = I ought to offer
my services to the king. _Kiam vi devos vidi la homon?_ = When must
you (will you have to) see the man? _Mi devus vidi lin hieraŭ, sed
li malsaniĝis, tial nun mi devos atendi ĝis morgaŭ_ = I ought to
have seen him yesterday, but he fell ill, so now I must wait till

N.B.--Note, in the last example, that the adverb _hieraŭ_ =
yesterday, clearly shows the action is past; it is therefore
unnecessary to use the past infinitive _esti vidinta_.

ADVERBS (Adverboj).

238. Adverbs are more widely used in Esperanto than in any other
language. The root of every word, and any grammatical termination or
affix, the sense of which permits this, can be made into an adverb by
adding the adverbial termination _E_. This facility enables the
Esperantist to express in one word, to an unlimited extent, what in
other languages often takes two, three, or more words to express
adequately. E.g., Tiamaniere = _In such a manner_. Matene = _In
the morning_. Vespere = _In the evening_.

239. An adverb answers to a preposition accompanied by a

Example.--_Li parolas saĝe_ = "He speaks wisely," has the same
signification as _Li parolas kun saĝeco_ = He speaks with wisdom.

240. Adverbs are used to modify the meaning of verbs, adjectives,
or other adverbs.

Examples.--_Li agas bone_ = He acts well. _Tiu ĉi estas tre granda
domo_ = This is a very large house. _Li skribas treege bone_ = He
writes extremely well.

N.B.--When an adverb seems to qualify a preposition, it really
qualifies an adverbial phrase, as:--Multe antaŭ la horo = _Much
before the time_ (_hour_).

241. Position.--Adverbs, as a rule, immediately precede or follow
the words which they modify (see par. 88).

242. There are two classes of adverbs in Esperanto, which for the
sake of distinction we will call (_a_) "Primary" and (_b_)

(_a_). Primary adverbs are all to be found in the list of primary
words in Part V. They have no distinctive termination.

(_b_). Grammatical adverbs are those which are formed by adding _E_
to a root, grammatical termination, or affix. Some are formed by
adding _E_ to a primary word.

A list of adverbs will be found at page 166.

243. No influence on case.--Adverbs exercise no influence on the
case of nouns, adjectives, or pronouns. If such be in the accusative,
it is not by the influence of the adverb. For example:--Mi amas
Johanon tiel varme, kiel mian fraton = _I love John as warmly as my
brother_. Here kiel exercises no influence on mian fraton, for
both mian fraton and Johanon are governed by the verb amas.
Therefore the meaning is that the speaker loves my brother and John
equally warmly. Or, we can place mian fraton in the nominative,
as:--Mi amas Johanon tiel varme, kiel mia frato = _I love John as
warmly as my brother_ (_does_). Ask yourself the question, "as my
brother does what?" and the answer is "loves John." In English we are
obliged to add "does" or "loves him," but in Esperanto the meaning is
quite clear from the case of the noun (see also pars. 247 and 105).

244. Adverbs formed from Prepositions.--When a preposition has no
complement, noun or pronoun, the preposition then takes the adverbial
termination _E_. For instance, in the phrase mi staras apud li (_I
am standing by him_); apud here is a preposition because it is
followed by its complement li. But if li be omitted, we must
alter the sentence, as:--Li staras apude = _He is standing by_

245. Subject not expressed.--When, in a sentence in Esperanto,
there is no noun or pronoun which the adjective can qualify (as in
case of verbs in the infinitive, or used impersonally), the adverb is
used in Esperanto in place of the adjective.

Examples.--_Mensogi estas honte_ (not _honta_) = To lie is shameful.
_Estas necese, ke...._ = It is necessary that.... _Estas bele, varme,
malvarme_ = It is fine, warm, cold. _Ne estas atendate, ke...._ = It
is not expected that.... If, however, a noun or pronoun is expressed,
then the adjective is used, as:--_La vetero_ (or, _ĝi_) _estas
bela_, _varma_, _malvarma_ = The weather (_or_, it) is fine, warm,

245 (_a_). Participle-Adverbs.--In Esperanto, when the participle
relates to the subject (par. 211), but does not qualify it, then the
participle takes the adverbial form. For impersonal use see par. 164

Examples.--_Legante, ni lernas_ = In (by, when, while) reading we
learn. _Starante sur la supro de la monteto, li povis vidi la
preĝejon_ = By standing on the top of the hill, he could see the
church. _Estante kolera, ŝi ne volis paroli al sia nevo_ = Being (as
she was) angry, she did not wish to speak to her nephew. _Malferminte
la fenestron, li vidis la amason sur la strato_ = Having opened
(_or_, after opening) the window, he saw the crowd in (on) the
street. _Ekrigardinte la libron, ŝi ĝin metis sur la tablon_ =
Having glanced (_or_, after glancing) at the book, she put it on the
table. _Forpelite el la urbo, ili rifuĝis en la arbarego_ = Having
been (_or_, after being) driven from the town, they took refuge in
the forest. _Batate de la lernejestro, la knabo terure kriegis_ =
Being beaten by the schoolmaster, the boy howled terribly.

246. Adverbs of quantity, like other words signifying quantity,
usually have their complement introduced by the preposition da.

Examples.--_Multe da homoj_ = Many men. _Nur malmulte da virinoj_ =
Only a few women. _Kiom da ĉevaloj vi havas?_ = How many horses have
you? _Multe pli da bovaĵo, ol (da) ŝafaĵo_ = Much more beef than
mutton. _Malpli da pano, ol (da) vino_ = Less bread than wine. _Tro
da kuiristoj malbonigas la buljonon_ = Too many cooks spoil the
broth. _Ne estas sufiĉe da supo_ = There is not sufficient soup.

246. (_a_). Expressions such as "more and more," "at most," etc., are
thus rendered:--

Pli-malpli, pli aŭ malpli, plie aŭ malplie = _More or less_.

Plie = _In addition, besides_, _moreover_. Malplie = _Less and

Pleje = _At (the) most_, _mostly_. Malpleje = _At (the) least_,

Troe = _In excess_, _too many_.


[18] These usages are seldom employed.

Examples.--_Unu pomo plie aŭ malplie ne gravas_ = One apple more or
less does not signify. _Plie, mi devas diri al vi, ke...._ =
Moreover, I must tell you that.... _Ni estos kvin pleje haj ili sep
malpleje_ = We shall be five at most and they seven at least. _En la
kesto mi trovis du librojn troe_ = In the box I found two books too
many (in excess).

247. Adverbs and the accusative case.--Adverbs exercise no
influence on case (see par. 243), but used adverbially, participles
of active verbs are followed by the accusative if used without a
preposition (see par. 66 (_b_)).

After such adverbs as konforme, rilate, escepte, spite, etc.,
it is optional either to use the accusative or to add a suitable
preposition with the complement in the nominative, as konforme al,
kun, or je; rilate al; escepte de (or, kun la escepto de =
_with the exception of_); spite de (see par. 258 (_a_)).

248. Comparatives and superlatives.--These are marked in the same
way as adjectives (see pars. 112-114).

Examples.--_Pli rapide, ol bone_ = More quickly than well. _Malpli
forte, ol kutime_ = Weaker (less strong) than customary. _Tiel
dolĉe, kiel eble_ (or, _kiel eble plej dolĉe_) = As sweetly as
possible. _Ŝi kantas la plej bone el ĉiuj_ = She sings best of all.
_Li agis tre saĝe_ = He acted very wisely.

248 (_a_). Adverbs and adjectives.--Be careful not to use the
adjective for the adverb.

Examples.--_Li kuras rapide_ = He runs rapidly. _Parolu pli laŭte_
(not _laŭta_) = Speak louder (more loudly). _Ŝi vidis lin
piediranta pli malrapide, ol kutime_ = She saw him walking (that he
was (is) walking) more slowly than usual.

N.B.--Note that _piediranta_ is predicative (see par. 209 (_b_)).


248 (_b_). The following list of adverbs contains all those found
amongst the primary words and some formed from them, also a number of
useful grammatical adverbs.

Adiaŭ = _Adieu_, _farewell_, _good-bye_.

Example.--_Li diris al ŝi adiaŭ, kaj foriris_ = He said good-bye to
her, and departed.

Afrankite = _Post-paid_.

Ajn = _Ever_. Ajn is generally used after the correlative words
beginning with _K_, as kia, kiam, etc. (see table of correlative
words, par. 147). It then answers to words ending in "ever," but,
unlike English, it is never joined to the preceding word (par. 145).

Examples.--_Kia ajn_ = Whatever kind of. _Kiam ajn_ = Whenever,
whensoever. _Kie ajn_ = Wherever, wheresoever. _Kiel ajn_ = However.
_Kies ajn_ = Whosesoever. _Kio ajn_ = Whatever, whatsoever. _Kiom
ajn_ = However much. _Kiu ajn_ = Whoever, whosoever, whichever,

Aliloke = _Elsewhere_.

Alivorte = _In other words_.

Almenaŭ = _At least_.

Example.--_Donu al mi almenaŭ la duonon de tiu biskvito_ = Give me
at least the half of that biscuit.

Alvenante, Alveninte = _On arrival_.

Ambaŭ = _Both_, _one and the other_ (pronoun).

Examples.--_Ili ambaŭ kuris al la stacidomo_ = They both ran to the

Ankaŭ = _Also_, _too_.

Examples.--_Li ankaŭ ĝin faris_ = He, too, did it. _Nek mi ankaŭ_
= Nor I either (also).

Ankoraŭ = _Yet_, _still_. (See remarks on Jam).

Examples.--_Ĉu li estas ankoraŭ tie ĉi?_ = Is he still here? _Mi
ankoraŭ ne vidis lin_ = I have not seen him yet.

Antaŭe = _Formerly_, _previously_, _beforehand_, _in front_.

Aparte = _Aside_, _apart_, _separately_, _specially_.

Apenaŭ = _Hardly_, _scarcely_.

Example.--_Mi apenaŭ pensas tion_ = I hardly think that (_or_, so).

Baldaŭ = _Soon_.

Example.--_Mi esperas, ke li venos baldaŭ_ = I hope he will (may)
come soon.

Bis = _Once more_, _again_, _encore_.

Example.--_Bis!_ = Encore!

Bonstate = _In good condition_.

Certe = _Certainly_.

Ĉi = _The nearest_ (tio = _that_, tio ĉi or ĉi tio =
_this_), (tiu = _that_, _the former_, tiu ĉi or ĉi tiu =
_this_, _the latter_), (tie = _there_, tie ĉi or ĉi tie =
_here_), (tien = _thither_, tien ĉi = _hither_), (ĉio =
_all_, ĉio ĉi = _all this_) (par. 143).

Examples.--_Restu ĉi tie_ = Remain here. _Venu ĉi tien_ = Come

Ĉial = _For all reasons_, _for every reason_ (par. 150).

Example.--_Ĉial tio estas la plej bona_ = For every reason that is
the best.

Ĉiam = _Always_, _ever_ (par. 151).

Example.--_Li venas ĉiam, kiam oni ne bezonas lin_ = He always comes
when one does not want him.

Ĉiame = _Perpetually_, _continually_.

Example.--_La infano ploras ĉiame_ (or, _senĉese_) = The child
cries perpetually.

Ĉie = _Everywhere_ (par. 152).

Examples.--_Ĉie mi lin vidas_ = Everywhere I see him. _Li iras
ĉien_ = He goes everywhere.

Ĉiel = _In every (manner) way, all ways_ (par. 153).

Example.--_Tiu estas ĉiel la plej bona sidejo_ = That is in every
way the best seat.

Ĉiom = _All of it, the whole, all, every quantity_ (par. 156).

Example.--_Prenu iom, ne ĉiom_ = Take some, not the whole.

Ĉirkaŭe = _Round about_.

Ĉiufoje kiam, or, ĉiun fojon kiam, or, kiam ajn = _whenever_.

Ĉiujare = _Yearly, annually, every year_.

Ĉiumonate = _Monthly, every month_.

Ĉiusemajne = _Weekly, every (each) week_.

Ĉiutage = _Daily_. Laŭtage = _By the day_. Tage = _By day_.
Nokte = _By night_.

Ĉu = _Whether_. An interrogative adverb used at the beginning of a
direct question; it has no English equivalent. Ĉu simply shows
that the sentence is interrogative, and therefore, to translate it,
we must look to the tense of the verb and to the subject, so as to
preface the interrogation with "do," "does," "did," "have," "has,"
"is," "will," "shall," "was," "were," "should," "would," "can," etc.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi komprenis?_ = Did you understand? _Ĉu Johano
skribas?_ = Is John writing? _Ĉu vi povas fari tion?_ = Can you do
that? (see remarks on Interrogation, par. 58).

Ĉu = _whether_ (or _if_ in the sense of _whether_) (a conjunction)
is used in indirect questions, when we generally use "if."

Examples.--_Diru al mi, ĉu li venos_ = Tell me if (whether) he will
come. _Diru al mi, se li venos_ = Tell me if he comes.

Ĉu ... Ĉu = _Whether ... whether_.

Example.--_Ĉu li venos, ĉu li ne venos, Paŭlo foriros_ = Whether
he comes (will come) (or) whether he does not (will not come), Paul
will depart.

Dekstre = _On the right._ Maldekstren = _To the left._

Denove = _Afresh_, _again_, _once again_.

Due = _Secondly_, _in the second place_.

Dum = _While_, _whilst_, _as_ (also a preposition and conjunction).

Dume = _Meanwhile._

Eble = _Possibly_, _perhaps_.

Eĉ = _Even._

Examples.--_Li eĉ pensis, ke...._ = He even thought that.... _Eĉ la
infanoj insultis min_ = Even the children abused me.

Efektive = _In fact_, _really_, _as a matter of fact_.

Ekstere = _Outwardly._ Interne = _inwardly_, _internally_,
_within_, _inside_.

Entute = _On the whole_, _as a whole_.

Facile = _Easily._ Malfacile = _With difficulty._

Fine = _In conclusion_, _lastly_.

For = _Away_, _forth_.

Example.--_For de ĉi tie fripono!_ = Get thee hence (away), rascal!

Forme = _In shape_, _in form_.

Galope = _At a gallop._

Grandnombre = _In great numbers._

Ĝisdate = _Up to date._ Ĝisnune = _Up to now_, _hitherto_.
Ĝisplue = _Until further notice._

Ĝissate = _Till satiety (is reached)._

Ĝustatempe = _Opportunely_, _to time_.

Hieraŭ = _Yesterday._

Examples.-_-Mi lin vidis hieraŭ_ = I saw him yesterday.
_Antaŭhieraŭ_ = The day before yesterday.

Hieraŭ matene = _Yesterday morning._

Hodiaŭ = _To-day._

Example.--_Li alvenos hodiaŭ_ = He will arrive to-day.

Hodiaŭ vespere = _This (to-day) evening._

Ial = _For some_ (_any_) _reason_, _or cause_ (par. 150).

Example.--_Ial li venis Londonon_ = For some reason he came to

Iam = _At some_ (_any_) _time_, _once_, _ever_ (par. 151).

Examples.--_Venu iam morgaŭ_ = Come some time to-morrow. _Ĉu vi iam
renkontis lin?_ = Did you ever meet him?

Ie = _Somewhere_, (_anywhere_) (par. 152).

Examples.--_Mi ne povas ĝin trovi ie en la ĉambro_ = I cannot find
it anywhere in the room. _Ĝi estas ie_ = It is somewhere. _Ĉu vi
metis ĝin ien?_ = Did you put it anywhere?

Iel = _Somehow_, _in some way_, _in some manner_, _anyhow_, (_in
any way_) (par. 153).

Examples.--_Iel li sukcesas en ĉio_ = Somehow he succeeds in
everything. _Respondu iel_ = Answer in some manner.

Iom = _Somewhat_, _some quantity_, _a little_, _some_ (par. 156).

Examples.--_La vetero estas iom pli varma_ = The weather is somewhat
(a little) warmer. _Jen estas cigaroj, ĉu vi deziras iom?_ = Here
are cigars, do you want some?

Iomete = _A very little_, _in a very slight degree_, _at all_.

Example.--_Ĝi estis iomete pli granda, ol kulo_ = It was slightly
larger than a gnat.

Intence = _Intentionally_, _on purpose_.

Ja = _In fact_, _indeed_.

Examples.--_Li ja alvenos morgaŭ_ = He in fact will arrive
to-morrow. _Ja_ may be used to express the emphatic English use of
"do," "did," as:--_Mi ja volas, ke li estu tie ĉi_ = I do wish he
were here (par. 217).

Jam = _Already_, _as yet_, _by now_, _now_.

Examples.--_Vi jam diris tion_ = You said (have said) that already.
_Ĉu vi jam trovis vian horloĝon?_ = Have you _as yet_ found your
watch? _Mi ĝin ankoraŭ ne serĉis_ = I have _not yet_ looked for
it. _La knabo jam ne ridas_ = The boy does not laugh _now_ (no longer

N.B.--Compare _jam_ with _ankoraŭ_. Jam shows that the circumstances
are changed; _ankoraŭ_, that there is no change. Ex.:--_La infano
jam dormas_ = The child is _now_ sleeping (it was not sleeping
before). _La infano ankoraŭ dormas_ = The child is _still_ sleeping.

Jen = _Behold_, _here_. Jene = _As follows_.

Examples.--_Jen estas tio, kion vi bezonas_ = Here is what (that
which) you want. _Jen estas la libroj_ = Here are the books.

Jes = _Yes_, _it is so_ (par. 63). Jese = _Affirmatively_.

Examples.--_Jes, vi estas prava_ = Yes, you are right. _Mi vin
certigas, ke jes_ = I assure you that it is so.

Ju pli ... des pli = _The more ... the more_ (par. 112).

Example.--_Ju pli mi lin konas, des pli mi lin amas_ = The more I
know him, the more I love him.

Ju pli ... des malpli = _The more ... the less._

Example.--_Ju pli mi lin vidas, des malpli li plaĉas al mi_ = The
more I see him, the less he pleases me.

Ju malpli ... des malpli = _The less ... the less_.

Example.--_Ju malpli mi dormas, des malpli mi sentas la bezonon
dormi_ = The less I sleep, the less I feel the need (to sleep) of

Ju malpli ... des pli = _The less ... the more_.

Example.--_Ju malpli mi trinkas, des pli mi manĝas_ = The less I
drink, the more I eat.

Ĵus = _Just_, _at the_ (_past_) _moment_, _just now_.

Examples.--_Mi ĵus vidis ŝin_ = I have just seen her. _Mi ĵus
diris al vi lian nomon_ = I have just told you his name. _Lia ĵusa
parolo_ = The speech he has just made.

Kaŝe or sekrete = _In secret_.

Kelkafoje or kelkfoje = _Sometimes_. Iafoje = _At times_.
Multfoje = _Many times_.

Kia ajn = _Whatever_ (_kind of_) (par. 145).

Example.--_Mi aĉetos de vi tiun libron, kia ajn ĝi estos_ = I will
buy from you that book whatever it may (shall) be.

Kial = _Why_, _wherefore_ (par. 150).

Example.--_Kial vi silentis?_ = Why were you silent?

Kiam = _When_, _at what time_ (par. 151).

Example.--_Kiam li alvenos?_ = When will he arrive?

Kiam ajn = _Whenever_, _whensoever_ (par. 145).

Example.--_Sendu lin al mi, kiam ajn li venos_ = Send him to me
whenever he comes (shall come).

Kie = _Where_, _in what place_ (par. 152).

Examples.--_Kie kreskas tiuj floroj?_ = Where do those flowers grow?
_Diru al mi, kie li estas_ = Tell me where he is. _Kien_ (accusative)
= Whither. _Kien vi iras?_ = Whither (_or_, where) are you going? _De
kie li venis?_ = Whence did he come?

Kie ajn = _Wherever_, _wheresoever_ (par. 145).

Examples.--_Kie ajn li estas, li estas ŝatata_ = Wherever he is, he
is liked. _Kien ajn_ = Whithersoever. _Oni lin estimus, kien ajn li
irus_ = He would be esteemed whithersoever he went (should go). _De
kie ajn ĝi venis, ĝi estas tre bela katido_ = Whencesoever (from
wherever) it came, it is a very fine kitten.

Kiel = _How_, _in what manner_, _like_ (in comparison = _... as_).

Examples.--_Kiel vi fartas?_ = How do you do? (how are you, _or_,
fare you?) _Mi havas ian ideon kiel ĝin fari_ = I have some idea how
to do it. _Tiel longe kiel_ = As long as. _Se vi estus kiel mi_ = If
you were (should be) like me. _Kiel eble plej bone_ = As well as
possible (as possibly, most well). _Kiel bona vi estas!_ = How good
you are! (par. 153).

Kiel ajn = _However_, _in whatever manner_ (par. 145).

Example.--_Kiel ajn vi ĝin faros, faru ĝin bone_ = In whatever way
you (will) do it, do it well.

Kiom = _How much_, _as much as_, _as far as_ (par. 156).

Examples.--_Kiom kostas tio?_ = How much does that cost? _Kiom mi
scias_ = As far as I know. _Kiom li povos_ = As much as he can (will
be able).

Kiom ajn = _However_ (_many_) _much_, _whatever quantity_.

Examples.--_Mi ĝin aĉetos, kiom ajn ĝi kostos_ = I shall buy it,
however much it may (will) cost. _Kiom ajn da teo estas tie, tiom
sufiĉas_ = Whatever quantity of tea is there, it (that quantity) is
sufficient (par. 145).

Kompare = _Comparatively_, _in comparison_.

Kompate = _Compassionately_, _mercifully_. Senkompate =

Kompreneble = _Of course_.

Kondiĉe = _Conditionally_, _on condition_.

Konforme = _Conformably_, _in accordance_.

Konsekvence = _Consistently_.

Konsente = _By consent_.

Kontente = _Contentedly_. Malkontente = _Discontentedly_.

Kontentige = _Satisfactorily_, _in a satisfactory manner_.

Kontraŭe = _On the contrary_, _opposite to_, _vice versâ_.

Kredeble = _Likely_, _probably_.

Kune = _Together_, _jointly_. Kune kun = _Together with_, _along
with_. Malkune = _Separately_.

Kvazaŭ = _As if_, _as though_, _as it were_ (also conjunction).

Examples.--_Li staris, kvazaŭ li vidas fantomon_ = He stood as
though he saw (sees) a phantom. _Li parolis, kvazaŭ li vidis ŝin_ =
He spoke as if he had seen her.

Laŭlarĝe = _In breadth_, _broadways_, _transversely_.

Laŭlonge = _In length_, _lengthwise_.

Laŭvole = _At option_, _at will_.

Laŭte = _Loudly_, _in a loud voice_. Mallaŭte = _Softly_, _in a
soft voice_.

Lerte = _Cleverly_. Mallerte = _Awkwardly_.

Longe = _Long_, _for a long time_. Mallonge = _Briefly_, _in
short_. Antaŭ ne longe = _Recently_, _not long ago_, _a short time
ago_. De longe = _Long ago_, _long since_, _for a long time_.

Male = _On the contrary_, _contrarily_.

Malpleje = _Least_, _at least_.

Examples.--_Li malpleje donis_ = He gave least. _Ni estos tri
mapleje_ = We shall be three at least (see _pleje_).

Malpli = _Less_ (for comparatives) (par. 112).

Example.--_Georgo estas malpli forta, ol Johano_ = George is less
strong than John.

Malproksime = _Afar_, _away_, _far off_, _in the distance_.

Matene = _In the morning_. Vespere = _In the evening_.

Mem = _Self_, _selves_, _very_ (pronoun) (par. 127).

Examples.--_Mi mem iros_ = I shall go my_self_. _Eĉ la virinoj mem
laboris sur la kampoj_ = Even the women them_selves_ (_or_, the very
women) were working in the fields. _Ĉe la pordo mem_ = At the very
door (door it_self_).

Morgaŭ = _To-morrow_.

Examples.--_Mi iros tien morgaŭ_ = I shall go there to-morrow. _Li
alvenos postmorgaŭ_ = He will arrive the day after to-morrow.

Multe pli multe da ... = _Many_ (_much_) _more of_ ... Nemulte =
_Not much_, _not many_. Malmulte = _Little_, _few_.

Ne = _No_, _not_, _nay_.

Examples.--_Ĉu vi deziras kafon?_ = Do you wish for coffee? _Ne, mi
jam havas_ = No, I have (some) already (see remarks on negation, par. 59).

Ne tute = _Not entirely_, _not altogether_, _not quite_.

Example.--_Li ne estis tute malprava pri tio, kion li diris_ = He was
not altogether wrong in what he said.

Nenial = _For no cause_ (_reason_) (par. 150).

Example.--_Nenial li ĉesis skribi al mi_ = For no reason he ceased
writing to me.

Neniam = _Never_ (par. 151).

Example.--_Mi neniam vidis lin_ = I never saw him.

Nenie = _Nowhere_, _in no place_ (par. 152).

Examples.--_Nenie oni povis trovi mian hundon_ = Nowhere could they
find my dog. _Mi iras nenien speciale_ = I am going nowhere in

Neniel = _Nohow_, _by no means_, _in no way_ (par. 153).

Example.--_Li neniel povis kompreni ŝin_ = He could in no way (not
at all) understand her.

Neniom = _None_, _nothing_, _nothing at all_, _no quantity_
(par. 156).

Example.--_Li havas neniom_ = He has none at all.

Nepre = _Unfailingly_, _surely_, _infallibly_, _without fail_.

Example.--_Tiu libro nepre apartenas al mi_ = That book certainly
belongs to me.

Norden = _Northwards_, _to the north_. Suden = _Southwards_, _to
the south_. Orienten = _Eastwards_, _to the east_. Okcidenten =
_Westwards_. Okcidente = _In the west_.

Nun = _Now_.

Examples.--_Mi nun foriras_ = I am now going out. _Mi ne povas lin
vidi nun_ = I cannot see him now.

Nune = _At present_.

Example.--_Mi estas okupata nune_ = I am busy at present.

Nuntempe = _Now-a-days_, _at the present time_.

Nur = _Only_ (_but_, in the sense of _only_), _merely_.

Example.--_Li havas nur du ĉevalojn_ = He has but (only) two horses.
N.B.--Care should be taken to place _nur_ in such a position in a
sentence so as to convey the required meaning of the phrase. It is
best generally to place it before the word to which it specially
refers (see par. 88).

Pace = _In peace_, _peacefully_.

Page = _In payment_. Senpage = _Gratuitously_.

Parkere = _By heart_.

Parole = _Verbally_, _by word of mouth_. Skribe = _In writing_.

Example.--_Li tion komunikis al mi parole kaj skribe_ = He
communicated that to me verbally and in writing.

Pasie = _With passion_, _passionately_. Kolere, _angrily_.

Pere = _Indirectly_. Senpere = _In a direct way_, _direct_.

Persone = _Personally_, _in person_.

Piedire = _On foot._

Example.--_Mi trapasis la arbaron piedire_ = I traversed the wood on

(la) Plej = (_the_) _Most_ (for superlatives), _most_ (par. 113).

Examples.--_La plej bela el ĉiuj_ = The finest of all. _Vi agis plej
saĝe, farante tion_ = You acted most wisely in doing that.

Pleje = _Most_, _mostly_, _mainly_, _at most_.

Examples.--_Ŝi donis pleje_ = She gave most. _Pleje_ (or,
_plejofte_) _mi forgesas, ke ..._ = Mostly (frequently) I forget
that ... _Ni estos kvin pleje_ = We shall be five at most (see

Plezure = _With pleasure._

Pli = _More_ (for comparatives), _rather_ (par. 112).

Examples.--_Li ne vivos pli ol unu tagon_ = He will not live more
than one day. _Pli kaj pli mi ŝin amas_ = More and more I love her.
_Mi pli volis labori, ol ludi_ = I preferred to work than to play.

Plie = _Further_, _moreover_.

Plivole = _Preferably_, _rather_ (par. 112).

Plu = _Further_, _farther_, _more_. Ne ... plu = _No longer._

Examples.--_Mi ne faros unu paŝon plu_ = I shall not go (make) one
step further. _Li ne plu faros tion_ = He will not do that any longer
(more), or, He will no longer do that.

Plue = _Furthermore._

Poduone = _By half_, _by halves_.

Poste = _Afterwards_, _after_, _then_.

Precipe = _Especially_, _particularly_.

Prefere = _Preferably_, _rather_.

Preskaŭ = _Almost_, _nearly_, _well-nigh_.

Examples.--_Li preskaŭ falis_ = He nearly fell. _Ni preskaŭ pensas,
ke ..._ = We almost think that ...

Pripensinte = _On reflection._

Proksime = _Near._ Malproksime = _Far off._

Proksimume = _Approximately._

Prunte = _On loan._

Example.--_Mi prenis (donis) la monon prunte_ = I took (gave) the
money on loan.

Rapide = _Rapidly_, _quickly_, _apace_. Malrapide = _Slowly_,

Rapidire = _With speed_, _by express_. Malrapidire = _By slow

Rave = _Enchantingly_, _delightfully_.

Ree = _Again_, _in return_.

Rekte = _Straightforwardly_, _direct_. Malrekte = _Aslant._

Renversite = _Topsy-turvy_, _upset_.

Returne = _Back._ Returnen = _Backwards._

Ŝajne = _Seemingly._

Samtempe = _At the same time_, _simultaneously_.

Sekve = _Consequently_, _therefore_. Intersekve =
_Consecutively_, _successively_.

Sendube = _No doubt_; _without doubt_, _doubtless_.

Senintermanke = _Continuously_, _without intermission_.

Skribe = _In writing._

Sovaĝe = _In a wild state._ Malsovaĝe = _In a tame state._

Somere = _In summer._ Vintre = _In winter._

Speciale = _Specially._

Sube = _Beneath_, _below_, _under_, _underneath_.

Sufiĉe = _Enough_, _sufficiently_.

Supre = _Above_, _up_. Supren = _Upwards._ Malsupre = _Below._
De supre = _From above._

Surgenue = _On one's knees_, _kneeling_.

Surprize = _By (with) surprise._

Tial = _Therefore_, _accordingly_, _for that (such) reason_.

Example.--_Tial mi konsilas, ke vi skribu al li_ = For that reason
(therefore, accordingly) I advise you to write to him (par. 150).

Tiam = _Then_, _at that time_. The correlative is kiam, and
tiam, kiam = _then_, _when_ (or, _when_) (par. 151).

Examples.--_Tiam ni povos iri al la kunveno_ = We shall at that time
be able to go to the meeting. _Mi vizitos vin (tiam), kiam mi venos
Londonon_ = I will visit you (then) when I (shall) come to London.

Tiamaniere = _In this (such a) manner_, _thus_.

Tie = _There_, _yonder_. Tien = _Thither_ (par. 152).

Examples.--_Ĉu iu estos tie?_ = Will anyone be there? _Vi ne vidos
iun tie._ = You will not see anyone there. _Ĉu vi iras tien?_ = Are
you going thither (there)?

Tie ĉi, or, Ĉi tie = _Here._ Tien ĉi, or, Ĉi tien =
_Hither_, _here_ (par. 143).

Examples.--_Ĉu viaj fratoj estas tie ĉi?_ = Are your brothers here?
_Venu tien ĉi_ = Come here (hither). _Ĉi tie ni vidis amasojn da
viroj kaj virinoj_ (or, _geviroj_) = Here we saw crowds of men and

Tiel = _Thus_, _in that way_, _like that_, _so much so_. Its
correlative in comparison is kiel. Tiel ... kiel = _as ... as_
(par. 153).

Example.--_Li estas tiel forta, kiel vi_ = He is as strong as you.

Tiel ... ke = _So ... that._

Example.--_Li tiel kriegis, ke li raŭkiĝis pro tio_ = He shouted
so, that he became hoarse through it.

Tiom = _As much_, _as many_, _so much_, _so many_. Its correlative
is kiom, and tiom, kiom = _as many as_, _as much as_ (par. 156).

Examples.--_Tiom estas malfacile memori_ = So much is difficult to
remember. _Li tiom laboris, kiom vi_ = He worked as much as you.
_Donu al mi tiom da pomoj, kiom da piroj_ = Give me as many apples as

Tiom pli = _So much the more._

Examples.--_Tiom pli bone_ = So much the better. _Tiom pli malbone_ =
So much the worse.

Trae = _Right through._

Tre = _Very_, _much_.

Examples.--_Li estas tre dika_ = He is very corpulent. _Mi tre
estimas lin_ = I esteem him much.

Treege = _Extremely_, _exceedingly_.

Example.--_Ŝi estas treege kolera_ = She is extremely angry.

Trie = _Thirdly._

Triumfe = _Triumphantly_.

Tro = _Too_, _too much_.

Examples.--_Li estas tro grasa_ = He is too fat. _Mi lin tro amas_ =
I love him too much.

Troe = _In excess_.

Example.--_Dudek funtoj troe_ = Twenty pounds in excess.

Tuj = _At once_, _immediately_, _just_ (_at the moment to come_).

Examples.--_Li tuj iris hejmen_ = He went home immediately (at once).
_Tuj kantonta_ = just about to sing.

Tuj kiam = _As soon as_ (_immediately when_).

Example.--_Tuj kiam mi lin vidis, kuris al li renkonte_ = As soon as
I saw him, I ran to meet him.

Tute = _Entirely_, _quite_, _utterly_, _stark_.

Examples.--_Vi estas tute prava_ = You are quite right. _Li estas
tute freneza_ = He is stark mad.

Tute ne = _Not at all_.

Example.--_Mi tute ne komprenas vin_ = I don't at all understand you.

Unue = _First_, _firstly_, _at first_.

Verŝajne = _Probably_, _presumably_.

Vete = _Emulously_.

Vole = _With one's will_. Kontraŭvole = _Against one's will_.
Memvole = _Voluntarily_. Senvole = _Involuntarily_.

Vole-nevole = _Willy-nilly_.

Volonte = _Willingly_, _readily_.

248 (_c_). From the above list we see that the adverb is often used
in Esperanto in place of a preposition and its complement (par. 252).

Examples.--_Ŝi estas nigre vestita_ = She is dressed in black. _Li
donis al mi du ŝilingojn page por la libro_ = He gave me two
shillings in payment for the book. _Forme ĝi estis simila al krono_
= In shape it was like a crown. _La libro estas angle skribita_ = The
book is written in English. _Hamleto estas tradukita Esperanten_ =
Hamlet has been translated into Esperanto. Note that in the word
_Esperanten_ the accusative of movement is used figuratively. (par. 67).


The following is a list of the 34 simple prepositions, showing the
paragraphs under which remarks and examples of their use will be

  Al        _To, towards_            259 (1).
  Anstataŭ  _Instead of_             259 (2).
  Antaŭ     _Before, in front of_    259 (3).
  Apud      _Beside, close by_       259 (4).
  Ĉe        _At, with_               259 (5).
  Ĉirkaŭ    _About, around_          259 (6).
  Da        _Of_                     259 (7).
  De        _Of, from, by_           259 (8).
  Dum       _During_                 259 (9).
  Ekster    _Outside_                259 (10).
  El        _Out of_                 259 (11).
  En        _In_                     259 (12).
  Ĝis       _Till, as far as_        259 (13).
  Inter     _Between_                259 (14).
  Je        _(Indefinite)_           259 (15).
  Kontraŭ   _Against, opposite_      259 (16).
  Krom      _Besides, except_        259 (17).
  Kun       _With_                   259 (18).
  Laŭ       _According to_           259 (19).
  Malgraŭ   _Notwithstanding_        259 (20).
  Per       _By means of_            259 (21).
  Po        _At the rate of_         259 (22).
  Por       _In order to, for_       259 (23).
  Post      _After, behind_          259 (24).
  Preter    _Beyond, past_           259 (25).
  Pri       _Concerning, of, about_  259 (26).
  Pro       _Because of, for_        259 (27).
  Sen       _Without_                259 (28).
  Sub       _Under_                  259 (30).
  Super     _Above, over_            259 (31).
  Sur       _On_                     259 (32).
  Tra       _Through_                259 (33).
  Trans     _Across_                 259 (34).

PREPOSITIONS (Prepozicioj).

249. Prepositions express the relation between words, showing how
some thing, action, or quality stands in relation to some other
thing, action, or quality.

Examples.--_La riveroj fluas al la oceano_ = Rivers flow towards the
ocean. _Li manĝas antaŭ la tagmezo_ = He eats before midday. _Nia
domo staras ekster la arbetaro_ = Our house stands outside the

250. Every preposition, but one, in Esperanto has a fixed and
definite signification, and great care must be taken to use the
preposition which gives the meaning we wish to convey. A careful
examination of the list of prepositions in par. 259 will show the
errors we should make by translating the English preposition into its
apparent corresponding one in Esperanto.

251. The preposition je is the only one in Esperanto without a
definite meaning. It should be used only when we have to employ a
preposition and are uncertain which we ought to select. We can,
however, omit the preposition, and put its complement (noun or
pronoun) in the accusative case, provided no ambiguity is likely to
arise through the presence of other accusatives in the sentence,
as:--Li ĝojas je tio, or, Li ĝojas tion = _He rejoices at_ (or,
_over_) _that_. There is no Esperanto preposition which gives exactly
the English meaning of "at" or "over" in this sense. We might,
perhaps, say that these words are part of the verb "to rejoice at,"
or, "to rejoice over." The nearest Esperanto preposition would be
pri or pro = _about_, or, _because of_, and we could say Li
ĝojas pro tio = _He rejoices because of that_ (see Rule 14, par. 94).

(_a_). Je, with the nominative, is generally used before the
complement of the adjectives "deep, high, long, thick, wide," but the
accusative without a preposition is equally correct.

Examples.--_Profunda_ (_alta_, _longa_) _je kvin futoj_ (or, _kvin
futojn_) = Five feet deep (high, long). _La rivero estas larĝa je
kvindek metroj_ (or, _larĝa kvindek metrojn_) = The river is fifty
metres wide. We could, however, say, _La rivero havas kvindek metrojn
da larĝo_ (or, _da larĝeco_).

252. Adverb for preposition.--An adverb is often used instead of a
preposition and its complement (par. 248 (_c_)).

Examples.--_Li parolas saĝe_ = He speaks with wisdom, instead of,
_Li parolas kun saĝeco_. _Li estis frapata perfortege_ = He was
being struck with great violence, instead of, _Li estis frapata kun

253. Preposition omitted.--Not only the preposition Je (par.
251), but also other prepositions, are frequently omitted in
Esperanto where we use them in English; but in such case (as stated
in par. 68) their complements must be in the accusative to show the
omission. Care, however, must be taken that the omission does not
make the phrase ambiguous.

Examples.--_Li venos la mardon proksiman_ (or, _en la mardo
proksima_) = He will come next Tuesday. _Mi iros Madridon_ (or, _al
Madrido_) _morgaŭ_ = I shall go to Madrid to-morrow. _Mi lin vidis
la dekan_ (or, _en la deka_) _de Julio_ = I saw him on the 10th of
July. _Ni restis en la veturilo du horojn_ (or, _dum du horoj_) = We
remained two hours in the carriage.

(_a_). Prepositions are also always omitted between two substantives,
when the word nomata = _named_ could be understood (par. 106 (_d_)), as:--

_La urbo_ (_nomata_) _Parizo_ = The city of (named) Paris. _La monato
Septembro_ = The month of September. _Li uzadas la lingvon
internacian_ (_nomatan_) _Esperanto_ = He uses the international
language Esperanto.

(_b_). The preposition el = _of_, _out of_, is sometimes omitted in
such an expression as:--

_Tri miaj parencoj_ = Three of my relatives (_or_, three relations of

254. Prepositions as prefixes.--Prepositions are frequently used as
prefixes, and when the compound word is a verb, the preposition is
often repeated before the indirect complement of the verb.

Examples.--_Mi eliris el la korto_ = I went out of the courtyard. _Li
eniris en la ĉambron_ = He entered (into) the room. _La birdo
deflugis de la arbo_ = The bird flew from the tree. _Li eliris el la
domo_ = He went out of the house. Or we could say, _Li iris el la
domo_, omitting the joined preposition.

255. Prepositions and case.--In contrast to prepositions in
English, which govern the accusative case, all prepositions in
Esperanto govern the nominative case. If the complement of a
preposition is in the accusative case, this is owing not to the
preposition, but to the rule that the accusative is used to show the
direction or place towards which movement (physical or otherwise) is
made (par. 67).

256. Preposition and the accusative of direction.--As already
stated in par. 67, the accusative is used when direction (physical or
otherwise) is implied towards something. But if the word towards
which such movement is implied is the complement of a preposition,
then such word is in the nominative or accusative, in accordance with
the following rules:--

(_a_). If the preposition denotes of itself movement, its
complement will be in the nominative, in accordance with Rule 8 that
prepositions govern that case.

(b). If the preposition does not of itself denote movement, then
movement is shown by placing its complement in the accusative
(par. 67).

257. Prepositions denoting movement.--The following two
prepositions denote movement, and consequently their complement is
never in the accusative:--Al = _To_, _towards_. Ĝis = _Up to_,
_as far as_.

As regards the others, the following are those in general use, whose
complement takes the accusative of direction when motion towards
something is implied:--Antaŭ = _Before_. Ĉirkaŭ = _Around_,
_about_. En = _In_. Kontraŭ = _Against_. Sub = _Under_.
Super = _Over_. Sur = _On_, _upon_. Tra = _Through_. Trans =

Examples.--_Li staris momente antaŭ la spegulo, kaj tuj poste venis
antaŭ la reĝon_ = He stood for a moment before the looking-glass,
and then came before (into the presence of) the king. _La infano
dancis en la korto, kaj poste kuris en la ĝardenon_ = The child
danced _in_ (not _into_) the courtyard, and then ran _into_ (not
_in_) the garden. _Ĵetu tion sub la tablon_ = Throw that under the
table. _Ĵetu la ŝtonon super la muron_ = Throw the stone over the
wall. _Mi prenas sur min tiun ĉi aferon_ = I take upon myself this
business (moral movement, therefore accusative, since _sur_ does not
of itself show movement). _La knabo vadis trans la riveron kaj trans
ĝi trovis aliajn knabojn_ = The boy waded across the river, and, on
the other side of it, found other boys.

258. Prepositional expressions.--Adverbs are not unfrequently
followed by prepositions, thus forming prepositional expressions
which take the nominative case, like simple prepositions.

Examples.--_Meze de la kampo_ = In the middle of the field. _Funde de
kesto_ = At the bottom of a box. _Flanke de la malliberulo_ = At the
side of the prisoner. _Proksime de la preĝejo_ = Near the church.
_Dekstre de la vojo_ = On the right of the road. _Supre de la muro_ =
At the top of the wall. _Dank' al lia konsilo_ = Thanks to his
advice. _Li venis kune kun sia frato_ = He came together (along) with
his brother. _Li estas for de tie ĉi_ = He is away from here. _Oni
plantis arbon proksime de la puto_ = They planted a tree near the well.
_Metu vian manon for de mia kolo!_ = Take your hand off (away from) my

(_a_). A few adverbs, used as prepositional expressions, are
sometimes followed by a suitable preposition and sometimes not; in
the latter case the complement is in the accusative, to show the
omission (par. 253).

Examples.--_Koncerne tiun aferon_ (or, _Koncerne je tiu afero_) =
Concerning that matter. _Konforme tion_ (or, _Konforme al_, _kun_ or,
_je tio_) = In conformity with that. _Rilate lian karakteron_ (or,
_Rilate al lia karaktero_) = With regard to (relative to, as regards,
referring to) his character (par. 247)

N.B.--These phrases are alternatives for simple prepositions. We
might, in some cases, use _pri_ for _koncerne je_ or _rilate al_, and
_laŭ_ for _konforme al_.

(_b_). Two prepositions sometimes are used.

Examples.--_"Eniru!" ekkriegis voĉo de en la pordo_ = "Come in!"
shouted a voice from within (inside) the door. _Li rampis de sub la
sofo_ = He crept from under the sofa. _La ŝtono havis la alton_ (or,
_altecon_) _de ĉirkaŭ ok centimetroj kaj la larĝon_ (or,
_larĝecon_) _de ĉirkaŭ kvin centimetroj_ = The stone had the
height of about eight centimetres and the width of about five
centimetres. _El sub la tirkestaro la muso kuris sub la liton_ = Out
from under the chest of drawers the mouse ran under the bed. _Ne
rapidu foriri de antaŭ li_ = Do not hasten to leave his presence (go
away from before him).

259. The relation of prepositions to their complement.--English
grammarians divide prepositions into various classes, but in
Esperanto, with the exception of those mentioned in par. 257,
denoting motion and rest, there are but two classes to which we need
pay special attention, viz., those which relate to both place and
time; and of these, two only, viz., antaŭ = _before_, and post
= _after_, require care in making their meaning clear.

In the following remarks on prepositions the examples given of their
use are placed under the various classes that their English rendering
would assign to them; but we must bear in mind that, in accordance
with Rule 14, every Esperanto preposition, except je, has a
defined and constant meaning (par. 250). This _defined_ meaning is
given at the _head_ of each preposition. The meanings given in the
_classes_ are only the _various English renderings_ that can be given
to the preposition (see English prepositions, pars. 260, 261).


259 (1). Al = _To, towards._

Denotes approximation or addition.

Approximation = _To, towards._

Examples.--_Li venis al ni_ = He came to (_or_ towards) us. _Mi iras
al Parizo_, or, _Mi iras Parizon_ = I am going to Paris. If _al_ be
omitted, _Parizon_ must be in the accusative of direction. _Ni ne
vidas, ĉar la lumo estas kaŝata al ni per la kurtenoj_ = We do not
see, because the light is hidden from (towards) us by the curtains.

N.B.--_Kaŝata al_, not _de_, which, after a passive participle,
means "by"; but independently of this, _al_ is logically used after
_kaŝi_, in the sense of "to hide from"; as:--_Sed pro kio kaŝi al
li vian amon?_ = But why conceal from him your love?

Addition = _To._

Examples.--_Mi donis akvon al la birdoj_ = I gave water to the birds.
_La rozo apartenas al Teodoro_ = The rose belongs to Theodore. _Donu
vestaĵon al la malriĉuloj_ = Give clothing to the poor.

N.B.--With some verbs _al_ is often used with the complement in the
nominative, when in English we omit the preposition, as:--_Li
konsilis al mi fari tion_ = He advised me to do that. _Ordonu al li_
(or, _Ordonu lin_), _ke li ne faru tion_ = Order him not to do that.

_Al_ is also sometimes used with personal pronouns in a possessive
sense, as:--_Li lavis al si la manojn_, or, _Li lavis siajn manojn_ =
He washed his hands (see par. 134).

As a prefix, _al_ signifies "to," "towards," as:--_Alveni_ = To
come to, arrive. _Alpreni_ = To take to, adopt. _Alpaŝi_ = To step
towards, approach.

259 (2). Anstataŭ = _Instead of._

One of the prepositions that may be used before the Infinitive (see
remarks on Infinitive, pars. 177, 179).

Substitution = _Instead of_, _for_, _in place of_, _as a substitute
for_, _in room of_.

Examples.--_Anstataŭ li, oni sendis lian fraton_ = Instead of him,
they sent his brother. _Anstataŭ kafo li donis al mi teon_ = Instead
of coffee he gave me tea. _Anstataŭ eliri, li restis en la domo_ =
Instead of going out, he remained in the house. _Anstataŭ unu el la
oficistoj_ = In place of one of the officials.

Although, in the first two examples given in the preceding paragraph,
anstataŭ, being a preposition, is followed by the nominative,
nevertheless, the accusative is often used in such cases when its use
helps to remove ambiguity; the accusative being due to the omission
of a verb understood. Compare: Petro batis Paŭlon anstataŭ
Vilhelmo = _Peter beat Paul instead of William doing so_, with
Petro batis Paŭlon anstataŭ (bati) Vilhelmon, _Peter beat
Paul instead of_ (_beating_) _William_.

As a root-word, _Anstataŭi_ = To replace (intrans.).
_Anstataŭigi_ = To replace (trans.), to substitute. _Anstataŭulo_ =
A proxy (person instead of).

259 (3). Antaŭ = _Before_, _in front of_.

Denotes place or time. May take accusative of direction.

Place = _Before_, _in front of_.

Examples.--_Oni metis antaŭ mi manĝilaron_ = They put before me a
table service. _Morgaŭ mi petos permeson veni antaŭ viajn reĝajn
okulojn_ = To-morrow I shall beg permission to come before your royal
presence (kingly eyes). _Antaŭ nia militistaro staris pafilegoj_ =
In front of our army were (stood) cannon.

Time = _Before_, _ago_.

Examples.--_Antaŭ ne longe_ = Not long ago. _Antaŭ kelkaj semajnoj_
= Some (a few) weeks ago.

N.B.--Since _antaŭ_ and also _post_ are frequently used both in the
sense of "time" and "place," care must be taken to word a phrase so
that no ambiguity may arise. In sentences like the following, _antaŭ
ol_ or _antaŭ kiam_ should be used when time is implied.
_Examples._--_La gefianĉoj renkontiĝis antaŭ la gepatroj_ = The
betrothed met before the parents (= place, viz., in the presence of
the parents). _La gefianĉoj renkontiĝis antaŭ ol_ (or, _antaŭ
kiam_) _la gepatroj alvenis_ = The betrothed met before the parents
arrived (= time, viz., before the parents _arrived_). _Johano venis
antaŭ la juĝiston, sed Jozefo estis elirinta el la juĝejo antaŭ
ol Johano alvenis_ = John came before the judge, but Joseph had left
the court before John's arrival.

As a prefix, _Antaŭdiri_ = To foretell. _Antaŭiri_ = to precede.

259 (4). Apud = _Beside_, _close by_.

Place = _By_, _near_, _near to_, _close by_.

Examples.--_La batalo apud Farsalo ŝanĝis multajn aferojn en Romo_
= The battle near Pharsalia changed many things in Rome. _Li estas
apud la pordo_ = He is near the door. _Li staris apud Johano_ = He
stood by John. _Mi vespermanĝos ĉe tiu tablo apud la fenestro_ = I
shall dine at that table close by the window.

As a root-word or prefix, we have:--_Apudeco_ = Contiguity.
_Apudesti_ = To be present, or near.

259 (5). Ĉe = _At_, _with_.

Marks the situation of a thing or action. Denotes coincidence, either
of place, time, or connection.

Place = _At_, _with_, _to_, _on_.

Examples.--_Li estas ĉe ni_ = He is with us (at our _house_). _Ni
estis ĉe via patro_ = We were at your father's. _Ŝi estas ĉe la
pordo_ = She is at the door. _Ĉe la alia flanko de la strato_ = On
the other side of the street. _Mi gastas ĉe miaj amikoj, Gesinjoroj
Smith_ = I am staying with (am a guest at) my friends, Mr. and Mrs.

Time = _At, on._

Example.--_Ĉe nia alveno la hundo bojis_ = At (on) our arrival the
dog barked.

Connection = _In, to, with, on._

Examples.--_Brakon ĉe_ (or, _en_) _brako_ = Arm in arm. _Koron ĉe
koro_ = Heart to heart. _Mi kredas, ke ĉe ĉiu vorto, kiun vi
diras...._ = I believe that with every word you say.... _Ĉe la
komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion "ol"_ = With the comparative the
conjunction "ol" is used. _Por elpagi mian konton ĉe vi, mi
sendas...._ = To settle my account with you, I send.... _Ĉe tia
vetero, vi estos baldaŭ resanigita_ = With such weather, you will
soon be restored to health. _Ĉe tio_ = On that.

As a prefix, _Ĉeesti_ = To be present. _Inter la ĉeestantoj ni
rimarkis...._ = Amongst those present we observed....

259 (6). Ĉirkaŭ = About, around.[19]

Denotes place, time, manner, quantity.

Place = _About, around, round._

Examples.--_Je ĉirkaŭ tri paŝoj_ = At about three paces. _La
hundoj ludis kaj saltis ĉirkaŭ ŝi_ = The dogs played and jumped
around her.

Time = _About._

Example.--_La koncerto daŭris ĉirkaŭ tri horojn_ (or, _dum
ĉirkaŭ tri horoj_) = The concert lasted about three hours.

Manner = _Round_.

Example.--_Li premis sian edzinon ĉirkaŭ la talio_ = He squeezed
his wife round the waist.

Quantity = _About_.

Example.--_Mi volas aĉeti ĉirkaŭ kvar funtojn_ = I wish to buy
about four pounds.

As a prefix or root-word, _ĉirkaŭ_ has the signification of
"encircling," as:--_Ĉirkaŭfrazo_ = Periphrase, circumlocution.
_Ĉirkaŭpreni_ = To embrace. _Ĉirkaŭi_, _ĉirkaŭigi_ = To


[19] It will be seen from the examples that the preposition
_ĉirkaŭ_ may be followed by the accusative of direction: _Jakobo
metis sakon ĉirkaŭ siajn lumbojn_ (Rabistoj, 52, 2); _La virino
ĵetis ambaŭ brakojn ĉirkaŭ la kolon de la knabino_ (Marta, p.
8); _Ĵetante siajn brakojn ĉirkaŭ lian kolon_ (Faraono, II, 57).

259 (7). Da = _Of_.

Used only after words denoting quantity, measure, weight, number,
etc. Between two words, da shows that the first word measures the

Quantity = _Of_.

Examples.--_Granda nombro da ideoj_ = A great number of ideas.
_Dudeko da homoj_ = A score of people. _Funto da teo_ = A pound of
tea. _Sur la arbo sin trovis multo_ (or, _multe_) _da birdoj_ = On
the tree were (found themselves) many (of) birds.

Often de and da may be equally correct. Funto da teo emphasizes
the _quantity_ required (funto); funto de teo emphasizes the
_thing_ required (teo).

Do not use da before definite words like la, tiu, numbers, or
pronouns. Funto de la teo, de tiu teo, de mia teo, de ĝi.
Note the difference between "He ate a piece of bread" and "He ate a
piece of the (particular) bread." The former is Li manĝis pecon da
pano, and the latter Li manĝis pecon de la pano, de tiu pano.

N.B.--_Glaso da vino_ = A glass of wine. _Glaso de_ (or, _por_)
_vino_, or, _vinglaso_ = A wineglass. _Alportu al mi tetason, kaj
elverŝu por mi tason da teo_ = Bring me a teacup, and pour me out a
cup of tea.

Note.--Particular attention should be paid to the prepositions da,
de, and el, all of which are often translated by the English
preposition "of." Note the following examples:--

Da.--_Cento da pomoj_ = A hundred (of) apples. _Dekduo da kuleroj_
= A dozen (of) spoons. _Miliono da loĝantoj_ = A million (of)
inhabitants. _Kvar metroj da ŝtofo_ = Four metres of material.
_Ducent kilometroj da longo_ = Two hundred kilometres in (of) length.

De.--_Tri estas duono de ses_ = Three is half of six. _Ok estas
kvar kvinonoj de dek_ = Eight is four-fifths of ten. _La domo de mia
frato_ = The house of my brother, _or_, My brother's house. _Doktoro
de juro_ = A doctor of laws.

El.--_Ĉiu el la infanoj_ = Each of the children. _Unu el ni_ = One
of us. _Ni faru uzon el tio_ = Let us make use of that. _Domo
konstruita el ŝtono_ = A house built of stone. _La plej bela floro
el la ĝardeno_ = The most beautiful flower of the garden.

259 (8). De = _Of_, _from_, _by_.

De denotes origin, possession, place, time, cause, agency, and
disconnection or abstraction. It serves to form the genitive or
possessive case. These are all variations of the one primary idea:

De is not used in speaking of places, etc., when English uses the
preposition "of," where nomata = _named_ might be inserted between
two substantives.

Examples.--_La urbo Londono_ = The City of London. _La monato Julio_
= The month of July (par. 106 (_d_)).

Care must be taken not to confuse de with da.

Possession = _Of_.

Examples.--_La libro de Petro_ = The book of Peter, _or_, Peter's
book. _La domo de mia kara patro_ = My dear father's house.

Origin or Dependence = _Of_, _on_, _from_.

Examples.--_Ĝi dependas de la nombro de vortoj_ = It depends on the
number of words. _Tio venis de_ (or, _el_) _lia unua eraro_ = That
came from his first error. _Li estas doktoro de medicino_ = He is a doctor of medicine. _Li venis
de_ (or, _el_) _Parizo kaj nun iras al Berlino_ = He came from Paris
and is now going to Berlin. _Kaj Dio diris: "Kolektiĝu la akvo de
sub la ĉielo en unu lokon"_ = And God said: "Let the waters (water)
(from) under the heaven be gathered together (collect itself) into
one place."

Place = _From_, _of_, _to_.

Examples.--_For de tie ĉi, fripono!_ = Away from here, rascal! _Li
forestas de tie ĉi_ = He is away from here. _Li staris meze de la
malamikoj_ = He stood in the midst of the enemy. _Proksime de la domo
staris arbo_ = Near (to) the house stood a tree. _Ne malproksime de
la dometo staris preĝejo_ = Not far from the cottage was (stood) a

Time = _From_, _since_, _for_.

Examples.--_De tiu tempo_ = From (since) that time. _De la kreo de la
mondo_ = Since the creation of the world. _De tri semajnoj mi estas
malsana_ = For three weeks I have been (am) ill.

Cause = _From_, _of_, _with_.

Examples.--_Li eksaltis de surprizo_ = He started (jumped) with
surprise. _Li mortis de febro_ = He died of (from) fever. _Kaŭze de
tio_ = Because of (due to) (owing to) that.

Agency = _By_ (after a passive verb, to show the _agent_). To show
the _means_ per is used.

Examples.--_Mi estas amata de mia patro_ = I am loved by my father.
_La domo konstruita de mia patro estas kovrita per ardezoj_ = The
house built by my father is covered with slates.

Disconnection or Abstraction = _From_.

Example.--_Apartigu la pajlon de la fojno_ = Separate the straw from
the hay.

As a prefix, _de_ signifies "off," "from," as:--_Li deprenis la
libron de la breto_ (or, _li prenis la libron for de sur la breto_) =
He took the book off the shelf. _Li demetis la ĉapelon_ = He took
off his (the) hat.

259 (9). Dum = _During_.

Dum, whether used as a preposition or conjunction, always relates
to duration of time (see note below).

Time = _During_.

Examples.--_Dum la tuta tago_ (or, _La tutan tagon_) _li restis sola_
= During the whole day he remained alone, _or_, He remained alone the
whole day. _Dum_ (or, _En la daŭro de_) _kelkaj monatoj, ŝi ne
eliradis el sia ĉambro_ = During (for the space of, for) some months
she did not leave (go out of) her room. _Li dormis dum la tuta
koncerto_, or, _Li dormis la tutan koncerton_ = He was sleeping
during the whole (all through the) concert. _Dum ilia konsiliĝo_
(or, _Dum ili konsiliĝis_) _mi restis en la apuda ĉambro_ = During
their consultation (_or_, whilst they were consulting) I remained in
the adjoining room.

Note.--Dum, although frequently used as a conjunction by Dr.
Zamenhof, is rarely, if ever, used by him as a preposition. For our
preposition "during" he generally uses the accusative of duration, or
the prepositional expression en la daŭro de, or simply en, or
turns the phrase by employing an adverbial present participle.

259 (10). Ekster = _Outside_.

Place = _Outside_. Ekster is the opposite of en = _in_.

Examples.--_Li iris en la domon, sed mi restis ekster ĝi_ = He went
into the house, but I remained outside it. _Li loĝas ekster la urbo_
= He lives outside the town.

Connection or Disconnection. Ekster is sometimes used as a
synonym of krom (par. 259 (17)).

Examples.--_Ekster tiuj ĉi leĝoj, ekzistas aliaj_ = Outside
(besides, _or_, in addition to) these laws others exist. _Ekster tiuj
ĉi leĝoj ne ekzistas aliaj_ = Outside (beside, _or_, apart from)
these laws others do not exist.

As a root-word or prefix, we have:--_Eksteraĵo_ = The exterior,
outside. _Eksterlande_ = Abroad.

259 (11). El = _Out of_.

El is the opposite of en = _in_, but only when movement in and
out is implied.

Care must be taken not to confuse el with da or de, both of
which also signify "of," that English preposition with so many
meanings. El means essentially "out of," denoting that the noun
specified is a _portion of_ something, or is _made of_ some
particular material, or _issues from_ something (see par. 259 (7)).

Origin or Dependence = _Of_, _with_, _from_.

Examples.--_Mi estas la plej riĉa el ĉiuj_ = I am the richest of
all. _Unu el ni estos elektata_ = One of us will be chosen. _Li faris
uzon el ĉio_ = He made use of everything. _Mi faros uzon el la
okazo_ = I shall take (make use of) the opportunity. _Kion ni faros
el hundo?_ = What shall we do with (make out of) a dog? _El la dirita
regulo sekvas, ke_ ... = From the said rule, it follows that ... _Mi
ricevis leteron el Parizo_ = I received a letter from Paris.

Disconnection = _Out of_, _from_.

Examples.--_Tri musoj elsaltis el la tirkesto_ = Three mice jumped
out of the drawer. _Mi eliris el la domo ĝuste kiam li eniris en la
veturilon_ = I went out of the house just as (when) he entered the
carriage. _La violono falis el la violonujo_ = The violin fell out of
the violin case. _El sub la lito_ = Out of (out from under) the bed.

As a prefix, _el_ signifies "out," and also denotes something done
thoroughly well or completely, as:--_Elpensi_ = To think out, to
invent. _Elfosi_ = To dig out. _Elirejo_ = An exit, way out.
_Ellabori_ = To work out thoroughly, to achieve, elaborate.
_Eltrinki_ = To drink up. _Ellerni_ = To master, to learn thoroughly
(to study).

259 (12). En = _In_, _into_.

May take after it the accusative of movement, and has then the
meaning of "into."

Place = _In, into, within, at_.

Examples.--_Li estas en la ĝardeno_ = He is in the garden. _Li iris
en la ĝardenon_ = He went into the garden. _Mi loĝas en Parizo_ = I
live in Paris. _La birdo flugas en la ĉambro (ĝi estas en la
ĉambro, kaj flugas en ĝi)_ = The bird is flying within the room (it
is in the room, and is flying in it). _La birdo flugas en la ĉambron
(ĝi estis ekster la ĉambro, kaj nun flugas en ĝin)_ = The bird is
flying into the room (it was outside the room, and now is flying into
it). _Helpu min porti tiujn ĉi kestojn en mian fiakron_ = Help me to
carry these trunks to (into) my cab. _Li iris en la domon, sed mi mem
restis ester ĝi_ = He went into the house, but I myself remained
outside of it. _La ĉefa vorto staras en la fino_ = The chief word
stands at the end.

Time = _In, on, at, during_.

Examples.--_En printempo floroj aperas_ = In (during) spring flowers
appear. _En la tago_ = On the day. _En la unua tempo_ = At the outset
(first time), at first. _Mi finos la tasketon en dek tagoj, se mi
laboros en ĉiu tago po ok horoj_ = I shall finish the job (little
task) in 10 days if I work 8 hours a day (lit., if I shall work in
each day at the rate of 8 hours).

Origin or Dependence = _Of, into_.

Examples.--_Apartamento konsistanta en_ (or, _el)[20] unu
manĝoĉambro, unu salono, kaj tri dormoĉambroj_ = A flat
(apartment), consisting of one dining-room, one drawing-room, and
three bedrooms. _Aleksandro ŝanĝiĝis en polvon_ = Alexander was
turned into dust.


[20] _El_ is preferable. _En_ cannot be correctly used here.

Connection = _In_.

Example.--_Manon en mano_ = Hand in hand.

259 (13). Ĝis = _Till, as far as_.

Place = _To, down to, up to, as far as_.

Examples.--_Ni akompanis ilin ĝis ilia domo_ = We accompanied them
as far as (to) their house. _Iru ĝis la rivero_ = Go to (down to, as
far as) the river.

Time = _Till, until, to_.

Examples.--_De sabato ĝis mardo_ = From Saturday till (to) Tuesday.
_Ni devas atendi ĝis Junio_ = We must wait till June. _Ĉu ne estus
pli bone atendi ĝis ni havos la hundon?_ = Would it not be better to
wait till we have the dog? _Ĝi povas kuŝi ok ĝis naŭ jarojn_ = It
can lie eight to nine years.

N.B.--_Jarojn_ is the accusative of duration (par. 68 (_b_)), for
_ĝis_ has here no influence over it, being simply an item in the
phrase; but if a preposition be placed before _ok_, then the
preposition will influence its complement "_jaroj_," which will be in
the nominative; as:--_Ĝi povas kuŝi dum_ (or, _je_) _ok ĝis naŭ
jaroj_ = It can lie during eight (up) to nine years.

259 (14). Inter = _Between, among_.

Inter differs from en, in that en implies that something is
actually in, or within, something else, while inter implies that
something is between, or among, some other things.

Place = _Between, among_.

Example.--_Inter Rusujo kaj Francujo estas Germanujo_ = Between
Russia and France is Germany.

Time = _Between_.

Example.--_Inter la deka kaj dek-unua matene, mi renkontis mian
amikon_ = Between 10 and 11 o'clock in the morning I met my friend.

Manner = _Among, amongst_.

Example.--_Ili dividis inter si dek du pomojn_ = They divided amongst
themselves twelve apples.

As a prefix, _inter_ has much the same meaning as in English,
as:--_Intermeti_ = To interpose. _Intermiksi_ = To intermingle.
_Interkonsenti_ = To agree mutually.

259 (15). Je.

The preposition je has no fixed meaning. It is used only when we
have to employ a preposition and we do not know which one the sense
requires. We can, however, use the accusative case in place of it
(Rule 14, pars. 251, 253).

The following are a few of the examples in which it has been used:--

Cause = _At, over, of._

Example.--_Mi enuas je la hejmo_, or, _Mi enuas la hejmon_ = I am
weary (tired) of home.

Manner = _By, on._

Examples.--_Li tenis lin je la maniko per unu mano, kaj per la alia
li batis lin sur la vizaĝon_ (or, _li frapis al li la vizaĝon_) =
He held him by (at) the sleeve with one hand, and with the other he
struck him on the face (struck to him the face). _Mi gratulas vian
princan moŝton je_ (or, _pri_) _la reveno Danujon_ = I congratulate
your Royal (Princely) Highness on (regarding) your (the) return to

Time = _At, on._

Examples.--_Je la kvara horo_ = At 4 o'clock. _Je la lasta fojo_ (or,
_La lastan fojon_) _mi vidis lin ĉe vi_ = On the last occasion (last
time) I saw him with you.

Measure = _Of, by._

Example.--_Longa je dek futoj_, or, _Longa dek futojn_ = Ten feet

259 (16). Kontraŭ = _Against, opposite._

Never used in the sense of "by the side of." May take the accusative
of direction.

Place = _Towards, overlooking, against, facing, opposite._

Example.--_La fenestro kontraŭ la strato_ = The window overlooking
(towards) the street.

Opposition = _To, against, from._

Examples.--_Vizaĝon kontraŭ vizaĝo_ = Face to face. _Kontraŭ min
mem, sin turnis mia ruzo_ = Against myself my cunning turned (itself)
(Hamlet, V, 2). _Kien ili iras? Kontraŭ Polujon_ = Whither are they
going? Against Poland (Hamlet, IV, 4). _Mi sidis sur ŝtono, kie mi
estis ŝirmata kontraŭ la orienta vento_ = I was sitting on a stone
where I was sheltered from (against) the east wind. _Li batalis
kontraŭ la grekoj_ = He fought with (= against) the Greeks.

As a prefix, _kontraŭ_ denotes opposition, as:--_Kontraŭdiri_ =
To contradict. _Kontraŭmeti_ = To oppose.

259 (17). Krom = _Not including_, _putting aside_, _apart from_.
One of the prepositions that may be used before the Infinitive (par. 177).

Separation, Exclusion = _Besides_, _except_, _save_, _but_.

Examples.--_Li estas bona, kaj, krom tio, riĉa_ = He is good, and,
besides that, rich. _Krom Esperanto, mi scias la lingvon germanan_ =
Besides Esperanto, I know the German language. _Mi estas anglo, kaj
mi scias nenian lingvon krom mia propra_ = I am an Englishman, and I
know no language except (but, besides, save) my own (see remarks on
_ekster_ (par. 259 (11)).

259 (18). Kun = _With_.

Never used as "with" in the sense of the instrument or means by which
something is done (see per, par. 259 (22)).

Connection = _With_, _to_.

Examples.--_Li paroladis kun sia amiko_ = He was conversing with his
friend. _Li fianĉiĝis kun Fraŭlino Berta_ = He became engaged to
Miss Bertha. _Resti kun leono estas danĝere_ = To stay with a lion
is dangerous. _Li promenadis kun sia amiko, kiam mi lin renkontis_ =
He was walking with his friend when I met him.

Manner = _With_, _of_.

Examples.--_Li parolas kun granda saĝeco_ = He speaks with great
wisdom. _Li estas homo kun gusto_ = He is a man of (with) taste. _Li
estis atendata kun granda senpacienco_ = He was expected with
great impatience.

As a root-word or prefix, _Kunigi_ = To connect. _Kunulo_ = A
companion. _Kunveni_ = To come together, to assemble.

259 (19). Laŭ = _According to_.

Manner = _According to_, _from_, _in_, _in accordance with_.

Examples.--_Li agis laŭ sia opinio_ = He acted according to his own
opinion. _Tiu vazo estas farita laŭ modelo el_ (or, _en_) _nia
muzeo_ = That vase has been made according to (from) a model out of
(in) our museum. _Li parolas laŭ saĝa maniero_ = He speaks in a
wise manner. _Ili ĝin faris laŭvice_ = They did it in turn. _La pli
juna filino estis la plena portreto de sia patro laŭ sia boneco_ =
The younger daughter was the complete portrait of her father in
(according to) her goodness.

Place and Direction = _In_, _along_.

Examples.--_Ni foriris laŭ malsamaj direktoj_ (or, _en diversajn
flankojn_) = We went away in a different direction (_or_, in
different ways). _Aleksandro iris laŭ tiu ĉi rivero ĝis li venis
al la palaco_ = Alexander went along this river till he came to the

N.B.--_Laŭ_ is used in such expressions as:--_Laŭlonge_ =
Lengthways. _Laŭlarĝe_ = Across, athwart.

259 (20). Malgraŭ = _Notwithstanding_.

Opposition = _In spite of_, _notwithstanding_, _for_, _despite_.

Examples.--_Li sukcesis malgraŭ la malhelpoj_ = He succeeded in
spite of the hindrances. _Li faris sian eblon, sed malgraŭ ĉio, li
ne sukcesis_ = He did his best (his utmost), but for all that
(notwithstanding) he did not succeed (see remarks on _spite_, par. 259 (30)).

259 (21). Per = _By_, _by means of_.

Cause = _By_, _by means of_, _with_, _through_.

Examples.--_Ni flaras per la nazo, vidas per la okuloj, kaj aŭdas
per la oreloj_ = We smell with the nose, see with the eyes, and
hear with the ears. _Li mortigis lin per glavo_ = He killed him
with a sword. _Tion mi eksciis per mia frato_ = I learnt that
through my brother.

Manner = _With_, _by_, _in_.

Per, used after a passive verb, denotes the means or instrument;
de denotes the agent.

Examples.--_La domo, kiu estas aĉetita de mia patro, estas kovrita
per pajla tegmento_ = The house, which was bought by my father, is
covered with thatch (a straw roof). _Li tenis lin ĉe la kolo per
ambaŭ manoj_ = He was holding him by the neck with both hands. _Li
iris el la urbo per_ (or, _laŭ_) _flanka vojeto_ = He went out of
the town by a by-path. _Mia onklo ne mortis per natura morto_ = My
uncle did not die (by) a natural death. _Per unu vorto_ (or,
_unuvorte_), _la ĉambro estis tute bela_ = In a word, the room was
quite beautiful.

As a prefix or root-word, _per_ is not much used. _Perlabori_ = To
acquire by one's labour, to earn. _Peri_ = To mediate, to interpose.

259 (22). Po = _At the rate of._

Po has a distributive sense, and is used generally before numerals
(see par. 123). Do not confuse po with por.

Distribution = _At the rate of_, _in the proportion of_, _at_.

Examples.--_Mi aĉetis kvar pomojn po du pencoj_ = I bought four
apples at the rate of twopence (each). "_Por du pencoj_" would mean
"for twopence" (all four for twopence). _Tiu ĉi libro havas sesdek
paĝojn; tial, se mi legos en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, mi finos
la tutan libron en kvar tagoj_ = This book has 60 pages; therefore,
if I (shall) read (in) each day at the rate of 15 pages, I shall
finish the whole book in 4 days. _Silko po 5 ŝilingoj por ulno_ =
Silk at 5 shillings a (for a) yard (ell).

As a prefix, _Poduone_ = By half, or, by halves. _Pogrande_ =

259 (23). Por = _For_, _for the sake_ (_benefit_) _of_, _in order

One of the prepositions that may be used before the infinitive (see
remarks on infinitive, par. 177).

Purpose = _In order to_, _to_, _for_, _at_, _for the purpose of_,
_of_, _on_.

Examples.--_Mi manĝas por vivi_ = I eat in order to live. _Por mi
ĝi havas bonan guston_ = To me it has a pleasant (good) taste. _Li
sin kuracis por resaniĝi_ = He treated himself (took remedies) in
order to recover (be restored to health). _La plej bona metodo_
(_por_) _akiri ĝin_ = The best way of getting it (in order to get
it). _Mi havas multon por fari_ = I have much to do. _Por miaj kvar
infanoj mi aĉetis dek du pomojn_ = For my four children I bought
twelve apples. _Litoj por du personoj_ = Beds for two people. _Tiu
ĉi ringo estas por vi_ = This ring is for you. _Por ĉio_ (or, _pro
ĉio_) _ni lin dankas_ = We thank him for everything. _Por tiu ĉi
prezo_ = At this price. _Ni devas konfesi por ŝia laŭdo, ke_ ... =
We must confess to her praise that ... _Mi ne havas tempon por fari
tion_ = I have not time to do that. _Kiam la momento por foriri
alvenis_, or, _Kiam la momento de foriro alvenis_ ... = When the
moment for departure arrived ... _Tiu libro estas facile komprenebla
por ĉiuj_ = That book is easily comprehensible by (for) all. _Li
aĉetis por unu penco da teo_ = He bought a pennyworth (for a penny)
of tea.

259 (24). Post = _After_, _behind_.

Is a preposition of place and time. Like its English equivalent
"after," care must be taken not to confuse its meaning. For instance,
"He came after me" might mean (_a_) next in succession or behind me,
(_b_) after my arrival, (_c_) in pursuit of me. In Esperanto we
should say:--(_a_). Li venis post mi. (_b_) Li venis post mia
alveno. (_c_). Li postsekvis min (see also remarks on antaŭ,
which is the opposite of post (259 (3)).

Place = _After_, _behind_.

Examples.--_Post la reĝo venis lia sekvantaro_ = After (behind) the
king came his suite. _"Da" post ia vorto montras, ke tiu ĉi vorto
havas signifon de mezuro_ = "_Da_" after any (some) word shows that
this word has the signification of measure.

Time = _After_, _in_, _by_, _hence_.

Examples.--_Resendu al mi la libron (post) kiam vi estos traleginta
ĝin_ = Send back to me the book after you have read it through.
_Post tri monatoj estos la edziĝo_ = The wedding will be three
months hence (in three months). _Post kvarono da horo_ = In a quarter
of an hour. _Tagon post tago_ = Day by day.

Manner = _After_, _by_.

Examples.--_Ili sekvis unu post la alia_ = They followed one after
another. _Iom post iom ŝi pli trankviliĝis_ = Little by little she
became more tranquil.

As a prefix, _Postveni_ = To come after, to succeed. _Posttagmezo_
= Afternoon. _Postvivi_ = To survive.

259 (25). Preter = _Beyond_, _past_, _by_.

Differs from trans = _across_ (_beyond_), in that preter shows
the movement of something passing by, or alongside, something else.
Trans signifies that something is on the other side of a boundary,
or is crossing, or has crossed that boundary (see also tra, par. 259 (33)).

Place = _Beside_, _by_, _past_.

Examples.--_Mi iris preter la fenestroj de la domo_ = I went by
(past, beside) the windows of the house. _Du sinjorinoj iris preter
ni, kaj transiris la straton_ = Two ladies passed (went) by us, and
crossed the street.

Preter, as a prefix, has a similar meaning.

Examples.--_Mi preteriris la fenestrojn de la domo_ = I passed by the
windows of the house. _Du sinjorinoj preteriris nin_ = Two ladies
went by (passed) us. _Mi preterlasis lin_ = I let him pass by (I let
him beyond). _Li preterlasis la okazon_ = He let the occasion
(opportunity) pass, _or_, he missed the opportunity.

259 (26). Pri = _Concerning._

Pri can be translated in various ways.

Reference = _Concerning_, _respecting_, _regarding_, _as regards_,
_with regard to_, _as to_, _as for_, _about_, _of_, _on_.

Examples.--_Pri mia lerteco, mi povas diri_ ... = Concerning my
skill, I can say ... (In this sentence it will be observed that any
of the above meanings of _pri_ instead of "concerning" will give the
exact sense.) _Pri tio ne diru vorton_ = As to that, don't say a
word. _Ne pensu pri ĝi_ = Do not think of (about) it. _Li parolis
pri la pentrarto_ = He spoke about (the art of) painting. _Ili
miregis pri_ (or, _je_) _lia kolero_ = They were astounded at (about)
his anger. _Sed pri ŝia fratino, ni povas diri, ke_ ... = But of her
sister, we can say that ... _Tio estas verko pri la politiko_ = That
is a work on politics. _Vi estas prova pri tio_ = You are right in

As a prefix, _Pripensi_ = To think about, to reflect.

See par. 258 (_a_) as regards the use of the prepositional
expressions _rilate_, _koncerne_.

259 (27). Pro = _Because of._

Pro always relates to the cause or reason for something happening
or being done. Do not confuse it with por.

Cause = _Because of_, _by reason of_, _on account of_, _for the
sake of_ (_cause_), _through_, _owing to_, _from_, _for_, _of_.

Examples.--_Li demandis ŝin, pro kio ŝi ploras_ = He asked her for
what reason (because of what) she wept (weeps). _Li min mokis pro mia
kredemo_ = He ridiculed me owing to (for) my credulity. _Li estas
mortanta_ (or, _ekmortas_) _pro_ (or, _de_) _malsato_ = He is dying
of (from) hunger. _Ŝi agas pro ĵaluzemo_ = She acts from jealousy.
_Li ne povis piediri pro sia malforteco_ = He could not walk owing to
(on account of, through) his weakness. _Pro tio, mi ne povas akompani
vin_ = On that account, I cannot accompany you. _Li ĝin faris pro
sia edzino_ = He did it because of his wife.

Pro is not used much as a prefix. _Propeti_ = To intercede.
_Propekulo_ = A scapegoat.

259 (28). Sen = _Without_.

Sen always denotes disconnection.

Disconnection = _Without_, _less_, _minus_.

Examples.--_Li alvenis sen sia amiko_ = He arrived without his
friend. _Sen vi, ni estus kiel sen kapo_ = Without you we should be
as without a head. _Dek sen tri estas sep_ = Ten less (minus) three
is seven.

Sen is frequently used as a prefix, having the same meaning as our
English suffix "less," as:--_Sendube_ = Doubtless, without doubt.
_Sensenta_ = Senseless, without feeling. _Sensenca_ = Senseless,
without meaning. _Senhonta_ = Shameless, without shame.

259 (29). Spite = _In defiance of_.[21]

Spite, like malgraŭ, marks opposition, but in a stronger sense.
Spite means "in defiance of opposition," whilst malgraŭ has more
the sense of "notwithstanding." Spite is not a preposition, but an
adverb, and to translate the prepositional form "_in spite of_" it is
usually better to use malgraŭ.

Opposition = _In defiance of_, _defiantly_.

Examples.--_Spite ĉion, kion mi povis diri, li vangfrapis la
infanon_ = In defiance of all I could say, he slapped the child's
face. _Spite mian malamikon_ = In defiance of my enemy.


[21] The root spit is often used as a verb: spiti, _to brave_,
_flout_, _act in defiance of_. Amason ne spitu (Prov. 1191). Se vi
malgraŭ tio spitos min (Lev. 26, 21). From this root we get the
adjective spitema (Ps. 37, 35) and the adverb spite. Hence there are
often found in the literature such forms as spite al vi, spite de
tio; and, consequently (with the accusative instead of the
preposition), spite vin, spite tion, spite mian malamikon (par. 247).

259 (30). Sub = _Under_.

Sub may be followed by the accusative of direction. It is the
opposite of sur = _on_.

Place = _Under_, _beneath_.

Examples.--_La hundo kuris sub la tablon por ekkapti la katon, kiu
kuŝis sub la tablo_ = The dog ran under the table to seize the cat
that was lying under the table. _Muso estas sub la kanapo_ = A mouse
is under the sofa.

Manner = _In_, _on_.

Examples.--_Io, sub la formo de kato, transkuris la straton_ =
Something, in the shape of a cat, ran across the street. _Li iris sub
la kondiĉo, ke neniu lin akompanu_ = He went on (under) the
condition that no one should accompany him.

As a prefix, _Subetaĝo_ = A basement (floor below). _Submeti_ = To
put under, to subdue. _Subtegmento_ = A garret (under roof).

259 (31). Super = _Over_, _above_.

May be followed by the accusative of direction. It differs from
sur, since sur generally means that something is upon or touching
something else, whilst super signifies that the object is over or
above something, but not in actual contact.

Place = _Over_, _above_, _beyond_.

Examples.--_La balono estis vidata super la urbo_ = The balloon was
seen over the town. _Super mia kapo preterflugis birdo_ = A bird flew
by, over my head. _Li ĵetis ŝtonon super la muron, sed li ne havis
sufiĉe da forto, kaj la ŝtono falis sur la muron_ = He threw a
stone over the wall, but he had not sufficient (of) strength, and the
stone fell upon (on to) the wall. _La spirito de Dio ŝvebis super la
akvo_ = The Spirit of God moved upon the face of (above) the waters
(water). _Mi konas nenion super tio_ = I know nothing beyond that.

Super is the root of _Superi_ = To surpass. As a prefix,
_Superflui_ = To overflow. _Superhoma_ = Super-human. _Supervesto_
(or, _palto_) = An overcoat.

259 (32). Sur = _On_, _upon_, _on to_.

May be followed by the accusative of direction. See remarks on sub
and super. Do not confound sur with super.

Place = _On_, _upon_ (_resting on_, _touching_).

Examples.--_Sur lia vizaĝo mi vidis ĝojan rideton_ = On his face I
saw a joyful smile. _Vi trovos la paperojn sur la skribtablo_ = You
will find the papers on the writing-table. _La birdo_ (_sur_)_flugis
sur la tegmenton_ = The bird flew on to the roof. _Li metis la
ĉapelon sur sian kapon_ = He put his (the) hat on his head. _Li
staris supre sur la monto, kaj rigardis malsupren sur la kampon_ = He
stood above on the mountain, and looked down (below) upon the field
(note the accusatives of direction, _malsupren_ and _kampon_). _Laŭ
la komando "tri" vi ekpafos sur la arbon_ = At the command "three"
you will shoot at (on to) the tree.

Dependence = _On_, _to_.

Examples.--_Tio ĉi povas tre influi sur la sukceson de nia afero_ =
This can have much influence on the success of our business. _Sur la
danan tronon mi havas rajtojn_ = I have rights on (to) the Danish

As a prefix, _Surmeti_ = To put on.

259 (33). Tra = _Through_.

Tra, trans, and preter. The following compound verbs will best
show the meaning of the three prepositions:--

Preterpasi = _To pass by_, _go beyond_.

Trapasi = _To pass through_, _to traverse_.

Transpasi = _To pass over_, _to cross over_.

Example.--_Trapasinte la arbaron, li preterpasis la preĝejon, kaj
poste transpasis la riveron per la ponto_ = Having passed through
(traversed) the wood, he passed by the church, and then crossed the
river by the bridge.

Place = _Through_, _across_.

Examples.--_Li iris tra la amaso, kaj eniris en la domon_ = He went
through the crowd and entered the house. _Tra la mondo iras forta
voko_ = Through the world goes a powerful call. _Li estas tiel dika,
ke li ne povas trairi tra nia mallarĝa pordo_ = He is so stout
(thick) that he cannot go through our narrow door.

Adverb: _trae_ = right through.

Occasionally the accusative of direction is used after tra, when
this seems useful for emphasis, or to remove ambiguity.

As a prefix, _Tralegi_ = To read through. _Trapasi_ = To pass
through, to traverse. _Traguti_ = To percolate.

259 (34). Trans = _Across_; _on the other side of_, _beyond_.

May be followed by the accusative of direction.

Place = _Across_, _beyond_, _on the other side of_.

Examples.--_La hirundo flugis trans la riveron, ĉar trans la rivero
sin trovis aliaj hirundoj_ = The swallow flew across the river,
because on the other side of (beyond) the river were (found
themselves) other swallows.

As a prefix, _Transiri_ = To go over, to cross. _Transmigri_ = To
migrate. _Transvivi_ = To outlive, survive (a period of time).


260. English prepositions are used with many various meanings. In
fact, to express the sense of some of those in common use correctly,
five or six or more Esperanto prepositions have to be used to give
the different meanings of one English preposition. For instance, "_by_"
has five different meanings in the following expressions:--"_He went
by the house._" "_He was hit by a stone._" "_By his advice._"
"_Little by little._" "_He stood by the door._"

261. The following common English prepositions are given with their
Esperanto equivalents and examples of their use, viz., "_At_, _by_,
_for_, _from_, _in_, _of_, _on_, _to_, _with_."


261. (_a_). Represented by:--

Apud, as:--_La gefianĉoj staris apud la altaro_ = The betrothed
stood at the altar.

Ĉe, as:--_Ĉe ĉiu paŝo kiun ŝi faris_ = At every step that she
took. _Ŝi estas ĉe la pordo_ = She is at the door.

De, as:--_Li estas mirigita de la lukso de la kortego_ = He was
astonished at the lŭury of the court.

En, as:--_En la unua tempo_ = At (in) the outset. _En Parizo_ = At
Paris. _En la fino_ = At the end. _En la kunveno_ = At the meeting.
_En la interspaco de_ ... = At the distance of ...

Je, as:--_Je la kvara horo_ = At four o'clock.

Po, as:--_Piroj po du pencoj por funto_ = Pears at (at the rate of)
twopence a (for a) pound.

Por, as:--_Por tiu ĉi prezo_ = At (for) this price.

Pri, as:--_Ŝi ridetis pri_ (_je_) _lia kolero_ = She smiled at
(about) his anger.

Sur, as:--_Ili pafis unu sur la alian_ = They fired at one another.

Accusative, as:--_Ŝi mokadas lian kredemon_ = She jeers at his

Adverb, as:--_Tuj_ = At once. _Almenaŭ_ = At least. _Iafoje_ = At
times. _Nune_ = At present, etc.


261 (_b_). Represented by:--

Apud, as:--_Mi volus stari apud la patrino_ = I would like to stand
by mother.

Ĉe, as:--_Mi tenis lin ĉe la kruro per ŝnurego_ = I held him by
the leg with a rope.

De, as:--_Li estas amata de ĉiuj siaj amikoj_ = He is loved by all
his friends.

Laŭ, as:--_Mi restadas tie ĉi laŭ la konsilo de mia kuracisto_ =
I am remaining (staying) here by (according to) the advice of my

Per, as:--_Li eliris el la urbo per flanka vojeto_ = He left the
town by a by-path.

Post, as:--_Iom post iom, ŝi pli trankviliĝis_ = Little by
(after) little she became more tranquil.

Preter, as:--_En tiu momento iris preter ni du sinjorinoj_ = At
that moment two ladies passed by (beside) us.

Adverb, as:--_Legante, ni lernas_ = By reading, we learn. _Tage_ =
by day. _Laŭtage_ = By the day. _Mi staris apude dum li paroladis_ =
I stood by (near to, close by) whilst he was talking.


261 (_c_). Represented by:--

Al, as:--_Ili ekiris al Berlino_ (or, _Berlinon_) = They started
for Berlin.

Anstataŭ, as:--_Li skribis trion anstataŭ kvaro_ = He wrote a
three for (instead of) a four.

De, as:--_Tro baldaŭ alvenis la horo de foriro_ = Too soon came
the hour for (of) departure. _De tri semajnoj mi estas malsana_ = For
three weeks I have been (am) ill.

Dum, as:--_Dum la tuta tago li restis sola_ = For (during) the
whole day he remained alone.

Laŭ, as:--_Ŝi estas granda laŭ sia aĝo_ = She is big for
(according to) her age.

Malgraŭ, as:--_Malgraŭ ĉio li ne estis feliĉa_ = For
(notwithstanding) all that, he was not happy.

Por, as:--_Tiu ĉi monujo estas por vi_ = This purse is for you.

Pri, as:--_Li petis lin pri helpo_, or, _Li petis helpon de li_ =
He asked him for help. _Vi ne devas peti pri tio, kio estas nia
ŝuldo_ = You have not to beg for that which is our obligation.

Pro, as:--_Oni laŭdis lin pro lia boneco_ = They praised him for
(because of) his goodness. _La domo estis vendita pro ŝuldoj_ = The
house was (had been) sold for debt. _Mi volas esti amata pro mi mem,
ne pro mia riĉeco_ = I want to he loved for myself, not for my

Pro tio, ke, as:--_Li riproĉis min pro tio, ke mi foriris_ = He
reproached me for having gone away (lit., because of that that I went

Tra, as:--_Li ne povas ĝin porti tra tia interspaco_ = He cannot
carry it for (through) such a distance.

Accusative, as:--_Li restis sola la tutan tagon_ = He remained
alone all day long (for the whole day) (see the example under


261 (_d_). Represented by:--

Al, as:--_Ni ne vidas, ĉar la lumo estas kaŝata al ni per la
kurtenoj_ = We do not see, because the light is hidden from (towards)
us by the curtains.

De, as:--_Apartigu la pajlon de la fojno_ = Separate the straw from
the hay. _De tiu tempo_ = From that time. _De lundo ĝis vendredo_ =
From Monday to Friday.

El, as:--_Mi konkludis el lia mieno, ke li estas oficiro_ = I
concluded from (out of) his appearance that he was (is) an officer.

Kontraŭ, as:--_Tie mi estis ŝirmata kontraŭ la vento_ = There I
was sheltered from (against) the wind.

Laŭ, as:--_Tiu ĉi figuro estas skulptita laŭ mia modelo_ = This
figure is sculptured (carved) from (in accordance with) my model.

Per, as:--_Tion mi eksciis per mia frato_ = I learnt that from (by
means of) my brother.

Pro, as:--_Li tremis pro_ (or, _de_) _timo_ = He trembled from
(because of) fear.

Sen, as:--_Ok sen du estas ses_ = Two from eight (lit., eight
without two) is six.


261 (_e_). Represented by:--

Ĉe, as:--_Tio donas helpon ĉe la lernado de la vortoj_ = That
gives help in the learning of the words.

Da, as:--_Tri metroj da longo_ = Three metres in length.

En, as:--_Li estas en la domo_ = He is in the house.

Je, as:--_La suna disko ŝajne duobliĝis je grandeco_ = The sun's
disc apparently became doubled in size.

Laŭ, as:--_Laŭ mia opinio_ (or, _miaopinie_) _ili estas tute
pravaj_ = In (according to) my opinion they are quite right. _Li
edukiĝis laŭ la timo al Dio_ = He was brought up in (according to)
the fear of God.

Per, as:--_La ambaŭ estis similaj per la vizaĝo kaj la karaktero_
= The two were alike in (by means of) features (the face) and (the)

Post, as:--_Ni foriros post du aŭ tri tagoj_ = We are (shall be)
going away in (after) two or three days.

Pri, as:--_La instruisto povas pri nenio lin instrui_ = The teacher
can instruct him in nothing.

Sub, as:--_Io, sub la formo de homo, aperas_ = Something, in
(under) the shape of a man, appears.

Sur, as:--_Promenante sur la strato, mi falis_ = While walking in
(on) the street, I fell.

Accusative, as:--_Li estis naskita la vintron de_ 1902a
 = He was born _in_ the winter of 1902.

Adverb, as:--_Forme_ = In shape. _Troe_ = In excess. _Vespere_ = In
the evening. _Alivorte_ = In other words, etc.


261 (_f_). Represented by:--

Al, as:--_La amo al Dio_ = The love of (towards) God. _Ilia timo al
la morto estas granda_ = Their fear of (to) death is great. _Pro
malamo al mi li foriris_ = Through hatred of me he went away.

Da, as:--_Granda nombro da ideoj_ = A great number of ideas.

De, as:--_La unua vorto de la linio_ = The first word of the line.
_La amo de Dio_ = The love of (from) God, God's love.

Dum, as:--_Vojaĝo dum dek kvin tagoj_, or, _Dekkvintaga vojaĝo_ =
A journey of (during) fifteen days.

El, as:--_Unu el ni estos elektata_ = One of (out of) us will be
chosen. _El ĉiuj miaj amikoj, li estas la plej forta_ = Of (out of)
all my friends, he is the strongest.

En, as:--_La plej granda ĉambro en la domo_ = The largest room of
(in) the house.

Inter, as:--_La plej malgranda inter_ (or, _el_) _ĉiuj arboj en la
ĝardeno_ = The smallest of (among) all the trees in the garden.

Kun, as:--_Ŝi estas virino kun gusto_ = She is a woman of (with)

Pri, as:--_Ne pensu pri ĝi_ = Do not think of (about) it. _Ŝi
parolis pri sia frato_ = She spoke of (about) her brother.

Pro, as:--_Li mortis pro_ (or, _de_) _malsato_ = He died of (owing
to) hunger.

Adjective, as:--_Li estas sperta homo_ = He is a man of experience
(an experienced man).


261 (g). Represented by:--

Al, as:--_Peston al la tranĉilo!_ = Plague on the knife!

Ĉe, as:--_Ĉe_ (or better, _sur_) _la alia flanko de la strato_ =
On (at) the other side of the street. _Ĉe tio mi eliris el la
ĉambro_ = On that, I left the room.

Ĉirkaŭ, as:--_La rado turniĝis ĉirkaŭ sia akso_ = The wheel
turned on its axis.

De, as:--_Ĝi dependas de la nombro de vortoj_ = It depends on
(from) the number of words.

En, as:--_En la tago difinita_ = On (in) the appointed day.

Je, as:--_Mi gratulas vin je_ (or, _pri_) _via reveno_ = I
congratulate you on (concerning) your return.

Kun, as:--_Ŝi ĝin donis al mi kun_ (or, _sub_) _tiu kondiĉo_ =
She gave it me on (with) that condition.

Post, as:--_Post plua konsiderado_ = On (after) further

Pri, as:--_Li gratulis min pri mia edziĝo_ = He congratulated me
on (concerning) my marriage.

Pro, as:--_Pro tio mi lin lasis_ = On that account I left him.

Sub, as:--_Li vizitis min sub la preteksto, ke li estas parenco_ =
He visited me on (under) the pretext that he was (is) a relation.

Sur, as:--_La paperoj kuŝas sur la tablo_ = The papers are lying
on the table.

Accusative, as:--_Li ĝin donis al mi lundon_ = He gave it me on a

Adjective, as:--_La veturilo estas luebla_ = The carriage is on
hire (is able to be hired).

Adverb, as:--_Li staris dekstre_ = He stood on the right. _Li ĝin
faris intence_ = He did it on purpose. _Prunte_ = On loan.


261 (_h_). Represented by:--

Al, as:--_Mi iras al Parizo_ = I am going to Paris. _Li diris al
mi_ = He said to me.

En, as:--_Li ridetis en si mem_ = He smiled to (in) himself. _Li
reiris en la urbon_ = He went back to (into) the town.

Ĝis, as:--_De sabato ĝis mardo_ = From Saturday to (till)
Tuesday. _Li amis ĝis freneziĝo_ = He loved to frenzy.

Ke (with a personal pronoun), as:--_Vi bone faris, ke vi venis_ =
You did well to come (that you came).

Kontraŭ, as:--_Vizaĝon kontraŭ vizaĝo_ = Face to (opposite)

Kun, as:--_Li fianĉiĝis kun mia kuzino_ = He became engaged
(affianced) to my cousin.

Por, as:--_Mi havas multe_ (or, _multon_) _por fari_ = I have much
to do (for to do). _Ŝi estis muta por ĉiuj liaj demandoj_ = She was
dumb to (for) all his questions. _Tia agado estas danĝera por ni_ =
Such action is dangerous to (for) us.

Pri, as:--_Pri tio lasu min zorgi_ = Let me look to that.

Sub, as:--_Sub la sono de muziko_ = To (under) the sound of music.

Sur, as:--_Iri sur la kamparon_ = To go to (into) the country.

Adverb, as:--_Li iris dekstren_ = He went to the right. _Morte
kondamnita_ = Condemned to death.

Accusative, as:--_Mi iris Parizon_ = I went to Paris.


261 (_i_). Represented by:--

Ĉe, as:--_Por esti ĉe li, mi fordonis ĉion_ = To be with (at)
him, I gave up everything.

De, as:--_Li eksaltis de surprizo_ = He started with (from)

El, as:--_Kion ni faros el tio?_ = What shall we do (make) with
(out of) that?

Je, as:--_Li okupis sin je_ (or, _pri_) _meĥaniko_ = He occupied
himself with (concerning, about) mechanics.

Kontraŭ, as:--_Li batalis kontraŭ la malamiko_ = He fought with
the enemy.

Kun, as:--_Li paroladas kun sia amiko_ = He is conversing (talking)
with (to) his friend.

Laŭ, as:--_Li kuris laŭ granda rapideco_ = He ran with great

Per, as:--_Li mortigis sin per glavo_ = He killed himself with (by
means of) a sword.

Pri, as:--_Pri tio mi havas nenion por diri_ = With regard to
(concerning) that, I have nothing to say.

Sub, as:--_Mi ĝin donis al li sub tiu kondiĉo_ = I gave it to him
with (under) that condition.

Adverb, as:--_Rilate vian leteron_ = With reference to (relating
to) your letter.

CONJUNCTIONS (Konjunkcioj).

262. Conjunctions serve to connect words, phrases, clauses, or

Examples.--_Somero_ kaj _Vintro_ = Summer and Winter. _Tage_ aŭ
_nokte_ = By day or by night. _Li diras_, ke _vi estas mallaborema_
= He says that you are lazy. _Li estas fiera_, sed _vi estas
humila_ = He is proud, but you are humble.

263. Conjunctions are of two kinds, Co-ordinating and Subordinating.
They have no influence over the moods of verbs (par. 171 (_b_)).

264. Co-ordinating conjunctions connect two sentences, or two
members of a sentence that are independent of each other. These are
of five classes:--

(1). Copulative, as:--_kaj_ = and; _kaj ... kaj_ = both ... and.

(2). Alternative, as:--_aŭ_ = or; _aŭ ... aŭ_ = either ... or;
_nek_ = nor, _nek ... nek_ = neither ... nor.

(3). Adversative, as:--_sed_ = but.

(4). Causative, as:--_ĉar_ = for.

(5). Illative, as:--_tial_ = therefore.

265. Subordinating conjunctions introduce a clause that is
dependent on another. There are six classes, viz., conjunctions of:--

(1). Manner or Degree, as:--_kiel_ = as, _kvazaŭ_ = as if, as
though, _ol_ = than, etc.

(2). Consequence, as:--_ke_ = that, _tiel ke_ = so that.

(3). Reason or Cause, as:--_ĉar_ = because, since, _tial ke_ =
inasmuch as, since, etc.

(4). Purpose, as:--_timante ke_ = lest, for fear that, fearing
that, etc.

(5). Condition, as:--_se_ = if, _esceptinte ke_, _krom se_ =
unless, except, _se nur_ = provided that, if only, etc.

(6). Concession, as:--_kvankam_ = though, although, _tamen_ =
however, notwithstanding, _eĉ se_ = even if, etc.

266. Conjunctions connect the same cases of nouns, pronouns, and
adjectives. When there is a diversity of case, it is due to ellipsis
(see par. 105).

Example.--_Mi vidis lin kaj lian fraton, sed ne lian fratinon_ = I
saw him and his brother, but not his sister.

267. The co-ordinating conjunction is sometimes omitted.

Examples.--_Li venis, li vidis, li venkis_ = He came, he saw, he
conquered! _Vi iros, Johano restos tie ĉi_ = You will go, John will
remain here.

268. Conjunctions and adverbs.--Some English words are sometimes
adverbs and sometimes conjunctions, more especially those introducing
clauses of time or place. Some are also prepositions as well as
conjunctions and adverbs, and care must be taken to use the correct
Esperanto words in such cases. For instance, in English "before,"
"after," and "since" are prepositions, adverbs, or conjunctions.

Before (prep.) = _Antaŭ._

Example.--_Li staris antaŭ la reĝo_ = He stood before the king.

Before (adv.) = _Antaŭe._

Example.--_La reĝo neniam lin vidis antaŭe_ = The king never saw
him before.

Before (conj.) = _Antaŭ ol._

Example.--_Pripensu antaŭ ol paroli_ = Reflect before speaking.

After (prep.) = _Post_, or, _malantaŭ_.

Example.--_Post la hundoj, venis la homoj_ = After (behind) the dogs
came the men.

After (adv.) = _Poste_, or, _malantaŭe_.

Example.--_La rajdantoj iris antaŭe, kaj la hundoj venis poste_ (or,
_malantaŭe_) = The riders went in advance, and the dogs came after.

After (conj.) = _Post kiam_, or, _kiam_.

al mi la libron, post kiam_ (or, _kiam_) _vi estos ĝin
traleginta_ = Send me back the book after you (will) have read it

Since (prep.) = _De_.

Example.--_De la kreo de la mondo_ = Since the creation of the world.

Since (adv.) = _De tiu tempo; de tiam; de kiam; de la tempo, kiam._

Example.--_Mi lin vidis hieraŭ, sed mi lin ne vidis de tiu tempo_ =
I saw him yesterday, but I have not seen him since.

Since (conj.) = _Ĉar_.

Example.--_Mi devas ĝin fari, ĉar vi insistas_ = I must do it,
since you insist.


(Including Conjunctive Adverbs).

268. (_a_). The following is a list of the principal conjunctions.
Some of them, according to the sense in which they are used, are
employed also as adverbs or prepositions, and will be found in the
lists of adverbs and prepositions in pars. 248 (_b_) and 259.

Alie = _Otherwise_, _or_, _else_.

Example.--_Mi ne vidis lin, alie mi estus vin sciiginta_ = I did not
see him, otherwise (else, or) I should have told (informed) you.

Aliflanke = _On the other hand_.

Example.--_Kelkaj personoj diras, ke Johano estas fripono: aliflanke,
aliaj diras, ke li estas naivulo_ = Some persons say John is a knave;
on the other hand, some say he is a simpleton.

Almenaŭ = _At least_.

Example.--_Almenaŭ li provis ĝin fari_ = At least he tried to do

Ankaŭ = _Also_, _too_, _as well_ (also adverb).

Examples.--_Mi ankaŭ ĝin vidis_ = I, too, saw it. _Johano kaj
ankaŭ Mario estis tie_ = John and also Mary were there.

Antaŭ ol = _Before_, _ere_.

Examples.--_Antaŭ ol morti, li diris ..._ = Before dying he said ...
_Li vespermanĝis, antaŭ ol li foriris_ = He dined before he went
away. _Antaŭ ol ni atingos lin, li estos malproksime_ = Ere we
(shall) reach him, he will be far away. _Antaŭ ol iri Londonon, ni
veturis Berlinon_ = Before going to London, we travelled to Berlin.

Aŭ = _Or._

Example.--_Oni ne scias, ĉu li ploras aŭ ridas_ = One does not know
whether he is weeping or laughing.

Aŭ ... aŭ = _Either ... or._

Example.--_Aŭ vi aŭ mi devos ĝin fari_ = Either you or I must
(will have to) do it.

Cetere = _Besides_, _for the rest_, _for the matter of that_.

Example.--_Li ne venis; cetere, se li estus veninta, mi ne estus
vidinta_ (or, _vidus_) _lin_ = He did not come; besides, if he had
(should have) come, I should not have seen him.

Ĉar = _Because_, _for_, _since_.

Examples.--_Tion mi scias, ĉar tie mi estas_ = I know that, because
(for) I was there. _Ĉar vi ne estis tie, vi ne povas ĝin scii_ =
Since you were not there, you cannot know it.

Ĉiufoje kiam, ĉiun fojon kiam = _Every time when_, _each time

Example.--_Mi lin renkontadis ĉiufoje, kiam mi iris Londonon_ = I
met him every time (when) I went to London.

Ĉu = _Whether_, or, _if_ (see remarks on ĉu in the list of
adverbs, par. 248 (_b_)).

Ĉu ... aŭ = _Whether ... or._

Example.--_Mi iros, ĉu li venos aŭ ne_ = I shall go, whether he
come (will come) or not.

Ĉu ... ĉu = _Whether ... whether_.

Example.--_Ĉu li skribos, ĉu li ne skribos, mi ne respondos al li_
= Whether he writes, whether he does not write, I shall not reply to

De l' tempo kiam, or, de kiam = _Since, from the time when._

Example.--_De l' tempo kiam li mortis...._ = Since he died....

Des pli = _So much the_. Des pli is generally used with Ju pli
(_which see_), but sometimes alone in reply to questions (par. 112).

Example.--_Mi devas averti vin, ke li eble ne estos hejme_ = I must
warn you, that perhaps he will not be (_or_, that he may not be) at
home. _Des pli bone! mi tute ne deziras lin vidi_ = So much the
better, I don't at all wish to see him.

Do = _Then_, _therefore_, _consequently_ (argumentative).

Examples.--_Mi do povas dormi trankvile_ = Then I can sleep
tranquilly. _Estis do vidaĵo mirinda!_ = It was then a wonderful
sight! _Kion do Johano diros?_ = What then will John say?

Dum (also preposition) = _While_, _whilst_ (par. 259 (10)).

Examples.--_Dum li estis parolanta, ni eliris el la ĉambro_ = Whilst
he was speaking, we went out of the room. _Li povas labori, dum mi
estas for_ = He can work, whilst I am away.

Dume = _Meantime_, _meanwhile_ (also adverb).

Example.--_Ili ekbruligis la fajron, dume ni pretigis la manĝaĵon_
= They lighted the fire, meanwhile we got the food ready.

Eĉ se = _Even if_.

Example.--_Ili ne volus iri, eĉ se ili estus invititaj_ = They would
not wish to go, even if they were (should be) invited.

Foje kiam = _Once when_, _one day when_, _once upon a time._

Example.--_Foje kiam mi promenis, mi renkontis vian amikon_ = Once
(one day), when walking, I met your friend.

Ĝis (also preposition) = _Till_, _until_ (par. 259 (13)).

Example.--_Atendu, ĝis mi revenos_[22] = Wait till I (shall) return.


[22] N.B.--Some writers would say _ĝis kiam_. Zamenhof never
did--the second word appears superfluous.

Jen = _Behold_, _here_ (also an adverb and interjection).

Example.--_Jen la malsameco de la rezulto klariĝas_ = Here the
difference of the result is explained.

Jen ... jen = _Now ... now_, _sometimes ... at other times_.

Example.--_Jen li kuras rapide, jen li haltas!_ = Now he runs
rapidly, now he stops!

Ju malpli ... des malpli = _The less ... the less_ (par. 112).

Example.--_Ju malpli li laboras, des malpli li enspezas_ = The less
he works, the less he earns.

Ju malpli ... des pli = _The less ... the more_.

Example.--_Ju malpli li trinkas, des pli li manĝas_ = The less he
drinks, the more he eats.

Ju pli ... des malpli = _The more ... the less_.

Example.--_Ju pli ni trinkas, des malpli ni manĝas_ = The more we
drink, the less we eat.

Ju pli ... des pli = _The more ... the more_.

Example.--_Ju pli bona vi estos, des pli vi estos amata_ = The better
you are, the more you will be loved.

Kaj = _And_.

Example.--_Vi kaj mi devas ĝin fari_ = You and I must do it.

Kaj ... kaj = _Both ... and_.

Example.--_Mi vidis tie kaj Johanon kaj Georgon_ = I saw both John
and George there.

Kaj ceteraj = _And the rest_, _et cetera_ (commonly written k.c.).

Kaj tiel plu = _And so forth_, _and so on_ (commonly written

Ke = _That_. Be careful not to use ke for the pronouns kio,
kiu, tio, or tiu = _that_.

Examples.--_Mi esperas, ke tio, kion vi havas en la mano, ne estas
venena insekto_ = I hope that that which you have in your (the) hand
is not a poisonous insect. _Mi pensas, ke tiu vorto estas malĝuste
tradukita_ = I think that that word is wrongly translated.

Kial = _Wherefore_, _why_ (par. 150) (also adverb).

Example.--_Demandu lin, kial li tion faras_ = Ask him why he does

Kiam = _When_, _as_, _after_ (kiam = _after_, when used with the
English pluperfect) (par. 151).

Examples.--_Pluvis forte, kiam ni atingis_ (_alproksimiĝis_) _la
lagon_ = It rained heavily when (as) we reached the lake. _Kiam mi
estis kolektinta la sumon, mi aĉetis novan libron_ = After (when) I
had collected the amount, I bought a new book.

Kiam ajn = _Whenever_ (par. 145).

Example.--_Li balbutis, kiam ajn li parolis_ = He stammered whenever
he spoke.

Kie = _Where_ (par. 152) (also adverb).

Example.--_Sciigu min, kie li estas_ = Tell (inform) me where he is.

Kie ajn = _Wherever_ (par. 145).

Example.--_Mi lin trovos, kie ajn li estas_ = I shall find him
wherever he is.

Kiel = _As_ (in comparison) (par. 153).

Example.--_Li estas tiel forta, kiel vi_ = He is as strong as you.

Kiel ajn malmulte = _However little_.

Example.--_Kiel ajn malmulte vi volos_ (or, _volas_) ... = However
little you may (will) wish....

Kiel ankaŭ = _As also_, _as well as_.

Example.--_Mia patro, kiel ankaŭ mi, pensas, ke...._ = My father, as
well as I, thinks that....

Kiel eble plej baldaŭ = _As soon as possible_ (lit., as possible,
most soon). Kiel eble plej should be used as follows:--

Examples.--_Kiel eble plej frue_ = As early as possible. _Kiel eble
plej rapide_ = As quickly as possible. _Sendu lin al mi kiel eble
plej baldaŭ_ = Send him to me as soon as possible.

Kiel ekzemple = _As for example_.

Example.--_Oni ne manĝas kelkajn birdojn, kiel ekzemple aglojn,
akcipitrojn, vulturojn, cikoniojn, kaj aliajn_ = People do not eat
some birds, as, for example, eagles, hawks, vultures, storks, and

Kio ajn okazos (or, _ĉiuokaze_) = _At all events_ (lit., whatever
shall happen).

Example.--_Mi venos morgaŭ, kio ajn okazos_ = I shall come to-morrow
whatever happens.

Kondiĉe, ke = _On condition that_.

Example.--_Mi vin forpermesos, kondiĉe, ke vi revenu postmorgaŭ_ =
I will give you leave of absence, on condition that you return the
day after to-morrow.

Konsente, ke = _It being agreed that_.

Example.--_Mi iros, konsente, ke vi ankaŭ estu tie_ = I will go, it
being understood that (agreed that) you also be there.

Kontraŭe = _On the contrary_ (also adverb).

Example.--_Vi preferas la bovaĵon, mi, kontraŭe, preferas la
ŝafaĵon_ = You prefer beef, I, on the contrary, prefer mutton.

Krom se = _Unless_.

Examples.--_Krom se ili rapidos_ (or, _se ili ne rapidos_), _ili
maltrafos la vagonaron_ = Unless they (will) make haste, they will
miss the train.

Krom tio = _Besides_, _moreover_, _apart from that_.

Example.--_Ŝi estis krom tio tre bela knabino_ = She was, besides
(moreover), a very beautiful girl.

Kun la kondiĉo, ke = _On_ (_with_) _the condition that_.

Example.--_Mi pruntis al li la libron kun la kondiĉo, ke li redonu
ĝin al mi postmorgaŭ_ = I lent him the book on the condition that
he should (is to) return it to me the day after to-morrow.

Kvankam = _Although_, _though_.

Examples.--_Kvankam li estas riĉa, tamen li ne estas feliĉa_ =
Although he is rich, yet he is not happy. _Kvankam mi konsentas vian
opinion, tamen mi ne povas akordiĝi kun vi_ = Though I agree with
your opinion, I cannot nevertheless be in accord with you.

Kvazaŭ = _As if_, _as though_ (also adverb).

Example.--_Li staris, kvazaŭ li vidas teruraĵon_ = He stood as if
he saw a terrible object.

Laŭ tio ... ke = According as.

Example.--_Laŭ tio, ke vi estos atenta aŭ maldiligenta, la
lernejestroj vin laŭdos aŭ mallaŭdos_ = According as you are (will
be) attentive or idle, the schoolmaster will praise or blame you.

Malgraŭ ĉio = _In spite of all_ (_everything_), _after all_.

Example.--_Li foriris malgraŭ ĉio, kion mi diris_ = He went away in
spite of all I said.

Malgraŭ tio, ke = _Notwithstanding that._

Example.--_Malgraŭ tio, ke mi ne havis palton, mi eliris_ =
Notwithstanding that I had no overcoat, I went out.

Malpli ... ol = _Less ... than_ (par. 112).

Example.--_Li estas malpli kuraĝa, ol lia frato_ = He is less
courageous than his brother.

Ne nur, ne sole = _Not only._

Example.--_Li ne nur ŝtelis, sed li mortigis ankaŭ_ = He not only
stole, but he committed murder (murdered) also.

Nek = _Nor_ (par. 59 (_c_)).

Example.--_Li ne estis tie, nek mi_ = He was not there, nor I.

Nek ... ankaŭ = _Nor ... also_, _nor ... too_, _nor ... either_.

Example.--_Vi ne estis tie, nek mi ankaŭ_ = You were not there, nor
I either.

Nek ... nek = _Neither ... nor_ (par. 59 (_c_)).

Example.--_Nek vi nek mi estis tie_ = Neither you nor I was there.

_Ol_ = _Than_ (par. 112).

Examples.--_Pli bone malfrue, ol neniam_ = Better
late than never. _La libro ne kostos pli ol tri ŝilingojn_ = The
book will not cost more than three shillings.

Per (or, pro) tio, ke = In that, since.

Example.--_La akvo diferencas de la glacio per tio, ke tiu estas
fluida, kaj ĉi tiu malfluida_ = Water differs from ice, in that the
former is fluid and the latter solid.

Pli ... ol = _More ... than_ (par. 112).

Example.--_Li estas pli forta, ol vi_ = He is stronger than you.

Plie = _Moreover_, _further_ (also adverb).

Example.--_Plie, mi diras al vi, ke ..._ = Moreover, I tell you

Por ke = _In order that_, _so that_, _to the end that_. Por ke is
always followed by the Imperative mood, because, when used, this
expression implies order (see remarks on Imperative, par. 201).

Examples.--_Por ke mi rekompencu vin, konvenas, ke vi ĝin meritu_ =
In order that I may recompense you, it is proper (fitting) that you
merit it. _Mi volas ĉion fari, por ke vi estu kontenta je mi_ = I
wish to do everything, so that you may be satisfied with me, _or_, I
will do everything to please you.

Post kiam = _After_.

Example.--_Post kiam la suno subiris, ni revenis hejmen_ = After the
sun set we returned home.

Same kiel = _As_, _just as_ (par. 112).

Example.--_Same kiel la patrino amas sian infanon, tiel mi amas vin_
= Just as the mother loves her child, so do I love you.

Se = _If_.

Example.--_Mi ĝin faros, se mi povos_ = I shall do it if I can
(shall be able).

Se ne = _If not_, _otherwise_, _lest_.

Example.--_Lernu vian lecionon, se ne, mi vin vergos!_ = Learn your
lesson, otherwise I shall cane you!

Se nur = _If only_, _provided that_.

Example.--_Vi vidos Johanon, se nur vi alvenos frue_ = You will see
John, provided that you (will) arrive early.

Se okaze = _If perchance_, _in case_, _in the event of_.

Example.--_Se okaze vi venus malfrue, Johano ne estus tie ĉi_ = If
perchance you should come late, John would not be here.

Se tamen = _If however_, _if still_, _if though_, _if

Example.--_Se tamen vi ne povos veni morgaŭ matene, venu vespere_ =
If, however, you are not (will not be) able to come to-morrow
morning, come in the evening.

Sed = _But_.

Example.--_Li legas, sed ne komprenas tion, kion li legas_ = He
reads, but does not understand what he reads.

Sed ankaŭ = _But also_.

Example.--_Ŝi donis al mi ne nur hundon, sed ankaŭ ĉevalon_ = She
gave me not only a dog, but also a horse.

Sed eĉ = _But even_.

Example.--_Ne sole viroj, sed eĉ infanoj estis tie_ = Not only men,
but even children were there.

Sekve = _Consequently_.

Example.--_Ekpluvis, sekve ni revenis domen_ = It began to rain,
consequently we returned home.

Tamen = _However_, _yet_, _still_, _nevertheless_, _but_.

Examples.--_Kvankam li estas riĉa, tamen li ne estas feliĉa_ =
Although he is rich, yet (still) he is not happy. _Mi ne povis veni
hodiaŭ, tamen mi venos morgaŭ_ = I could not come to-day, however,
I will come to-morrow. _Kvankam li perdis monon, tamen li ne mortis
malriĉulo_ = Although he lost money, nevertheless he did not die a
poor man.

Tia, ke = _Such that_.

Example.--_Mia teruro estis tia, ke mi ne povis paroli unu vorton_ =
My terror was such, that I could not utter a single word.

Tial = _So_, _therefore_ (par. 150) (also adverb).

Example.--_Li rifuzis labori, tial mi eksigis lin_ = He refused to
work, therefore (so) I dismissed him.

Tial, ke = _Inasmuch as_, _since_, _because_.

Example.--_Mi vin ne mallaŭdas, tial, ke tio ne estis
via eraro_ = I do not blame you, inasmuch as (since) it (that) was
not your mistake.

N.B.--Do not confuse tial, ke with tiel, ke = _so that_.

Tiam, kiam = _Then when_, _when_ (par. 151).

Example.--_Tiam, kiam mi estis riĉa, mi ne estis feliĉa_, or, _Kiam
mi estis riĉa,_ (_tiam_) _mi ne estis feliĉa_ = When I was rich,
(then) I was not happy.

Tiamaniere, ke = _In such a manner that_, _so that_.

Example.--_Parolu tiamaniere_ (or, _tiel_), _ke mi povu vin kompreni_
= Speak in such a manner (so) that I can (may be able to) understand

Tiel, ke = _So that_.

Example.--_Estis muro inter ili, tiel, ke ili ne povis vidi unu la
alian_ = There was a wall between them so that they could not see one

Tiel ... ke = _So ... that_.

Example.--_Li estas tiel bona, ke li ĉion pardonas_ = He is so good
that he pardons everything.

Tiel ... kiel = _As ... as_ (par. 112).

Example.--_Ŝi estas tiel bona, kiel_ (_ŝi estas_) _bela_ = She is
as good as she is beautiful.

Timante, ke, or, pro la timo, ke = _For fear that_, _fearing
that_, _lest_.

Example.--_Mi tion diris, timante, ke li venos_ = I said that,
fearing that (lest) he would (will) come. Note the use of the future
tense here. "What is my fear?" I fear he will perhaps come.

Tio estas (t.e.) = _That is_, _that is to say_, _to wit_. The
initial letters are nearly always used just as we say _id est_ =

Tiom ... ke = _So many ... that_, _so much ... that_.

Example.--_Mi havis tiom da pomoj, ke mi devis ilin fordoni_ = I had
so many apples that I was obliged to give them away.

Tiom ... kiom = _As much ... as_, _as many ... as_.

Example.--_Donu al mi tiom, kiom vi povas_ = Give me as much (many)
as you can.

Tuj kiam = _As soon as_, _immediately when_, _directly_.

Example.--_Mi fermis la pordon, tuj kiam li eliris_ = I shut the door
as soon as (directly) he went out.


269. Interjections (_interjekcioj_) and interjectional expressions
vary so considerably in force and meaning in different languages that
it is impossible to translate some of them. If we translated our
English interjections literally into Esperanto, many of them would
have no meaning to a foreigner. The following short list appears at
present to be in use, but, no doubt, as the language becomes more
widely spoken, more will be added.

Adiaŭ! = _Adieu! farewell! good-bye!_

Ah! Aha! = _Ah! hah!_

Aj! = _An exclamation of disgust_.

Antaŭen! = _Forward!_

Atentu! = _Look out! Take care! Attention!_

Aŭskultu! = _Hark! hist!_

Bis! = _Encore!_

Bone! = _Good!_

Bonvenu! Bonvenon! = _Welcome!_

Brave! = _Bravo! capital! splendid!_

Certe! = _Certainly!_

Ĉu estas eble! = _Is it possible!_

Ĉu ne! = _Isn't it! etc._ Ĉu! = _Is it! etc._

Ĉu ne vere! = _Is it not so!_

Dio gardu! = _God save us!_

Dio mia! = _God bless me!_

Dio min savu! = _God save me!_

Dio volu! = _Would to God! may God!_

Efektive! = _Really!_

Fi! = _Fie! for shame!_

For! = _Away! be off!_

For de tie ĉi! = _Begone! be off! avaunt!_

Ha! = _Ah! ha!_

Haltu! = _Stop!_

He! = _Halloo! hey!_

Helpon! Helpu! = _Help!_

Ho! = _O! oh! ho!_

Ho ve! = _Alack! alas! oh dear! welladay!_

Hontu! = _For shame!_

Hura! = _Hurrah! huzza!_

Ja! = _Indeed!_

Jen! = _Lo! there! behold! see!_

Kial do! = _Why indeed! why then!_

Kiel abomene! = _How abominable!_

Kion! = _What!_ Kion do! = _What then!_

Kompreneble! = _Of course!_

Kuraĝe! = _Courage!_

Ne! = _No!_

Nu! = _Well!_

Nu do! = _Well then!_

Pacience! Paciencu! Paciencon! = _Be quiet! Patience!_

Peston! = _Plague on't!_

Pluen! Daŭrigu! = _Proceed! Go on!_

Pro Dio! = _For God's sake!_

Rapidu! Rapide! = _Quick!_

Silentu! Silenton! = _Hist! hush!_

Ŝŝ! = _'Sh! Hush!_

Ts! = _Hist!_

Ve! = _Woe!_

Vere! = _Really! True!_

Verege! Tre vere! = _Very true!_

Vivu! = _Long live!_

269 (_a_). When adjectives are used as interjections, the adverbial
form in E is used, because there is neither noun nor pronoun with
which they can agree, as:--_Neeble!_ = Impossible! (par. 245).


270. Suffix -AĈ-. Prefixes FI- and FUŜ-.

The suffix -aĉ- denotes _badness of quality or condition_, and is
used with any part of speech to show _disparagement_, _contempt_.
Fuŝi, _to botch_, _bungle_, _do blunderingly_, is sometimes used
as a prefix with a similar meaning, though it is less frequently used
than -aĉ.

Aĉa = _nasty_; domaĉo = _a hovel_; veteraĉo = _vile
weather_; ĉapelaĉo = _a shabby hat_; fuŝkonstrui, or,
konstruaĉi = _to jerry-build_.

The exclamation Fi = _fie! for shame!_ is used as a prefix to
denote _shamefulness_, _disgustingness_, _nastiness_. Fi- denotes
moral rather than physical badness, and is stronger than -aĉ-,
which has a more general sense.

Fidomo = _a house of ill repute_; fivorto = _a naughty word_;
firakonto = _a low story_.

270 (1). Suffix -AD-. (Ex. 19.)

(_a_). This suffix marks that an action is being continued or is
habitual. It marks an action of some duration, not momentary. Thus,
pafo = _a shot from a gun_ (the gun is fired, and the action is
over); but pafado = _a fusillade_ (a continuance of shots of more
or less duration).

Thus _dancado_ = dancing, _desegnado_ = designing, drawing, _kantado_
= singing, _legado_ = reading, _pentrado_ = painting, _skulptado_ =
(the art of) sculpture, _skribado_ = writing. These words signify not
momentary acts, but habitual actions; in fact, they are used to
denote arts or practices, as the art of painting, singing, etc.
_Kanto_ = A song. _Ŝia kanto plaĉas al mi_ = Her song pleases me.
_Ŝia kantado ĉarmas min_ = Her singing charms me.

(_b_). If we wish to speak of the faculties of hearing, smelling,
touching, thought, feeling, will, we say aŭdado, flarado, palpado,
pensado, sentado, volado; but if we speak of isolated acts of such
faculties, we say aŭdo, flaro, palpo, penso, sento, volo.

(_c_). Sometimes the word arto is used when we wish to specify that
some -ado is an art.

Examples.--_Danc-arto_ (_dancado_) = the art of dancing, _kant-arto_
(_kantado_) = the art of singing, _pentr-arto_ (_pentrado_) = the art
of painting.

N.B.--The hyphens are not necessary.

(_d_). The difference in meaning of words with and without the suffix
is seen in such words as:--

_Movo_ = a motion, _movado_ = movement (general), _progreso_ = a step
of progress, _progresado_ = progress (general), _parolo_ = word
(spoken), _parolado_ = speech, discourse, _fumo_ = smoke, _fumado_ =
smoking (habit of smoking), _verko_ = a work (literary or musical),
_verkado_ = composition (lit.).

(_e_). In the verb itself we use this suffix to show that the action
is not merely momentary, but is being _continued_, _repeated_, or _is
habitual_; an aspect of the verb which is, in English, often
expressed by the words "keep on," "used to," etc.

Examples.--_Mi saltadis la tutan tagon de loko al loko_ = I jumped
(about) all day long from place to place (kept on jumping). _Viziti_
= To visit. _Vizitadi_ = To frequent, to haunt.

(_f_). Where the root plus o denotes the name of an object, the
ending -ado introduces the idea of action, thus: krono = _a
crown_; kronado = _coronation_; martelo = _a hammer_; martelado
= _hammering_, etc.

(_g_). Do not therefore use _-AD-_ without thinking of its
significance, or merely for the sake of euphony.

271. Suffixes -AĴ- and -EC-. (Ex. 20).

(_a_). _-AĴ-_ denotes something having the quality denoted by the
root, or made or derived from that which is named by the root. It is
also used to denote the flesh of animals intended for food.

Examples.--_Ĉasi_ = to hunt, _ĉasaĵo_ = game. _Armi_ = to arm,
_armaĵo_ = armour. _Bovo_ = an ox, _bovaĵo_ = beef. _Ovo_ = an egg,
ovaĵo = an omelet.

(_b_). _-EC-_ denotes an _abstract_ quality, similar to the English
suffixes, _-nce_, _-ncy_, _-ness_, _-tude_, _-ity_.

Examples.--_Pura_ = clean, _pureco_ = purity, cleanness. _Feliĉa_ =
happy, _feliĉeco_ = happiness, felicity. _Sen_ = without, _seneco_ =
dearth, want. _Kuraĝa_ = courageous, _kuraĝeco_ = fortitude.
_Danki_ = to thank, _dankeco_ = gratitude, thankfulness. _Riĉa_ =
rich, _riĉeco_ = wealth.

(_c_). Both suffixes apply to good or bad qualities. They can be used
as roots, as aĵo = _a thing_, eco = _a quality_, _a distinctive

(_d_). A comparison of the following words will best illustrate their

_Amiko_ = a friend, _amikaĵo_ = a friendly act, _amikeco_ =
friendship. _Bona_ = good, _bonaĵo_ = a good (action or thing),
_boneco_ = goodness. _Fortika_ = solid, robust, _fortikaĵo_ = a
stronghold, _fortikeco_ = robustness. _Mola_ = soft, _molaĵo_ = a
soft substance, pulp, _moleco_ = softness. _Sprita_ = witty,
_spritaĵo_ = a witticism, _spriteco_ = wittiness. _Malsprita_ =
dull, stupid, _malspritaĵo_ = a stupidity, a _bêtise_, _malspriteco_
= stupidity, a state of silliness.

(_e_). To express an idea itself, namely, one that is neither
concrete (_-AĴ-_) nor abstract (_-EC-_), we add only the grammatical
termination to the root. For instance, la bono = _the good_,
_good (itself)_, and from this arises bonaĵo = _a good action_,
or, _something good_, the abstract quality being boneco = _goodness_.
Again, acido = _an acid_, acidaĵo = _an acid thing_, something
which has an acid taste, acideco = _acidity_. So, heroo = _a hero_,
heroaĵo = _an exploit_ (something heroic), heroeco = _heroism_.
The student should guard against the tendency of some writers to
over-use -ec-: e.g., to use feliĉeco, kuraĝeco, boneco, rapideca,
in cases where the sense does not call for a qualitative suffix,
and simple feliĉo, kuraĝo, bono, rapida, would be more appropriate.
In other words, use eco only when you wish to accentuate the
abstractness, the "_nessness_" of the idea.

Examples.--_La bono, kiun vi faras estas rimarkinda, ĉar via boneco
ĉiam instigadas vin fari bonaĵojn_ = The good that you are doing is
remarkable, for your goodness is always prompting you to do kind
acts. _Vitriolo estas acido, sed vinagro estas nur acidaĵo, kvankam
ambaŭ posedas acidecon_ = Vitriol is an acid, but vinegar is only a
sour fluid, although both possess acidity. _La heroo de la heroaĵo
montris grandan heroecon_ = The hero of the exploit showed great
heroism. _La amiko montras sian amikecon per amikaĵoj_ = A friend
shows his friendship by friendly acts.

272. Suffixes -AN-, -IST-, -ESTR-, -UL-. (Ex. 21).

These four suffixes relate to individuals. When combined with a root,
one or other of them serves to show a person's country, religion,
profession, occupation, character, etc. Each has its distinct
meaning, and care must be taken not to confuse them. The feminine
suffix _-IN-_ is added to denote females.

(_a_). Like the English _-an_, _-man_, _-AN-_ denotes a member of
something, such as a club, society, etc.; an inhabitant of a place or
country; a partisan; an adherent to a party, faction, religion, etc.

Examples.--_Klubo_ = a club, _klubano_ = a member of a club. _Senato_
= senate, _senatano_ = a senator. _Ameriko_ = America, _amerikano_ =
an American. _Londono_ = London, _londonano_ = a Londoner. _Parizo_ =
Paris, _parizano_ = a Parisian. _Urbo_ = a town or city, _urbano_ = a
townsman or citizen. _Kamparo_ = country (rural), _kamparano_ = a
countryman. _Vilaĝo_ = a village, _vilaĝano_ = a villager. _Insulo_
= an island, _insulano_ = an islander. _Kristo_ = Christ, _Kristano_ = a
Christian. _Partio_ = a party, _partiano_ = a partisan.

(_b_). The suffix _-AN-_ itself is used as a root. Ano = _a
member_, anaro = _a band_ (a collection of members of something).

(_c_). _-IST-_, like the English affix _-ist_, denotes a person
following a profession or trade, or some occupation by which he gains
his livelihood, or who is habitually engaged in science, art, etc. In
short, it denotes _habitual occupation_ (not necessarily for the sake
of gain).

Examples.--_Juĝi_ = to judge, _juĝisto_ = a judge. _Kuraci_ = to
treat the sick, _kuracisto_ = a doctor. _Drogo_ = a drug, _drogisto_
= a druggist. _Maro_ = sea, _maristo_ = a sailor (by occupation).
_Rabi_ = to rob, _rabisto_ = a robber. _Ŝteli_ = to steal,
_ŝtelisto_ = a thief. _Pentri_ = to paint, _pentristo_ = a painter
(art). _Kolorigi_ = to colour, paint, _kolorigisto_ = a painter
(house). _Servi_ = to serve, _servisto_ or _servistino_ = servant
(male or female). _Astrologio_ = astrology, _astrologiisto_ (or,
_astrologo_) = an astrologer.

(_d_). _-IST-_ is used only when there is a root to which it may be
added to form the name of someone engaged in a trade, occupation,
etc., as shown in the above examples. Thus, from Kudri = _to sew_,
ŝuo = _a shoe_, boto = boot, we get kudristino = _a seamstress_
or _dressmaker_, ŝuisto = _a shoemaker_, botisto = _a bootmaker_.
When there is no such root, Esperanto provides an independent root,
as:--Tajloro = _a tailor_, lakeo = _a lackey_, or _valet_.

(_e_). When the person is engaged in a temporary occupation, or is
not a professional, but an amateur, a participle is often used.

Examples.--_Juĝanto_ = a judge (of something), _juĝisto_, a judge
(by occupation or profession). _Amanto_ = a lover, _amisto_ = a
lover, a sweetheart, a gallant. _Fotografanto_ = a photographer, one
who is now photographing, _fotografisto_ = a professional photographer.
_Laboranto_ = a person working, _laboristo_ = a labourer, or man who
works for a livelihood.

(_f_). _-ESTR-_ denotes a person who is a chief, leader, ruler,
principal, or head of a State, party, body, etc. In the same way as
the suffix _-AN-_ denotes a member of some profession, body, etc., so
_-ESTR-_ would designate the head of it, as:--Urbo = _a city_,
urbano = _citizen_, urbestro = _a mayor_, _a chief citizen_.

Examples.--_Imperio_ = an empire, _imperiestro_ = an emperor,
_imperiestrino_ = an empress. _Regno_ = (the) State, _regnestro_ = a
ruler, head of (the) State. _Ŝipo_ = a ship, _ŝipestro_ = a captain
of a merchant vessel, a skipper. _Lernejo_ = a school, _lernejestro_
= a schoolmaster, head master (a teacher would be _instruisto_). From
_polico_ = police, we get _policano_ = a policeman (a member of the
police force), _policisto_ = an officer of police (one who has made
the police his profession), _policestro_ = chief of police.

(_g_). Ĉefo = _chief_, _head_, is used as a prefix as an
equivalent of the English _chief_, _main_, _head-_, _prime_.

Examples.--_Episkopo_ = a bishop, _ĉefepiskopo_ = archbishop.
_Anĝelo_ = an angel, _ĉefanĝelo_ = archangel.

Compare _-estro_ (the one in command over) with _ĉef-_ (principal in
honour, in comparison with the others). Ĉefŝipo = _principal
ship_, ŝipestro = _ship's captain_.

(_h_). _-UL-_ denotes a person characterized by the idea contained in
the root, the root being used in an adjectival sense to express that
an individual is "rich," "poor," "just," "good," etc.

Examples.--_Riĉa_ = rich, _riĉulo_ = a rich man. _Malriĉa_ = poor,
_malriĉulo_ = a poor man, a pauper. _Justa_ = just, _justulo_ = a
just or righteous man. _Bona_ = good, _bonulo_ = a good man. _Bela_ =
beautiful, _belulino_ = a beauty, a beautiful woman. _Paca_ =
peaceful, _paculo_ = a man of peace. _Juna_ = young, _junulo_ = a
youth, junulino = a young woman. _Avara_ = avaricious, _avarulo_ = a

(_i_). Primary words can be used also as roots when applicable.

Examples.--_Tie_ = there, _tieulo_ = an aborigine (a man of there).
_Tiam_ = then, at that time, _tiamulo_ = a contemporary (a man of
that time). _Kun_ = with, _kunulo_ = a companion (a person with you).

(_j_). Since words like legi = _to read_, viziti = _to visit_,
etc., are not adjectival in character, we use with them (in
describing a person) by preference not _-UL-_ but _-IST-_ or a
participial termination.

Examples.--_Leganto_ = a reader (who is reading), _leginto_ = a
reader (who has read), _legonto_ = a reader (who is about to read),
_legisto_ = a reader (by habitual occupation). But _legemulo_ = a
person who is fond of reading.

273. Suffixes -AR- and -ER-. (Ex. 22.)

Aro = _a collection_, and ero = _an item_; therefore aro da
eroj might be termed "a collection of items."

(_a_). _-AR-_ denotes a reunion or a collection of the idea contained
in the root; a whole formed from a union of the parts.

Examples.--_Vorto_ = a word, _vortaro_ = a collection of words, a
dictionary. _Homo_ = a man, _homaro_ = mankind. _Arbo_ = a tree,
_arbaro_ = a wood, _arbareto_ = a small wood, clump of trees.
_Arbeto_ = shrub, small tree, _arbetaro_ = shrubbery, a grove.
_Insulo_ = an island, _insularo_ = an archipelago. _Vagono_ = a
(railway) carriage, _vagonaro_ = a train. _Sekvanto_ = a follower,
_sekvantaro_ = suite, cortège, retinue. _Nomo_ = a name, _nomaro_ =
list of names, a register. _Ŝtupo_ = a step, _ŝtuparo_ = a
staircase, _ŝtupetaro_ = a ladder, succession of small steps.
_Aristokrato_ = an aristocrat, _aristokrataro_ = (the) aristocracy.
_Aro_ = a collection, a flock, a herd. If we wish to specify the
animals, we can add the suffix to the name, as:--_Bruto_ = cattle,
_brutaro_ = a herd of cattle. _Ŝafo_ = a sheep, _ŝafaro_ = a flock
of sheep. _Abelo_ = a bee, _abelaro_ = a swarm of bees.

(_b_). _-ER-_ denotes one of many objects of the same kind, a small
fragment, one of many similar parts which together form the whole.

Examples.--_Sablo_ = sand, _sablero_ = a grain of sand. _Hajlo_ =
hail, _hajlero_ = a hailstone. _Fajro_ = fire, _fajrero_ = a spark.
_Mono_ = money, _monero_ = a coin. _Polvo_ = dust, _polvero_ = an
atom or speck of dust. _Pulvo_ = gunpowder, _pulvero_ = a grain of
gunpowder. _Sukero_ = sugar, _sukerero_ = a grain of sugar.

274. Suffixes -ĈJ- and -NJ-. (Ex. 23.)

(_a_). _-ĈJ-_ is an affectionate diminutive to the Christian name of
a man. It is placed after any letter of the name not later than the
fifth (occasionally, the sixth).

Examples.--_Vilhelmo_ = William, _Vilhelĉjo_ = Willie, _Vilheĉjo_ =
Will, _Vilĉjo_ = Billy, _Viĉjo_ = Bill. _Petro_ = Peter, _Peĉjo_ =
Pete. _Johano_ = John, _Johanĉjo_ = Johnnie, _Joĉjo_ = Jack.
_Nikolao_ = Nicholas, _Nikolĉjo_ = Nickie, _Nikoĉjo_, _Nikĉjo_, or
_Niĉjo_ = Nick. _Ernesto_ = Ernest, _Erneĉjo_, _Ernĉjo_, or
_Erĉjo_ = Ernie. _Patro_ = father, _patreto_, _paĉjo_ = papa.

(_b_). _-NJ-_ is a similar diminutive for a female Christian name.

Examples.--_Mario_ = Mary, _Marinjo_ = Molly, _Manjo_ = Polly.
_Klaro_ = Clara, _Klanjo_ = Clarrie. _Sofio_ = Sophia, _Sonjo_ =
Sophy. _Patrineto_, _patrinjo_, _panjo_ = mamma, mammy, ma.

275. Suffixes -EBL-, -EM-, -IND-. (Ex. 24.)

(_a_). These three suffixes, when used as roots, form the words
ebla = _possible_; emo = _propensity_, _tendency_; indo =
_worth_, _merit_, _value_. As suffixes they are mostly used to form
adjectives or adverbs, and the following three, from kredi = _to
believe_, will give an idea of their different shades of meaning.
Kredebla = _credible_, _possible of belief_, _believable_;
kredema = _credulous_, _having a tendency to believe_; kredinda =
_worthy of belief_.

(_b_). _-EBL-_ denotes possibility, or what is likely to happen,
similar to the English suffix -able, -ible.

Examples.--_Pagi_ = to pay, _pagebla_ = payable. _Fleksi_ = to bend,
_fleksebla_ = flexible. _Rompi_ = to break, _rompebla_ = breakable.
_Fidi_ = to rely upon, _fidebla_ = reliable. _Kompreni_ = to
understand, _komprenebla_ = comprehensible, _kompreneble_ = of
course, comprehensibly.

(_c_). Do not confuse _-EBL-_ with _-EM-_ or _-IND-_ in words which
in English end in -able or -ible, but have two distinct meanings.
For instance, "readable" may mean either "able to be read" or "worth
reading." In Esperanto there is no such confusion, for legebla =
_readable_, _legible_, but leginda = _readable_, _worth reading_.
Hence we see that _-EBL-_ must always denote possibility. It is
possible to love or to honour all persons, whether they merit this or
not; but when, in English, we talk of a lovable or honourable
individual, we imply not possibility, but worthiness; therefore, in
Esperanto, aminda = _lovable_, and honorinda = _honourable_.
_-EBL-_ is sometimes used for the infinitive.

Examples.--_Tiuj ĉi vortoj ne estas troveblaj en la vortaro_ = These
words are not to be found (findable) in the dictionary. _Tia amo
estas malfacile imagebla_ = It is difficult to imagine such love.

(_d_). _-EM-_ denotes propensity, tendency, inclination, disposition,
similar to the English suffix, -ful.

Examples.--_Paco_ = peace, _pacema_ = peaceful. _Helpi_ = to help,
_helpema_ = helpful, obliging. _Trompi_ = to deceive, _trompema_ =
deceitful, _trompemo_ = duplicity. _Servi_ = to serve, _servema_ =
obliging, _servemo_ = inclination to serve. _Labori_ = to work,
_laborema_ = laborious. _Pura_ = clean, pure, _purema_ = cleanly,
_purigebla_ = cleanable. _Babili_ = to chatter, _babilema_ =
talkative, chattering. _Koleri_ = to be angry, _kolerema_ =
irascible, _ekkolerema_ = quick-tempered. _Dormi_ = to sleep,
_dormema_ = disposed to sleep, sleepy, drowsy.

(_e_). Do not confuse _-EM-_ with _-IND-_ (or with _-AM-_ (love) in
compound words). For instance:--

_Envii_ = to envy, _enviema_ = envious, inclined to envy, _enviinda_
= enviable, worthy or deserving of envy. _Honti_ = to be ashamed,
_hontema_ = bashful, inclined to be ashamed, _hontemo_ = bashfulness,
_hontinda_ = shameful, deserving of shame, impudent. _Dormi_ = to
sleep, _dormema_ = drowsy, _dormama_ = fond of sleep.

(_f_). _-IND-_ denotes worthiness, worthy of.

Examples.--_Inda_ = worthy, _malinda_ = unworthy. _Laŭdi_ = to
praise, _laŭdinda_ = praiseworthy. _Memori_ = to remember,
_memorinda_ = memorable, worthy of being remembered. _Estimi_ = to
esteem, _estiminda_ = esteemable, or estimable. If we use "estimable"
in the sense of "able to be valued," we must form the word from
_taksi_ = to estimate, to value, _taksebla_ = estimable, appraisable.

276. Suffix -EDZ-. (Exs. 25, 34.)

_-EDZ-_ denotes a married person, and can scarcely be called a
suffix, although classed as such, since it is generally used as a

Examples.--_Edzo_ = a husband, a married man, _edzino_ = a wife, a
married woman, _edzeco_ = matrimony, a state of marriage, _edziĝo_ =
a wedding, nuptials, _edziĝa_ = nuptial, _geedzoj_ = a married
couple, husband and wife.

When reference is made to a woman, the feminine suffix _-IN-_ is
added to verbs as well as nouns and adjectives.

Examples.--_Doktoredzino_ = a doctor's wife; _kudristinedzo_ = a
seamstress's husband; _laboristedzino_ = a labourer's wife;
_lavistinedzo_ = a washerwoman's husband; _tajloredzino_ = a tailor's
wife; _edzigi_ (trans.) = to marry a couple, or to marry (a man to a
woman), _edzinigi_ (trans.) = to marry a woman to a man; _edziĝi_
(intrans.) = to get (to be) married (man), _edziniĝi_ (intrans.) =
to get (to be) married (woman). Note the following sentences:--_Li
edziĝis kun sia kuzino, kvankam liaj gepatroj volis edzigi lin kun
alia sinjorino_ = He was married to (with) his cousin, although his
parents wished to marry him to (with) another lady. _Ŝi edziniĝis
kun sia kuzo, kvankam ŝiaj gepatroj volis edzinigi ŝin kun alia
sinjoro_ = She was married to her cousin, although her parents wished
to marry her to another gentleman.

277. Suffixes -EG- and -ET-. (Ex. 26.)

(_a_). These two suffixes are opposites, _-EG-_ denoting
augmentation, and _-ET-_ diminution of degree. When employed
in adjectives, the adverb "very" is often loosely used to denote
the degree, as:--Grandega (_very large_), malgrandega (_very
little_), but a better translation of these words is grandega
= _huge_, _enormous_; malgrandega = _tiny_ (see remarks on degrees
of intensity of adjectives, par. 114). If we cannot find English
adjectives as equivalents of _-EG-_ or _-ET-_, we should use
not the adverb "very," but a stronger term, as "excessively,"
"enormously," etc.

(_b_). In the case of nouns we must be careful to use the right words
to express the English meaning.

Examples.--_Montego_ = a huge mountain, _granda monto_ = a big
mountain, _monto_ = a mountain, _malgranda monto_ = a small mountain,
_monteto_ = a hill, _altaĵo_ = an eminence, _altaĵeto_ = a hillock.
Again:--_Riverego_ = a huge river, _larĝa rivero_ = a wide river,
_rivero_ = a river, _malgranda rivero_ = a small river, _rivereto_ =
a brook, stream, _malgranda rivereto_ = a streamlet.

(_c_). _-EG-_ denotes augmentation, intensity of degree. Used as a
root, ega = _intense_, egeco = _intensity_.

(_d_). _-ET-_ denotes diminution of degree. Equivalent to the English
suffixes -let in "streamlet," -ule in "globule," "pustule." Used
as a root, eta = _little_, _tiny_, etulo = _a little one_.

Examples.--_Pluvo_ = rain, _pluvego_ = a downpour, _pluveto_ = a
shower. _Ridi_ = to laugh, _ridegi_ = to guffaw, _rideti_ = to smile.
_Plori_ = to shed tears, _ploregi_ = to weep bitterly, _ploreti_ = to
whimper. _Dormi_ = to sleep, _dormegi_ = to sleep heavily, _dormeti_
= to doze, _dormeto_ = a nap. _Domo_ = a house, _domego_ = a mansion,
_dometo_ = a cottage. _Ŝnuro_ = cord, _ŝnurego_ = rope, cable,
_ŝnureto_ = string, twine. _Ami_ = to love, _amegi_ = to idolize,
_ameti_ = to have some liking for.

N.B.--From the above we see that _-EG-_ and _-ET-_ may generally be
translated by distinct words, and are not merely a substitute for
adverbs, which will often more accurately express the meaning than
the added suffix.

278. Suffixes -EJ-, -ING-, -UJ-. (Ex. 27.)

These suffixes are akin, since they denote either a place or thing
from which the idea of the root is produced, or in which it is

(_a_). _-EJ-_ denotes the place of, used for, or allotted to, the
idea contained in the root. As a root, ejo = _a place_, _a

Examples.--_Ŝafo_ = a sheep, _ŝafejo_ = a sheepfold, or a place
specially used for sheep. _Preĝi_ = to pray, _preĝejo_ = a church,
a place allotted to prayer. _Fruktarbo_ = a fruit-tree, _fruktarbejo_
= an orchard, a place used for fruit trees. _Kafo_ = coffee, _kafejo_
= a café. _Vinbero_ = a grape, _vinberejo_ = a vineyard. _Armilo_ = a
weapon, _armilejo_ = an armoury. _Tombo_ = a tomb, grave, _tombejo_ =
a cemetery. _Manĝi_ = to eat, _manĝejo_ = a refectory, _manĝaĵo_
= food, _manĝaĵejo_ = a larder. _Planti_ = to plant, _plantejo_ =
nursery. _Mallibera_ = captive, _malliberejo_ = a prison. _Bovino_ =
a cow, _bovinejo_ = cowshed. _Lerni_ = to learn, _lernejo_ = a
school. _Juĝi_ = to judge, _juĝejo_ = a court of justice. _Dormi_ =
to sleep, _dormejo_ = a dormitory. _Herbo_ = grass, _herbejo_ = a
meadow, a field. _Paperfari_ = to make paper, _paperfarejo_ = a paper

(_b_) _-ING-_ denotes a thing for holding one object only. Used as
a root, ingo = _a socket_, _a sheath_, _a holder_.

Examples.--_Kandelo_ = a candle, _kandelingo_ = a candlestick.
_Plumo_ = a pen, _plumingo_ = a penholder. _Fingro_ = a finger,
_fingringo_ = a thimble. _Cigaredo_ = a cigarette, _cigaredingo_ = a
cigarette mouthpiece. _Glavo_ = a sword, _glavingo_ = scabbard,
sheath (sword). _Bajoneto_ = bayonet, _bayonetingo_ = a scabbard

(_c_). _-UJ-_ denotes that which contains, produces, encloses, or
bears. Used as a root, ujo = _a receptacle_, _a container_. It has
a wide signification, for it can be used for:--

(1). The names of countries in cases where the root-word denotes
the inhabitant, as being the places which contain their various

Examples.--_Franco_ = a Frenchman, _Francujo_ = France. _Turko_ = a
Turk, _Turkujo_ = Turkey. _Anglo_ = an Englishman, _Anglujo_ =
England. _Germano_ = a German, _Germanujo_ = Germany. _Italo_ = an
Italian, _Italujo_ = Italy. _Brito_ = a Briton, _Granda Britujo_ =
Great Britain. _Hispano_ = a Spaniard, _Hispanujo_ = Spain.

N.B.--_Lando_ can be used instead of -_ujo_, if desired.

Where the root-word denotes not the inhabitant, but the country, uj
is of course not used, e.g., Aŭstralio, Nederlando, Usono. In
these cases the name of the inhabitant is formed by an from that of
the country, thus: aŭstraliano. See par. 272 (_a_).

(2). The names of trees producing fruits.

Examples.--_Pruno_ = a plum, _prunujo_ = a plum-tree. _Kaŝtano_ = a
chestnut, _kaŝtanujo_ = a chestnut-tree. _Piro_ = a pear, _pirujo_ =
a pear-tree. _Migdalo_ = an almond, _migdalujo_ = an almond-tree.
_Moruso_ = a mulberry, _morusujo_ = a mulberry-tree. _Ĉerizo_ = a
cherry, _ĉerizujo_ = a cherry-tree.

_Arbo_ can be used instead of _ujo_ in such cases, and is preferable,
because clearer, thus: _prunarbo_, _ĉerizarbo_.

(3). The names of receptacles commonly used for certain articles.

Examples.--_Teo_ = tea, _teujo_ = a tea-caddy or canister (a teapot
is a vessel in which tea is made, not kept, therefore _tekruĉo_ = a
teapot, from _kruĉo_ = a vessel for fluids). _Mono_ = money,
_monujo_ = a purse. _Papero_ = paper, _paperujo_ = a portfolio.
_Sukero_ = sugar, _sukerujo_ = a sugar-basin. _Karto_ = a card,
_kartujo_ = a card-case. _Abelo_ = a bee, _abelujo_ = a, beehive.
_Mustardo_ = mustard, _mustardujo_ = mustard-pot.

(_d_). The difference in meaning of these three suffixes is shown in
the following examples:--

For instance, _cigaro_ = a cigar, _cigarejo_ = a cigar depot; but if
we wish to distinguish the kind of depôt, viz., store, shop, etc., we
add the word required. If it be a store, we add _tenejo_ = a
storehouse, as:--_Cigartenejo_ = a cigar storehouse or depôt. If a
shop, we add _vendejo_ = a market, or place where things are sold,
as:--_Cigarvendejo_ = a cigar shop, or we might say also
_cigarbutiko_. _Cigaringo_ = a cigar holder or mouthpiece, which
holds one cigar. _Cigarujo_ = a cigar case or box, which contains
several cigars. _Pomo_ = an apple, _pomejo_ (or, _pomarbejo_) = an
apple orchard, _pomujo_, _pomarbo_ = an apple-tree.

279. Suffix -ID-. (Ex. 25.)

_-ID-_ denotes the young of, offspring, descendant. Used as a root,
ido = _offspring_, _descendant_; idaro = _issue_, _posterity_.

Examples.--_Kato_ = a cat, _katido_ = a kitten. _Bovo_ = an ox, or a
general term for the animal, hence _bovido_ = a calf; if we wished to
say a cow's calf, we make _bovo_ feminine, viz., _bovino_ = a cow,
_bovinido_ = a cow's calf of either sex. A cow calf we should call
_bovidino_, and a bull calf, to determine it exactly, would be
_virbovido_, viz., a male calf. It is important that suffixes should
follow in their natural order (see order of suffixes, par. 46).
_Ŝafo_ = a sheep, _ŝafido_ = a lamb. _Cervo_ = a stag, _cervido_ =
a fawn. _Hundo_ = a dog, _hundido_ = a puppy. _Ĉevalo_ = a horse,
_ĉevalido_ = a foal. _Koko_ = a cock, _kokido_ = a chicken,
_kokideto_ = a chick, a tiny chicken. _Birdo_ = a bird, _birdido_ = a
fledgeling, a young bird. _Izraelo_ = Israel, _izraelido_ = an
Israelite. _Napoleono_ = Napoleon, _napoleonido_ = a descendant of
Napoleon. _Reĝo_ = a king, _reĝido_ = a prince, king's son.

280. Suffixes -IG- and -IĜ-. (Ex. 28.)

(_a_). These two are the most important and most widely used of all
the suffixes. They form an infinity of words, especially verbs. Used
as roots, (1). Igi = _to make_, _to cause_, as:--Igu ŝin veni al
nia dancado = _Make her come to our dance._ Li penis igi sian
amikon tuŝi la aferon = _He tried to make his friend broach the
subject_ (_touch upon the matter_). (2). Iĝi = _to become_ (_to be
made_, _to get_), as La vetero iĝas pli varma = _The weather is
getting_ (_becoming_) _warmer_. Li baldaŭ iĝos maljunulo = _He
will soon become an old man._

(_b_). Used as suffixes:--

(1). _-IG-_ denotes (like the English suffix -fy) to make, to cause
(to get), to render, as ruĝa = _red_, ruĝigi = _to make red_,
_to redden_, and from this verb is formed ruĝigo = _the action of
reddening_, ruĝiga = _reddening_ (adj.).

(2). _-IĜ-_ denotes to become, to get (in the sense of to become).
Note the following difference in meaning of ruĝa with this suffix
and with _-IG-_ in the preceding paragraph; ruĝiĝi = _to become
or get red_, _to blush_; ruĝiĝo = _the action of getting red_, _a
blush_; ruĝiĝa = _blushing_ (adj.).

(_c_). The above instances are words derived from an adjective, but
the suffixes can be applied to almost any part of speech, as the
following examples will show:--

(_d_). From adjectives.

Examples.--_Bona_ = good, _bonigi_ = to make or render good,
_boniĝi_ = to become good. _Plibonigi_ = to make better, to improve,
_pliboniĝi_ = to become better, to improve, _plibonigo_ = the act of
making better, improvement (made), _pliboniĝo_ = the state of
becoming better, improvement (experienced). _Laca_ = tired, fatigued,
_lacigi_ = to tire (active), _laciĝi_ = to get tired, _lacigo_ = the
act of tiring others, _laciĝo_ = the state of growing tired. _Preta_
= ready, _pretigi_ = to make ready, _pretiĝi_ = to get (become)
ready. From all these verbs nouns, adjectives, and adverbs can be

(_e_). From nouns.

Examples.--_Fianĉo_ = a fiancé (man), _fianĉigi_ = to betroth, to
affiance, _fianĉiĝi_ = to become betrothed, to be engaged,
_fianĉiĝo_ = betrothal, engagement, _fianĉiĝa_ = betrothing,
_fianĉiĝe_ = by betrothal. These words speak of the betrothal of a
man, but in case of a woman we add the feminine suffix,
as:--_fianĉino_, _fianĉinigi_, _fianĉiniĝi_, _fianĉinigo_, etc.,

(_f_). From verbs.

Examples.--_Morti_ = to die, _mortigi_ = to cause to die, to kill,
_mortiĝi_ = to die out, to expire (become dead), _mortigo_ = killing
(murder), _mortiga_ = deadly, _mortiganto_ = a murderer, _mortige_ =
mortally. _Sinmortigo_ = suicide, _sinmortigi_ = to commit suicide.
_Sidi_ = to be sitting, to sit, _sidigi_ = to cause to sit, _sidiĝi_
= to sit down, to seat oneself, _sidigo_ = the act of causing to sit,
seating, _sidiĝo_ = the act of sitting down, or of seating oneself,
as:--_Li kondukis la rigardontojn al iliaj sidejoj, sed la sidigo de
tiom da gesinjoroj estis tasko malfacila, ĉar la sidiĝo de eĉ unu
sinjorino bezonas iom da tempo, kvankam ne tiom, kiom la sidiĝo de
hundo, kiu ofte turnadas sin multfoje antaŭ ol sidiĝi_ = He conducted
the (about to be) spectators to their seats, but the seating of so
many ladies and gentlemen was a difficult task, since the sitting
down of even one lady needs some little time, although not so much as
the sitting down of a dog, which often continues turning itself round
many times before seating itself. _Sciigi_ = to cause (_someone_) to
know, _or_, to make (_something_) known. _Mi sciigis la homon pri la
novaĵo_, or, _Mi sciigis la novaĵon al la homo_ = I caused the man
to know (_or_, I informed the man, _or_, I made the news known to the
man). _Sciiĝi_ = to become informed, to learn. _Mi sciiĝis pri la
novaĵo_ = I learnt the news.

(_g_). Verbs formed by _-IGI_ are transitive (par. 161), but those by
_-IĜI_ are intransitive, and therefore have no passive voice (par.
162); with verbs in _-IĜI_, therefore, we cannot use the passive
participles, _-ATA_, etc., but only the active forms _-ANTA_, etc.,
as:--Li estis fariĝinta (or, li fariĝis) maljunulo, antaŭ ol
mi lin konis = _He had become an old man before I knew him._

(_h_). Intransitive verbs.--Some verbs, such as ĉesi = _to
cease_, daŭri = _to continue_, pasi = _to pass_, are neuter or

Examples.--_La pluvo ĉesas fali_ (or, _ĉesiĝas_) = The rain ceases
to fall (or, comes to an end). _La pafado daŭris kelkan tempon_ =
The shooting continued some time. _La tempo pasas_ = Time passes.

In English these verbs are used both transitively and intransitively,
but if we wish to give them a transitive signification in Esperanto
we must add the suffix _-IGI_.

Examples.--_Ĉesigu tion! vi surdigas min per via bruo!_ = Cease
that, you deafen me with your noise! _Daŭrigu vian rakonton_ =
Continue your narrative. _Pasigu al mi la karafon_ = Pass me the
decanter (see par. 237 (_i_)).

(_i_). Transitive verbs.--On the contrary,
fini = _to finish_, and komenci = _to commence_,
are transitive, and therefore do not require the addition of -_IG_
to make them transitive.

Examples.--_Finu vian laboron_ = Finish your work. _Ni komencis nian
vojaĝon je la dua horo_ = We commenced our journey at 2 o'clock.

But if we wish to give an intransitive sense to these verbs we may
use the suffix -_IĜI_.

Examples.--_Lia laboro finiĝas_ = His work finishes. _La jaro
finiĝos post kelkaj tagoj_ = The year will end in a few days. _La
vojaĝo komenciĝis je la tria horo_ = The journey commenced at 3
o'clock (see par. 237 (_i_)).

(_j_). Numerals, prepositions, prefixes, and suffixes.--Joined to
these, -_IG_- and -_IĜ_- serve to form numerous words.

Examples.--_Unuigi_ = to unify, _unuigo_ = union, _unuiĝi_ = to
unite together, to be combined, _unuiĝo_ = union (undergone).
_Duobligi_ = to double, _duobliĝi_ = to become double. _Aligi al_ =
to attribute to, _aliĝi_ = to join (oneself) to, to adhere, _aliĝo_
= adhesion. _Eksigi_ = to dismiss, _eksiĝi_ = to become ex-, to
resign (a position). _Disigi_ = to separate, _disiĝi_ = to separate
mutually, _disigo_ = act of separating, disjunction, _disiĝo_ =
disunion, schism. _Kunigi_ = to connect, _kuniĝi_ = to join
together, to coalesce, _kunigo_ = connection, _kuniĝo_ = junction.
_Forigi_ = to do away with, _foriĝi_ = to withdraw.

281. Suffix -IL-. (Ex. 29.)

-_IL_- denotes the tool, instrument, or means by which something is
done. As a root, ilo = _a tool, an instrument, an implement, a
means of_.

Examples.--_Kombi_ = to comb, _kombilo_ = a comb. _Razi_ = to shave,
_razilo_ = a razor. _Tranĉi_ = to cut, _tranĉilo_ = a knive. _Haki_
= to hack, to chop, _hakilo_ = an axe, a hatchet, a chopper. _Kudri_
= to sew, _kudrilo_ = a needle. _Tondi_ = to shear, to clip,
_tondilo_ = shears, scissors. _Presi_ = to print, _presilo_ = a
printing press. _Fermenti_ = to ferment, _fermentilo_ = yeast, leaven
(a means of fermenting). _Batali_ = to fight, _batalilo_ = a weapon.
_Armi_ = to arm, _armiloj_ = arms, _armilejo_ = an arsenal (a place
for arms, see -_EJ_-, 278).

282. Suffix -IN-. (Ex. 25.)

-_IN_- denotes the feminine gender. As a root, ino = _a female_,
ina = _female_.

Examples.--_Frato_ = a brother, _fratino_ = a sister. _Patro_ = a
father, _patrino_ = a mother. _Kuzo_ = a male cousin, _kuzino_ = a
female cousin. _Avo_ = grandfather, _avino_ = grandmother. _Nepo_ = a
grandson, _nepino_ = a granddaughter. _Onklo_ = an uncle, _onklino_ =
an aunt. _Nevo_ = a nephew, _nevino_ = a niece. _Patra_ = paternal,
_patrina_ = maternal, _patrineco_ = maternity. _Frata_ = brotherly,
fraternal, _fratina_ = sisterly. _Ĉevalo_ = a horse, _ĉevalino_ = a
mare, _ĉevalido_ = a colt, _ĉevalidino_ = a filly. _Ŝafo_ = a
sheep, _ŝafino_ = a ewe. _Hundo_ = a dog, _hundino_ = a bitch.
_Bovo_ = an ox, _bovino_ = a cow.

283. MOŜTO. (Ex. 23.)

(_a_). This is not a suffix, since it does not form part of a word.
It is a word used by itself or added after a title to denote respect.
Via moŝto is a higher expression of respect than sinjoro =

(_b_). No special rule has been laid down for the use of moŝto,
but the usual practice is to make the title an adjective and add

(_c_). In speaking to persons bearing titles by birth or profession
it would be well to address them by their full title first, as shown
below, and afterwards use the expression via moŝto to represent
"Your Majesty," "Your Royal Highness," "Your Grace," "Your Lordship,"
"Your Ladyship," "Your Honour," "Your Worship," "Your Excellency,"
"Your Eminence," "Your Highness," etc. The suffix -_IN_ is hardly
ever added.


  Emperor = Via imperiestra moŝto = _Your Imperial Majesty_.
  King = Via reĝa moŝto = _Your Majesty_.
  Queen = Via reĝina moŝto = _Your Majesty_.
  Royal Family = Via reĝida moŝto = _Your Royal Highness_.
  Prince = Via princa moŝto = _Your Highness_, or, _Serene Highness_.
  Duke = Via duka moŝto = _Your Grace_.
  Duchess = Via dukina moŝto = _Your Grace_.
  Archbishop = Via ĉefepiskopa moŝto = _Your Grace_.
  Marquis = Via markiza moŝto = _Your Lordship, My Lord_.
  Earl, Count = Via grafa moŝto = _Your Lordship, My Lord_.
  Viscount = Via vicgrafa moŝto = _Your Lordship, My Lord_.
  Lord, Baron (Judge) = Via barona moŝto = _Your Lordship, My Lord_.
  Viceroy = Via vicreĝa moŝto = _Your Excellency_.
  Governor = Via rega moŝto = _Your Excellency_.
  Judge (not a Baron) = Via juĝista moŝto = _Your Honour_.
  Mayor = Via urbestra moŝto = _Your Worship_.
  General (Officer) = Via generala moŝto = _General_.

N.B.--No title beyond his rank is given to a General in England, like
"Monsieur le General" in France. We usually say "General," or "Sir,"
but moŝto might be used in Esperanto.

(_d_). As regards addresses of letters, we can say:--

_Al Lia Duka Moŝto de ..._ or, _Al Lia Duka Moŝto, la Duko de ..._
= To His Grace the Duke of ...

_Al Ŝia Grafina Moŝto de ..._ = To the Countess of ...

_Al Lia Rega Moŝto de ..._ = To His Excellency the Governor of ...;
or if we mention him by name:--

_Al Lia Moŝto, Sir Henry Smith La Reganto de ..._ = To His
Excellency, Sir Henry Smith, The Governor of ...

284. Suffixes -OBL-, -ON-, -OP-. (Ex. 18.) These three suffixes are
used with numerals, making them multiples, fractions, or collectives
(see pars. 119, 120, 121).

(_a_). -_OBL_- added to a cardinal number denotes the number is a
multiple. It is equivalent to the English suffixes "-fold" or

Examples.--_Multoblo_ = a multiple, _multobla_ = manifold. _Unu_ =
one, _unuobla_ = single, _unuoble_ = singly. _Du_ = two, _duobla_ =
double, _la duoblo_ = the double. _Kvar_ = four, _kvarobla_ =
fourfold, quadruple, _la kvaroblo_ = the quadruple. _Cent_ = hundred,
_centoblo_ = a centuple. It is used in the multiplication table:--

  _kvaroble tri estas_ (or, _faras_) _dek du_ 4 times 3 = 12
  _kvinoble kvar estas dudek_ 5 times 4 = 20
  _sesoble kvin estas tridek_ 6 times 5 = 30
  _sepoble ses estas kvardek du_ 7 times 6 = 42
  _okoble sep estas kvindek ses_ 8 times 7 = 56
  _naŭoble ok estas sepdek du_ 9 times 8 = 72
  _dekoble naŭ estas naŭdek_ 10 times 9 = 90
  _dek-unuoble dek estas cent dek_ 11 times 10 = 110
  _dek-duoble dek unu estas cent tridek du_ 12 times 11 = 132

(_b_). -_ON_- added to a cardinal number denotes a fraction. As a
root, ona = _fractional_.

Examples.--_Du_ = two, _duona_ = half, _duone_ = by halves, _duono_ =
a half (1/2). _Tri_ = three, _triona_ = third, _triono_ = a third
(1/3). _Kvar_ = four, _kvarona_ = quarter, _kvarono_ = a fourth
(1/4). _Dek_ = ten, _dekona_ = tenth, _dekono_ = a tenth (1/10), _tri
dekonoj_ = 3/10ths. _Dek du_ = twelve, _dek-duona_ = twelfth,
_dek-duono_ = a twelfth (1/12), _kvin dek-duonoj_ = 5/12ths. _Sesdek
kvin centonoj_ = sixty-five hundredths (65/100). _La kvinona parto
(la kvinono) de cent estas la triona parto (la triono) de sesdek, tio
estas dudek_ = The 5th part of 100 is the 3rd part of 60, that is 20.

(_c_). -_OP_- added to a cardinal number denotes that the number must
be taken in a collective sense. As a root, opa = _collective_.

Examples.--_Du_ = two, _duope_ = two together, in twos. _Tri_ =
three, _triope_ = in threes, in triplets. _Dek_ = ten, _dekope_ = in
tens. _Dudek_ = twenty, _dudekope_ = in twenties, by scores. _Cent_ =
hundred, _centope_ = in hundreds. _Mil_ = thousand, _milope_ = in
thousands. _Kvinope ili sin ĵetis sur min_ = Five together (five at
a time) they threw themselves upon me. _La soldatoj marŝis kvarope_
= The soldiers were marching in fours.

285. Suffix -UM-. (Ex. 30.)

-_UM_- has no special meaning. Its different meanings are easily
suggested by the context and the signification of the root to which it
is joined. There are but few words in which it is used, and these should
be learnt as simple words.

The following embrace nearly all:--

  *_Aerumi_ = to air, aerate. _Aero_ = air.
  *_Amindumi_ = to court, woo. _Amo_ = love.
  _Brulumo_ = a swelling, inflammation. _Bruli_ = to burn.
  *_Buŝumo_ = a muzzle (for a dog), a nose-band. _Buŝumi_ = to muzzle,
    to gag. _Buŝo_ = mouth.
  *_Butonumi_ = to button. _Butonumilo_ = a buttonhook. _Butono_ = a
  _Cerbumi_ = to rack one's brains. _Cerbo_ = a brain.
  *_Gustumi_ = to taste (something). _Gustumado_ = tasting, the sense
    of tasting. _Gusto_ = taste.
  _Kalkanumo_ = a heel of a boot, etc. _Kalkano_ = heel (of the foot).
  *_Kolumo_ = a shirt collar. _Kolo_ = neck.
  _Kolombumi_ = to spoon, bill and coo. _Kolombo_ = a dove.
  *_Komunumo_ = a commune, a community. _Komuna_ = common.
  *_Krucumi_ = to crucify. _Kruco_ = a cross.
  *Laktumo = milt, melt, soft roe. _Lakto_ = milk.
  _Lekumi_ = to lap. _Leki_ = lick.
  *_Lotumi_ = to allot. _Loti_ = to draw lots.
  *_Malvarmumo_ = a cold, chill. _Malvarmumi_ = to catch cold.
    _Malvarma_ = cold.
  *_Manumo_ = a cuff, a wristband. _Mano_ = hand.
  *_Mastrumi_ = to manage (the household), keep house. _Mastrumado_ =
    household management. _Mastro_ = master.
  *_Nazumo_ = a pince-nez. _Nazo_ = nose.
  _Okulumi_ = to make eyes at. _Okulo_ = an eye.
  *_Palpebrumi_ = to wink, blink. _Palpebro_ = an eyelid.
  _Partumo_ = a fraction (mathematics). _Parto_ = a part, a share.
  *_Plenumi_ = to fulfil, accomplish. _Plenumiĝi_ = to be
    accomplished, fulfilled. _Plena_ = full, complete.
  _Proksimuma_, _proksimume_ = approximately. _Proksima_ near.
  _Sapumi_ = to soap, lather. _Sapo_ = soap.
  *_Ventumi_ = to ventilate, to use a fan. _Ventumilo_ = a fan.
    _Vento_ = wind.

N.B.--The 17 words marked * are given in Dr. Zamenhof's "Fundamento
de Esperanto."

286. Prefixes BO-, DUON-, GE-, PRA-. (Ex. 25.)

These four prefixes all denote relationship in a greater or less

(_a_). _BO_- denotes relationship by marriage, and is equivalent to
the English suffix -_in-law_, as patro = _father_, bopatro =

(_b_). _DUON_- also denotes relationship by marriage, and is also a
prefix in such words as duonpago = _half-pay_, duonjara =
_half-yearly_, etc. As a root, duono = _a half_, so properly it
should signify only half-blood relationship. As, however, there are
few relationships of this nature, it is used also for step
relationship, as:--Duonfrato = _stepbrother_ or _half-brother_.

(_c_). _GE_- denotes both sexes taken together. The words are always
in the plural, and the feminine suffix is, of course, never added.

Examples.--_Edzo_ = a husband, _geedzoj_ = husband and wife, a
married couple. _Sinjoro_ = Sir, Mr., _gesinjoroj_ = Mr. and Mrs.,
_or_, ladies and gentlemen. _Patro_ = father, _gepatroj_ = father and
mother, parents. _Mastro_ = a master (of a household), _gemastroj_ =
master and mistress. _Frato_ = brother, _gefratoj_ = brother(s) and

(_d_). _PRA_- denotes great distance of time, past or future. As
regards relationship, it is the equivalent of the English prefixes
"fore-," "great," or "grand." As a root, praa = _primeval_.

Examples.--_Pratempo_ = primitive time. _Praarbarego_ = primeval
forest. _Prapatroj_ = forefathers, ancestors. _Praonklo_ = grand, or
great, uncle. _Praavino_ = great-grandmother.

(_e_). The following are examples of these four prefixes:--

_Patro_ = father, _bopatro_ = father-in-law, _duonpatro_ =
stepfather, _gepatroj_ = father and mother, parents.

_Patrino_ = mother, _bopatrino_ = mother-in-law, _duonpatrino_ =

_Avo_ = grandfather, _boavo_ = grandfather-in-law, _duonavo_ =
stepgrandfather, _geavoj_ = grandparents, _prageavoj_ =

_Filo_ = son, _bofilo_ = son-in-law, _duonfilo_ = stepson.

_Filino_ = daughter, _bofilino_ = daughter-in-law, _duonfilino_ =

_Nepo_ = grandson, _pranepo_ = great-grandson, _genepoj_ =
grandson(s) and granddaughter(s), grandchildren.

_Nepino_ = granddaughter, _pranepino_ = great-granddaughter.

_Frato_ = brother, _bofrato_ = brother-in-law, _duonfrato_ = step, or
half, brother, _gefratoj_ = brother(s) and sister(s), _bogefratoj_ =
brother(s) and sister(s)-in-law.

_Fratino_ = sister, _bofratino_ = sister in law, _duonfratino_ =
step, or half, sister.

_Onklo_ = uncle, _praonklo_ = grand, or great, uncle, _geonkloj_ =
uncle(s) and aunt(s).

_Onklino_ = aunt, _praonklino_ = grand, or great, aunt.

_Nevo_ = nephew, _pranevo_ = grandnephew, _genevoj_ = nephew(s) and

_Nevino_ = niece, _pranevino_ = grandniece.

_Infano_ = child, _duoninfano_ = stepchild.

287. Prefixes DE-, DIS-, FOR-. (Ex. 31.)

These three prefixes give the idea of separation or change of

(_a_). _DE_- as a preposition = _from, of_. As a prefix it marks the
point of departure, or movement from one place or position to

(_b_). _DIS_- denotes a separation, in the sense of a rupture, or
breaking up into parts, or in several different directions.

(_c_). _FOR_- as an adverb = _away_. As a prefix it denotes distance
from something.

(_d_). Thus, birds on a tree can fly down from the tree to the ground
= deflugi; or fly in different directions, viz., _disperse_ =
disflugi; or fly away altogether from the tree = forflugi.

(_e_) The following examples will give a good idea of the meanings of
these prefixes:--

_Ŝiri_ = to tear, _deŝiri_ = to tear from, to pluck.
  _disŝiri_ = to tear to pieces, to lacerate.
  _forŝiri_ = to tear away from.

_Iri_ = to go, _deiri_ = to go from (a place).
  _disiri_ = to go in different directions, to separate.
  _foriri_ = to go away, to depart.

_Ĵeti_ =to throw, _deĵeti_ = to throw down, to overthrow.
  _disĵeti_ = to throw about, to demolish, scatter.
  _forĵeti_ = to throw away, to discard.

_Meti_ = to put, _demeti_ = to put down, take off, doff.
  _dismeti_ = to disperse, to distribute.
  _formeti_ = to put away, to omit.

_Porti_ = to carry, _deporti_ = to carry from, to deport.
  _disporti_ = to carry here and there.
  _forporti_ = to carry away.

288. Prefix EK-. (Exs. 19, 32.)

_EK_- denotes an action just begun, of short duration, sudden,

Examples.--_Kanti_ = to sing, _ekkanti_ = to begin to sing, or to
start singing. _Ridi_ = to laugh, _ekridi_ = to burst out laughing.
_Krii_ = to cry, _ekkrii_ = to exclaim, to cry out. _Lerni_ = to
learn, _eklerni_ = to begin to learn. _Iri_ = to go, _ekiri_ = to
start, to set out. _Plori_ = to shed tears, _ekplori_ = to burst out
crying. _Kapti_ = to catch, _ekkapti_ = to seize. _Dormi_ = to sleep,
_ekdormi_ = to fall asleep. _Vidi_ = to see, _ekvidi_ = to perceive.
_Tremi_ = to tremble, _ektremi_ = to start (with fear, etc.).

_EK_- is useful in such expressions as "begin to," "come to,"
frequently used in English before a verb, as:--Kiam mi ekpripensas
= _When I begin to_ (or, _come to_) _reflect_. Kiam mi ekpensas pri
ĝi = _When I come to think of it_.

289. Prefixes MAL-, NE-, SEN-. (Ex. 33.)

(_a_). These three prefixes give an opposite or negative meaning to
the words before which they are placed, the nature of which varies
with the prefix used.

(_b_). _MAL_- is used as a root in the adjective mala = _contrary_,
and the adverb male = _on the contrary, conversely_. As a prefix it
signifies that the word has a meaning exactly the contrary to that
which it had before _MAL_- was prefixed. It is never used to give the
meaning of badness, unless because it is prefixed to some word
signifying goodness. For instance, timulo = _a coward_ has a bad
signification, but its opposite maltimulo = _a bold man_ has no
such meaning. Bona = _good_, malbona = _bad_, simply because
"bad" is the opposite of "good."

(_c_). _NE_ is a primary adverb, meaning "no," "not," and is often
used as a prefix to give a negative signification to a word,
as:--Plena = _complete, full_, neplena = _incomplete, not full_.
Ne estas certe = _it is not certain_ has the same signification as
estas necerte = _it is uncertain_. Used as a root, it forms nei =
_to deny_, nea = _negative_, etc.

(_d_). _SEN_ is a preposition meaning "without," and as a prefix it
has the same signification; as ĉesi = _to cease_, senĉesa =
_without ceasing, incessant, ceaseless_; senco = _meaning, sense_,
sensenca = _without meaning, senseless_; senkapigi = _to
decapitate_. Used as a root, it forms senigi je = _to deprive of_,
seneco = _want_, etc.

(_e_). The student may at first wonder which of these three prefixes
to use in a given case. He should bear in mind that _MAL_- denotes
the exact opposite of the root, and therefore it may be much stronger
in signification than the mere negative ne = _not_, or the
privative sen = _without_. For instance, plena = _complete,
full_, but neplena = _incomplete, not full_. Now the opposite to
"complete" or "full" is not "incomplete" or "not full," but something
stronger, viz., "void" or "empty," therefore malplena = _empty,
void, vacuous_. Again, from riĉa = _rich_, we form the opposite,
malriĉa = _poor_, which is clearly a worse state than neriĉa =
_not rich_, or senriĉa, which, in its literal sense, means
"without wealth or riches." A man not rich might be well off, a man
without riches might have enough to live upon. Fermita = _shut_,
closed; the opposite is malfermita = _opened, open_. Applied to a
window it would mean the window was wide open, but if it were only
ajar it would be better to say nefermita = _not closed_.

(_f_) In using _MAL_- we must consider the _strength_ of the word to
which we are giving an opposite meaning, and not oppose a word like
"destitute" to "rich," for "destitute" is the opposite to "rolling in
wealth," the adjective for which would be "riĉega," therefore
malriĉega = _destitute_. So bela = _beautiful_, belega =
_splendid, magnificent;_ therefore their opposites are malbela =
_ugly_, malbelega = _hideous_.

(_g_). Generally speaking, it will be right (1), to use _MAL_- if we
wish to give a stronger idea than _NE_ or _SEN_ would infer; (2), to
use _NE_ in cases where a simple negative will give the meaning; (3),
to use _SEN_ if "without" is more applicable than "not,"
as:--Senmova = _without motion, stationary_, but nemovebla =
_not movable, immovable_. It will generally be right to employ _SEN_
to represent the English suffix -_less_, as:--Sendanka =
_thankless_, senmona = _penniless_, senhara = _hairless, bald_,
senutila = _useless_. The opposite to "useful" is something
stronger than "useless," therefore malutila = _detrimental,

(_h_). The following examples will give an idea of the use of these
three prefixes:--

_Venko_ = victory, _malvenko_ = defeat. _Videbla_ = visible,
_nevidebla_ = invisible. _Ŝanĝebla_ = changeable (in the sense
"able to be changed"), _neŝanĝebla_ = unchangeable. _Ofta_ =
frequent, _neofta_ = infrequent, _malofta_ = scarce, rare. _Simple_ =
simple, _malsimpla_ = intricate, complex. _Permesi_ = to permit,
_malpermesi_ = to forbid. _Helpi_ = to help, _malhelpi_ = to hinder,
_nehelpi_ = to give no assistance. _Sobreco_ = sobriety, _malsobreco_
= intemperance, drunkenness. _Saĝeco_ = wisdom, _malsaĝeco_ =
foolishness. _Modesta_ = modest, _nemodesta_ = officious,
_malmodesta_ = conceited. _Justa_ = just, _maljusta_ = unjust. _Pura_
= clean, _nepura_ = soiled, _malpura_ = dirty. _Pia_ = pious,
_malpia_ = impious. _Agrabla_ = agreeable, _neagrabla_ = unpleasant,
_malagrabla_ = disagreeable, nasty. _Glata_ = smooth, _malglata_ =
rough. _Atento_ = attention, _malatento_ = negligence. _Respekto_ =
respect, _nerespekto_ = non-respect, _malrespekto_ = violation.
_Brua_ = noisy, _senbrua_ = noiseless.

290. Prefix RE-. (Ex. 32.)

(_a_). _RE_-, like the English prefix _re_-, means "back" or "again."
It denotes (1) the repetition of an action, or (2) the return of some
person or thing to the person, place, or state with whom, or in
which, such person or thing originally was. As a root, ree =
_again, in return_.

(_b_) (1). Repetition.

Examples.--_Refari_ = to make afresh, to remake; _rediri_ = to say
again, to repeat (_ripeti_ is, however, more frequently used for
"repeat"); _rekanti_ = to sing again; _rejuniĝi_ = to grow young
again; _renaskiĝo_ = rebirth, regeneration; _repagi_ = to repay, to
reimburse; _reenmeti_ = to put in again, to reinstate; _rekunigi_ =
to reunite; _rebruligi_ = to rekindle; _reformi_ = to reform, to
remodel; _reprodukti_ = to reproduce.

(2). Return, etc.

Examples.--_Redoni_ = to give back, to restore; _repreni_ = to take
back; _reĵeti_ = to throw back; _resalti_ = to rebound; _rebrili_ =
to shine back, to reflect; _reveni_ = to come back, to return;
_reporti_ = to carry back, to carry to the original place.

N.B.--In addition to the 12 prefixes given in pars. 286-290, nearly
all the prepositions are in common use as prefixes. Examples of these
will be found in par. 259. When prefixed to a verb, the preposition
is frequently repeated before the indirect complement (see par. 254).

291. Prefixes SIN- and MEM-.

_SIN-_ and _MEM-_ are used as prefixes to translate the English
_-self_. If the idea is reflexive, it is better to use sin-,
otherwise mem-. Singardo = _caution_; sinmortigo = _suicide_;
sinteno = _attitude_; memstara = _independent_; memvola =

292. Prefix VIC-.

The prefix _VIC-_ denotes the English _vice-_; vicprezidanto = _a
vice-president_; vicadmiralo = _a vice-admiral_.

293. Suffix -ISM-.

The suffix _-ISM-_ was officialized in 1914 with the rather wide
meaning given it by international usage in most European languages:
_system_, _doctrine_, _school of thought_, _theory_, _party_.

Thus: absolutismo = _absolutism_. Similarly, we have agnostik-,
alkohol-, braman-, despot-, epikur-, Esperant-, fatal-, fetiĉ-,
homaran-, katolik-, kvaker-, komun-, ideal-, liberal-, mistik-,
presbiter-, protestant-, puritan-, radikal-, real-, respublik-,

It does not follow that if from any Esperanto word ending in -ism
this syllable is subtracted, the remainder is an Esperanto root.
Thus, -ism is not a suffix in the roots atavism, feminism, optimism,
pesimism, silogism, solecism, sofism, any more than ist, in, il, ul,
an, are suffixes in the roots optimist, turist; doktrin, vazelin;
bacil, asimil; okul, formul; banan, turban, sultan. See par. 52 (_b_).




_Article, Nouns, Adjectives (singular),_ (see pars. 96, 103, 107).

(1) Patro kaj frato. (2) Leono estas besto. (3) Rozo estas floro. (4)
Kolombo estas birdo. (5) La rozo apartenas al Teodoro. (6) La suno
brilas. (7) La patro estas tajloro. (8) Infano ne estas matura homo.
(9) La infano jam ne ploras. (10) La ĉielo estas blua. (11) Kie
estas la libro kaj la krajono? (12) La libro estas sur la tablo, kaj
la krajono kuŝas sur la fenestro. (13) Sur la fenestro kuŝas
krajono kaj plumo. (14) Jen estas pomo. (15) Sur la tero kuŝas
ŝtono. (16) Iru al la frato.


(1) A father and brother. (2) A lion is an animal. (3) A rose is a
flower. (4) A pigeon is a bird. (5) The rose belongs to Theodore. (6)
The sun shines. (7) (The, my, our) father is a tailor. (8) A child is
not a mature man. (9) The child no longer cries (already does not
cry). (10) The sky (heaven) is blue. (11) Where are the book and the
pencil? (12) The book is on the table and the pencil lies on the
window. (13) On the window lie a pencil and a pen. (14) Here is an
apple. (15) On the ground lies a stone. (16) Go to (the, your)

N.B.--See par. 100 (_a_) as to the use of the article in speaking of
one's own relatives.


_Article, Nouns, Adjectives (accusative and plural),_ (see pars. 66,
96, 103, 107).

(1) Jen estas pomo, kiun mi trovis. (2) La leono estas forta besto.
(3) La dentoj de leono estas akraj. (4) Mi vidas leonon. (5) Kiu
kuraĝas rajdi sur leono? (6) La virino estas bona. (7) Jen kuŝas la
ĉapelo de la patro. (8) Mi amas la filon. (9) La manoj de Johano
estas puraj. (10) Mi konas Johanon. (11) La viroj, virinoj kaj
infanoj estas en la ĉambro. (12) La kanto de la birdoj estas
agrabla. (13) La kantoj de la birdoj estas agrablaj. (14) La patro
donas la librojn al la infanoj. (15) Kie estas la libroj, kiujn vi
aĉetis? (16) Kien vi iras? (17) Mi vidas kelkajn homojn. (18) La
knabo forpelis la birdojn. (19) De la patro mi ricevis libron, kaj de
la fratoj mi ricevis plumon. (20) Mi legas libron. (21) La patro ne
legas libron, sed li skribas leteron.


(1) Here is an apple which I found. (2) The lion is a strong animal.
(3) The teeth of a lion (a lion's teeth) are sharp. (4) I see a lion.
(5) Who dares (has courage) to ride on a lion? (6) The woman is good.
(7) Here is (lies) (the, my, our) father's hat. (8) I love the (my)
son. (9) John's hands (the hands of John) are clean. (10) I am
acquainted with (know) John. (11) The men, women, and children are in
the room. (12) The song of birds (birds generally, therefore the
article _la_) is agreeable. (13) The songs of birds are agreeable.
(14) The father gives the books to the children. (15) Where are the
books which (accus. plu.) you bought? (16) Where (accus.) are you
going? (17) I see some men. (18) The boy drove away the birds. (19)
From (the, my) father I received a book, and from (the, my) brothers
I received a pen. (20) I am reading a book. (21) (The, my, our)
father is not reading a book, but he is writing a letter.


_Adverbs with Grammatical Terminations_ (see pars. 238-248).

(1) Resti kun leono estas danĝere.[23] (2) La birdoj gaje flugas,
kaj kelkaj ĝoje kantas sur la grandaj arboj. (3) La knaboj kaj
(la[24]) knabinoj kuras rapide sur la sablo de la marbordo. (4) La
patro agas saĝe kaj bone, sed la filo lernas malrapide, skribas tre
malbone, kaj legas malfacile. (5) Mi vidis Johanon matene, Georgon
tagmeze, Arturon posttagmeze, kaj Vilhelmon vespere. (6) Ŝi skribas
treege bone. (7) Pripensinte mi faros tion. (8) Certe mi ne estimas
lin. (9) Li lernis ĝin parkere. (10) Kelkafoje mi promenas en la
ĝardeno. (11) Dekstre vi vidos la domon, kaj maldekstre la


[23] Adverb, because there is no noun or pronoun in the sentence
which _danĝera_ could qualify (see par. 245).

[24] Before each separate noun it is optional (as in English) to
repeat the article or not (see par. 101 (_a_)).


(1) To remain with a lion is dangerous. (2) The birds are flying
merrily, and some are singing joyfully on the large trees. (3) The
boys and girls run quickly on the sand of the seashore. (4) The
father acts wisely and well, but the son learns slowly, writes very
badly, and reads with difficulty. (5) I saw John in the morning,
George at mid-day, Arthur in the afternoon, and William in the
evening. (6) She writes extremely well. (7) On reflection I shall do
that (so). (8) Certainly I do not esteem him. (9) He learnt it by
heart. (10) Sometimes I walk in the garden. (11) On the right you
will see the house, and on the left the church.


_Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs--Superlatives_ (see pars. 112,
113, 248).

(1) Mi estas tiel forta, kiel vi. (2) La homoj estas tiel fortaj,
kiel la ĉevaloj. (3) La knabinoj ne estas tiel fortaj, kiel la
knaboj. (4) Johano estas pli forta, ol Georgo. (5) Ŝi kuras pli
rapide, ol vi. (6) Vilhelmo estas malpli forta, ol Karlo. (7) Ju pli
mi lin konas, des pli mi lin estimas. (8) Ju malpli mi manĝas, des
pli mi trinkas. (9) Ju pli mi lin vidas, des malpli li plaĉas al mi.
(10) Mia bastono estas tia sama, kiel (_or_, kia) via. (11) Mia frato
amas mian filinon pli, ol mian filon.[25] (12) Mi amas mian filinon
pli, ol mia filo.[25] (13) Johano estas la plej forta el la knaboj.
(14) Ili estas la malplej fortaj el ĉiuj. (15) Georgo estas la
malplej kuraĝa knabo en[26] la lernejo.


[25] Note the difference in case (see par. 112).

[26] See par. 113 (_b_).


(1) I am as strong as you. (2) The men are as strong as the horses.
(3) Girls (in a general sense, par. 99 (_a_)) are not as strong as
boys. (4) John is stronger than George. (5) She runs more quickly
than you. (6) William is weaker (less strong) than Charles. (7) The
more I know him, the more I esteem him. (8) The less I eat, the more
I drink. (9) The more I see him, the less he pleases (is pleasing to)
me. (10) My stick is the same as yours. (11) My brother loves my
daughter more than my son. (12) I love my daughter more than my son
(does) (loves her). (13) John is the strongest of (out of) the boys.
(14) They are the weakest (least strong) of all. (15) George is the
least courageous boy in the school.


_Personal and Possessive Pronouns_ (see pars. 126-134).

(1) Li amas min, sed mi lin ne amas. (2) Mi volis lin bati, sed li
forkuris de mi. (3) Diru al mi vian nomon. (4) Ne skribu al mi tiajn
longajn leterojn. (5) Venu al mi hodiaŭ vespere. (6) Mi rakontos al
vi historion. (7) Ŝi diris al mi la veron. (8) La domo apartenas al
ni. (9) Ili vidis mian patron, sed ne vian fraton. (10) Li estas mia
onklo, ĉar mia patro estas lia frato. (11) Mi ne vidis iliajn
librojn. (12) Sinjoro Petro kaj via kuzo amas miajn infanojn. (13) Mi
havas mian ĉapelon, nun serĉu vian. (14) Mi lavas min en mia
ĉambro, sed vi lavas vin en la ĉambro de via patro. (15) Mi vidis
la beston, sed ĝi ne vidis min. (16) Ĉu vi vidis ĝin? (17) Oni
diras, "Per mono oni povas aĉeti ĉion." (18) Mi vidis vian libron,
lian bastonon, ŝian ombrelon kaj ilian keston.


(1) He loves me, but I do not love him. (2) I wished to beat him, but
he ran away from me. (3) Tell me your name. (4) Do not write to me
such long letters. (5) Come to me this (to-day) evening (lit., to-day
in the evening). (6) I will relate (to) you a story. (7) She told
(to) me the truth. (8) The house belongs to us. (9) They saw my
father, but not your brother. (10) He is my uncle, for my father is
his brother. (11) I did not see their books. (12) Mr. Peter and your
cousin love my children. (13) I have my hat, now look for yours. (14)
I wash myself in my room, but you wash yourself in your father's room
(in the room of your father). (15) I saw the animal, but it did not
see me. (16) Did you see it? (17) People (one, they) say, "With money
one can buy anything (everything)." (18) I saw your book, his stick,
her umbrella, and their chest.


_Possessive Reflexive Pronouns_ (see pars. 130-138).

(1) Mia patro estas en sia ĝardeno. (2) Mia patrino estas ankaŭ en
sia ĝardeno. (3) Via frato rajdas sian ĉevalon. (4) La hundo amas
sian mastron. (5) La patrinoj amas siajn infanojn. (6) Mi vidis mian
amikon kaj lian edzinon. (7) Johano renkontis mian patron kaj
lian[27] amikon. (8) Johano renkontis mian patron kaj sian[28]
amikon. (9) Vilhelmo kaj Jozefo vidis siajn kuzojn kun iliaj hundoj.
(10) Vilhelmo kaj Jozefo vidis siajn kuzojn kun siaj hundoj. (11)
Niaj hundoj estas en siaj hundejoj. (12) Ni vidis niajn ĉevalojn
sur la kampo. (13) Mi vidis vian hundon, ŝian ĉevalon, lian
azenon, iliajn bovinojn, niajn ŝafojn, kaj miajn birdojn. (14) Ŝi
vidis la birdon sur ĝia nesto, sed ĝi baldaŭ forflugis de sia
nesto. (15) Mia frato lavis sin en sia ĉambro kaj mia fratino lavis
sin en sia ĉambro. (16) Mi lavas min en lia ĉambro.


[27] _Lian_ = his, viz., the father's friend.

[28] _Sian_ = his own, viz., John's friend.

See par. 135 as to use of _Lia_ and _Sia_.


(1) My father is in his garden. (2) My mother is also in her garden.
(3) Your brother rides his horse. (4) The dog loves its master. (5)
Mothers love their children. (6) I saw my friend and his wife. (7)
John met my father and his (my father's) friend. (8) John met my
father and his (John's) friend. (9) William and Joseph saw their
cousins with their (cousins') dogs. (10) William and Joseph saw their
cousins with their (William's and Joseph's) dogs. (11) Our dogs are
in their kennels. (12) We saw our horses in the field. (13) I saw
your dog, her horse, his ass, their cows, our sheep, and my birds.
(14) She saw the bird on its nest, but it soon flew away from its
nest. (15) My brother washed (himself) in his room, and my sister
washed (herself) in her room. (16) I am washing (myself) in his room.


_Verbs, Simple Tenses, Negatives, and Questions_ (see pars. 58-64,
91, 92, 168, 214).

(1) Mi legas. (2) Li ne legas. (3) Ni legas. (4) Ili legas. (5) Vi
legas. (6) Mi legis la libron. (7) Mi ne legis la libron. (8) Ĉu vi
legis la libron? Ne! mi ne (legis ĝin).[29] (9) Ĉu vi vidas mian
ĉevalon? Jes! mi vidas. (10) Mi promenos en la ĝardeno. (11) Mi ne
promenos en la ĝardeno. (12) Ĉu vi ne promenos en la ĝardeno? Ne!
Mi ne (promenos). Jes! mi promenos. (13) Se mi estus sana, mi estus
feliĉa. (14) Se mi ne estus sana, mi ne estus feliĉa. (15) Ĉu vi
rekonus min, se vi min vidus sen mia peruko? Jes! mi rekonus. Ne! mi
ne rekonus. (16) Ĉu vi deziras kafon? Ne! mi jam havas. (17) Ne
tuŝu la spegulon. (18) Li venu, kaj mi pardonos al li. (19) Ordonu
al li, ke li ne babilu. (20) Petu ŝin, ke ŝi donu al mi kandelon.
(21) Ni estu gajaj, ni uzu bone la vivon, ĉar la vivo ne estas
longa. (22) Kial vi ne respondas al mi? Ĉar mi ne komprenas vin.


[29] In replying to questions the complement is usually omitted
(par. 64).


(1) I read. (2) He does not read. (3) We are reading. (4) They read.
(5) You are reading. (6) I read (perfect) the book. (7) I did not read
the book. (8) Did you read the book? No! I did not (read it). (9) Do you
see my horse? Yes! I do (see). (10) I shall walk in (not _into_)
the garden. (11) I shall not walk in the garden. (12) Shall you not walk
in the garden? No! I shall not (walk). Yes! I shall (walk). (13) If I
were (should be) well, I should be happy. (14) If I were not (should
not be) well, I should not be happy. (15) Should you recognize me if
you saw (should see) me without my wig? Yes! I should (recognize). No!
I should not (recognize). (16) Do you want coffee? No! I already have
(some). (17) Do not touch the looking glass. (18) Let him come, and I
will pardon him. (19) Order (to) him not to chatter (that he do not
chatter). (20) Beg her to give (that she give) me a candle. (21) Let us
be merry, let us use life well, for life is not long. (22) Why do you
not answer (to) me? Because I do not understand you.


_Verbs, Compound Tenses, Active Voice_ (see par. 214).

(1) Nun li diras al mi la veron. (2) Hieraŭ li diris al mi la veron.
(3) Li ĉiam diradis al mi la veron. (4) Kiam vi vidis nin en la
salono, li jam antaŭe diris[30] al mi la veron (aŭ, li estis
dirinta al mi la veron). (5) Li diros al mi la veron. (6) Kiam vi
venos al mi, li jam antaŭe diros[30] al mi la veron (aŭ, li estos
dirinta al mi la veron). (7) Se mi petus lin, li dirus al mi la
veron. (8) Mi ne farus la eraron, se li antaŭe dirus[30] al mi la
veron (aŭ, se li estus dirinta al mi la veron). (9) Kiam mi venos,
diru al mi la veron. (10) Kiam mia patro venos, diru al mi antaŭe la
veron (aŭ, estu dirinta al mi la veron). (11) Mi volas diri al vi la
veron. (12) Tuj kiam mi estos ricevinta vian leteron, mi foriros.
(13) Kiam mi estis kolektinta la sumon, mi aĉetis novan libron. (14)
Estas necese, ke vi estu[31] fininta (or, finu) vian laboron, antaŭ
ol mi revenos.


[30] Always use the compound tense if the simple form is likely to
confuse the meaning. Note that the words _jam antaŭe_ (already
beforehand), or, simply, _jam_, show the action has passed, and that
therefore the simple tense can be used. If these words be omitted,
the compound tense must be used. The same remarks apply to the
Sentences 8 and 10 (see par. 226 (_a_)).

[31] Note the imperative mood after verbs expressing "wish,"
"necessity," etc. (par. 200).


(1) Now he tells (is telling) me the truth. (2) Yesterday he told me
the truth. (3) He always told (habitually) me the truth. (4) When you
saw us in the drawing-room, he already previously (had) told me the
truth (or, he had told me the truth). (5) He will tell me the truth.
(6) When you (have) (shall) come to me, he will already previously
have told me the truth (or, will have told me the truth). (7) If I
(should, were to) ask him, he would tell me the truth. (8) I should
not have made the mistake if he previously told me the truth (or, had
told me the truth). (9) When I (shall) come, tell me the truth. (10)
When my father comes (shall come), tell me beforehand the truth (or,
may you have told me the truth). (11) I wish to tell you the truth.
(12) As soon as (immediately when) I (shall) have received your
letter, I shall go away. (13) When I had collected the sum, I bought
a new book. (14) It is necessary that you finish (have finished) your
work before I (shall) return.


_Verbs, Passive Voice_ (see pars. 169, 233).

(1) Mi estas amata. (2) Li estis amata. (3) Ni estos amataj. (4) Vi
estus amata. (5) Mi estas lavita. (6) Ŝi estis lavita. (7) Ili estis
lavitaj. (8) Vi estos lavita. (9) Ĝi estus lavita. (10) Ni estas
invitotaj. (11) Mi estis invitota. (12) Li estus invitota. (13) Estu
amata. (14) Estu lavita. (15) Tiu ĉi komercaĵo estas ĉiam volonte
aĉetata de mi. (16) La surtuto estas aĉetita de mi, sekve ĝi
apartenas al mi. (17) Kiam via domo estis konstruata, mia domo estis
jam longe konstruita. (18) Mi sciigas, ke de nun la ŝuldoj de mia
filo ne estos pagataj de mi. (19) Estu trankvila, mia tuta ŝuldo
estos pagita al vi baldaŭ. (20) Mia ora ringo ne estus nun tiel
longe serĉata, se ĝi ne estus tiel lerte kaŝita de vi. (21) Laŭ
la projekto de la inĝenieroj tiu ĉi fervojo estas konstruota en la
daŭro de du jaroj; sed mi pensas, ke ĝi estos konstruata pli ol
tri jarojn.[32] (22) Sur la kameno inter du potoj staras fera
kaldrono; el la kaldrono, en kiu sin trovas bolanta akvo, eliras
vaporo; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovas apud la pordo, la vaporo
iras sur la korton.[33]


[32] _Jarojn,_ being in the accusative, shows that a preposition
_(dum)_ has been omitted (see par. 68 (_b_)).

[33] Accusative of direction (see par. 67 (_a_)).


(1) I am (being) loved. (2) He was loved. (3) We shall be loved. (4)
You would be loved. (5) I have been washed. (6) She had been washed.
(7) They had been washed. (8) You will have been washed. (9) It would
have been washed. (10) We are (about) to be invited. (11) I was
(about) to be invited. (12) He would be about to be invited. (13) Be
loved. (14) Be (having been) washed. (15) This merchandise is always
willingly (being) bought by me. (16) The overcoat has been (was)
bought by me, consequently it belongs to me. (17) When your house was
being built, my house had already long been built. (18) I make known
that from now my son's debts will not be paid by me. (19) Be
tranquil, my entire debt will soon be (have been) paid to you. (20)
My gold ring would not now be so long being looked for if it had not
(should not have) been so cleverly hidden by you. (21) According to
the project of the engineers this railway is (about) to be
constructed in the space (duration) of two years; but I think it will
take (be under construction, be being constructed during) more than
three years. (22) Upon the fireplace between two pots stands an iron
kettle; from the kettle, in which is (finds itself) boiling water,
issues steam; through the window, which is (finds itself) near the
door, the steam goes into (on to) the yard.


_Correlative Words_ (see pars. 139-157).

(1) _Ia, Ial, Iam, Ie, Iel, Ies, Io, Iom, Iu._ (2) La montritajn naŭ
vortojn ni konsilas bone ellerni, ĉar el ili ĉiu povas jam fari al
si grandan serion da aliaj pronomoj kaj adverboj. (3) Se ni aldonas
al ili la literon K, ni ricevas vortojn demandajn aŭ rilatajn: _Kia,
Kial, Kiam, Kie, Kiel, Kies, Kio, Kiom, Kiu._ (4) Se ni aldonas la
literon T, ni ricevas vortojn montrajn: _Tia, Tial, Tiam, Tie, Tiel,
Ties, Tio, Tiom, Tiu._ (5) Aldonante la literon Ĉ, ni ricevas
vortojn komunajn: _Ĉia, Ĉial, Ĉiam, Cie, Ĉiel, Ĉies, Ĉio,
Ĉiom, Ĉiu._ (6) Aldonante la prefikson NEN-, ni ricevas vortojn
neajn: _Nenia, Nenial, Neniam, Nenie, Neniel, Nenies, Nenio, Neniom,
Neniu._ (7) Aldonante al la vortoj montraj la vorton _Ĉi_, ni
ricevas montron pli proksiman; ekzemple: _Tiu_ (pli malproksima),
_Tiu ĉi_ (aŭ, _Ĉi tiu_) (pli proksima); _Tie_ (malproksime), _Tie
ĉi_ (aŭ, _Ĉi tie_) (proksime). (8) Aldonante al la vortoj demandaj
la vorton AJN, ni ricevas vortojn sendiferencajn: _Kia ajn, Kial ajn,
Kiam ajn, Kie ajn, Kiel ajn, Kies ajn, Kio ajn, Kiom ajn, Kiu ajn._
(9) Ekster tio, el la diritaj vortoj ni povas ankoraŭ fari aliajn
vortojn, per helpo de gramatikaj finiĝoj kaj aliaj vortoj
(sufiksoj); ekzemple: _Tiama, Ĉiama, Kioma, Tiea, Ĉi-tiea, Tieulo,
Tiamulo,_ k.t.p. (kaj tiel plu).


(1) _Ia_ = some, any. _Ial_ = for some reason. _Iam_ = at some time,
once (on a time). _Ie_ = somewhere. _Iel_ = in some manner. _Ies_ =
somebody's, some one's. _Io_ = something. _Iom_ = some (quantity).
_Iu_ = someone, somebody. (2) The nine words shown we recommend to
be well learnt, for from them everyone can straightaway make for
himself a large series of other pronouns and adverbs. (3) If we add
to them the letter K, we get interrogative or relative words: _Kia_
= what (kind or sort of). _Kial_ = why, wherefore, for what reason.
_Kiam_ = when, at what time. _Kie_ = where, at what place. _Kiel_ =
how, in what manner. _Kies_ = whose, of which. _Kio_ = what (thing).
_Kiom_ = how much, how many, what amount. _Kiu_ = who, which, what
one. (4) If we add the letter T, we get the demonstrative words:
_Tia_ = such, that sort of. _Tial_ = for that reason, therefore.
_Tiam_ = then, at that time. _Tie_ = there, in that place. _Tiel_ =
thus, so, in that manner, like (that). _Ties_ = that one's, of that.
_Tio_ = that (thing). _Tiom_ = so much, that much, so many. _Tiu_ =
that (relative or personal). (5) By adding the letter Ĉ we get
general words: _Ĉia_ = each, every, every kind of. _Ĉial_ = for
every reason, for all reasons. _Ĉiam_ = always, for all time.
_Ĉie_ = everywhere. _Ĉiel_ = in every way. _Ĉies_ = everyone's,
each one's. _Ĉio_ = everything. _Ĉiom_ = all, the whole
(quantity). _Ĉiu_ = each one, all, everyone. (6) By adding the
prefix NEN- we get negative words: _Nenia_ = no kind of, none.
_Nenial_ = for no reason. _Neniam_ = never. _Nenie_ = nowhere.
_Neniel_ = nohow, in no way. _Nenies_ = no one's, nobody's. _Nenio_
= nothing. _Neniom_ = no quantity, none. _Neniu_ = nobody, no one.
(7) By adding to the demonstrative words the word _Ĉi_ we obtain a
nearer indication; for example: _Tiu_ = that (the one further off);
_Tiu ĉi_ (or, _Ĉi tiu_) = this (the nearer one); _Tie_ = there
(further off). _Tie ĉi_ (or, _Ĉi tie_) = here (nearer). (8) By
adding to the interrogative words the word AJN we get indefinite
words (expressions): _Kia ajn_ = whatever (kind). _Kial ajn_ = for
whatever cause. _Kiam ajn_ = whenever. _Kie ajn_ = wherever. _Kiel
ajn_ = however, in whatever manner. _Kies ajn_ = whosesoever. _Kio
ajn_ = whatever (thing). _Kiom ajn_ = however much, or many. _Kiu
ajn_ = whoever, whichever. (9) Besides (outside) that, from the said
words we can still make other words by help of the grammatical
terminations and other words (suffixes); for example: _Tiama_ = of
that time, contemporary (adj.). _Ĉiama_ = continual, permanent.
_Kioma_ = which, or what (number or quantity). _Tiea_ = yonder
(adj.), of there (that place). _Ĉi-tiea_ = of here (this place).
_Tieulo_ = an aborigine (man of there, of that place). _Tiamulo_ =
a contemporary (man of then, of that time), etc. (and so on).


_Correlative Words--continued_ (see pars. 139-158).

(1) Ia ajn plumo sufiĉos. (2) Ĉiu helpus tian homon. (3) Tiu virino
ne estas tia virino, kian mi estimas. (4) Ial li foriris de Berlino,
kaj mi ne scias ĝuste kial; iu persono (aŭ, iu) diris, ke li lasis
la urbon pro malsano. (5) Kie estas mia naztuko (aŭ, poŝtuko)? Mi
ĝin ne vidas ie. (6) Ĝi kuŝas tie, sub tiu kanapo. (7) Kiam vi
venos min viziti? (8) Mi venos al vi iam morgaŭ. (9) Kies domo estas
tiu? (10) Mi neniam aŭdis, al kiu ĝi apartenas. (11) Ĉu vi konis
iun en la ĉambro? (12) Mi ne konis iun (aŭ, mi konis neniun). (13)
El ĉiuj miaj amikoj, li estas la plej intima. (14) Kian ĉarman
leteron vi estas skribinta! (15) Kia homo estas tiu, kiu rajdas sur
la griza ĉevalo? (16) Mi ne scias, mi neniam vidis lin antaŭe. (17)
Kiom da ĉevaloj vi havas? (18) Mi ne havas tiom, kiom mi havis
antaŭ tri monatoj. (19) Ĉia aĝo havas siajn devojn. (20) Ĉial tio
estas la plej bona. (21) Ĉiam pripensu, antaŭ ol vi parolas. (22)
Ĉies ideo estas diversa. (23) Preskaŭ ĉiu amas sin mem.


(1) Any kind of pen will do (suffice). (2) Anyone (everyone) would
help such a man. (3) That woman is not the (that) kind of woman
(that) I esteem. (4) For some reason he left Berlin, and I don't know
exactly why; some person (or, a certain person, _or_, someone) said
that he left the city on account of an illness. (5) Where is my
handkerchief? I do not see it anywhere (somewhere). (6) It lies
there, under that sofa. (7) When will you come to visit me? (8) I
will come to you some time to-morrow. (9) Whose house is that? (10) I
never heard to whom it belongs. (11) Did you know anyone (someone) in
the room? (12) I did not know anyone (or, I knew no one). (13) Of all
my friends, he is the most intimate. (14) What a charming letter you
have written! (15) What sort of man is that who is riding on the grey
horse? (16) I do not know, I never saw him before. (17) How many
horses have you? (18) I have not so many as I had three months ago.
(19) Every age has its duties. (20) For every reason (all reasons)
that is the best. (21). Always reflect before you speak. (22)
Everyone's idea is different. (23) Nearly everyone loves himself.


_Prepositions and Accusative of Direction_ (see pars. 67, 249-261).

(1) Ĉiuj prepozicioj per si mem postulas ĉiam nur la nominativon.
(2) Se ni iam post prepozicio uzas la akuzativon, la akuzativo tie
dependas ne de la prepozicio, sed de aliaj kaŭzoj. (3) Ekzemple: Por
esprimi direkton, ni aldonas al la vorto la finon N; sekve: _tie_ =
"en tiu loko," _tien_ = "al tiu loko"; tiel same ni ankaŭ diras: "La
birdo flugis en la ĝardenon, sur la tablon," kaj la vortoj
"_ĝardenon_," "_tablon_" staras tie ĉi en akuzativo, ne ĉar la
prepozicioj "_en_" kaj "_sur_" tion ĉi postulas, sed nur ĉar ni
volis esprimi direkton, tio estas, montri, ke la birdo sin ne trovis
antaŭe en la ĝardeno aŭ sur la tablo kaj tie flugis, sed, ke ĝi
de alia loko flugis al la ĝardeno, al la tablo (ni volas montri, ke
la ĝardeno kaj tablo ne estis la loko de la flugado, sed nur la celo
de la flugado); en tiaj okazoj ni uzus la finiĝon N tute egale ĉu
ia prepozicio starus aŭ ne. (4) Morgaŭ mi veturos Parizon (aŭ, en
Parizon). (5) Mi restos hodiaŭ dome. (6) Jam estas tempo iri domen.
(7) Ni disiĝis kaj iris en diversajn flankojn; mi iris dekstren kaj
li iris maldekstren. (8) Flanken, sinjoro!


(1) All prepositions by themselves always require the nominative
only. (2) If we ever, after a preposition, use the accusative, the
accusative there (in that case) depends not on the preposition, but
on other causes. (3) For example: In order to express direction we
add to the word the termination N as follows: _tie_="in that place"
(there), _tien_="to that place" (thither); thus in the same way we
also say: "The bird flew into the garden, upon the table," and the
words "_ĝardenon_," "_tablon_," stand here in (the) accusative, not
because the prepositions "_en_" and "_sur_" require this, but only
because we wished to express direction, that is, to show that the
bird was not (did not find itself) previously in the garden or on
the table and flew (about) there, but that it flew from some other
place to the garden, to the table: (we wish to show that the garden
and table were not the place of the flying, but only the destination
(aim, purpose) of the flying). In such cases we should use the
termination N all the same, whether any preposition were there
(should stand) or not. (4) To-morrow I shall travel to Paris (or,
into Paris). (5) I shall remain to-day at home. (6) It is already
time to go home. (7) We separated and went in different directions;
I went to the right and he went to the left. (8) To one side (stand
aside), Sir!


_Prepositions and Accusative of Direction--continued_ (see pars.

(1) Kie vi estas? (2) Mi estas en la ĉevalejo, sed mi estas enironta
en la bovinejon. (3) Kien vi iras? (4) Mi iras en la preĝejon. (5)
La birdo flugas en la ĉambro (ĝi estas en la ĉambro kaj flugadas
en ĝi). (6) La birdo flugas en la ĉambron (ĝi estis ekster la
ĉambro kaj flugas nun en ĝin). (7) El sub la kanapo la muso kuris
sub la liton, kaj dum ĝi kuradis sub la lito, la kato ĝin ekkaptis.
(8) Anstataŭ kafo la kelnero donis al mi teon kun sukero, sed sen
kremo, tial mi ordonis al li, ke li alportu kremon, kaj kiam li ĝin
alportis (aŭ, estis ĝin alportinta), mi enmetis en la tason da teo
unu sukerpecon, tiam mi enverŝis el la kremujo la kremon. (9) Mi
metis la manon sur la tablon. (10) En la salono estis neniu krom li
kaj lia fianĉino. (11) La hirundo flugis trans la riveron, ĉar
trans la rivero sin trovis aliaj hirundoj. (12) Kiam li estis ĉe
mi, li staris tutan horon apud la fenestro. (13) Ili iris Parizon
(aŭ, al Parizo).


(1) Where are you? (2) I am in the stable, but I am about to go into
the cowshed. (3) Where are you going? (4) I am going into the church.
(5) The bird flies in the room (it is in the room and is flying in
it). (6) The bird flies into the room (it was outside the room, and
now flies into it). (7) From under the sofa the mouse ran under the
bed, and whilst it was running about under the bed the cat seized it.
(8) Instead of coffee the waiter gave me tea with sugar, but without
cream, therefore I ordered (to) him to bring (that he bring) cream,
and when he brought it (or, had brought it), I put into the cup of
tea one lump of sugar, then I poured in the cream out of the
cream-jug. (9) I put my (the) hand on the table. (10) In the
drawing-room was nobody except him and his fiancée. (11) The swallow
flew across the river, because across the river were (found
themselves) other swallows. (12) When he was at my house (with me) he
stood (for) a whole hour near the window. (13) They went to Paris.


_Prepositions--continued_ (see pars. 249-261).

(1) Ili ĝojis je niaj malfeliĉoj. (2) Volu montri al mi la
dormoĉambron. (3) Nur tajloro povas fari al (_or_, por) si veston.
(4) Ni eniris kafejon antaŭ ol reveni al la hotelo. (5) La kelnero
metis antaŭ mi teleron, kuleron, kaj tranĉilon. (6) Anstataŭ ludi
kartojn, li lernis Esperanton. (7) Mi staris apud la pordo dum li
paroladis kun sia amiko. (8) La profesoro ĉe la lernejo venis kun mi
por viziti vian patron. (9) Li sekvis post mi en la interspaco de
ĉirkaŭ tri paŝoj. (10) Ŝi donis al mi unufrankan moneron. (11) Li
restis ĉe ni de sabato ĝis mardo. (12) Sen mia scio, la birdo
deflugis de la arbo. (i3) Li paliĝis de timo, kaj mi, pro teruro,
ne sciis kion fari. (14) Dum (aŭ, en) la aŭtuno mi vojaĝadis en
Italujo. (15) La leporhundo estas ekster la domo. (16) Tiu ĉi estas
la plej granda el ĉiuj arboj en la ĝardeno. (17) Ne miru pri mia
senceremonieco kontraŭ vi. (18) Krom Esperanto, mi parolas la
lingvon anglan. (19) Ŝi estis bona, kaj krom tio, tre bela


(1) They rejoiced at our misfortunes. (2) Kindly (be willing) show me
the bedroom. (3) Only a tailor can make (for) himself a coat. (4) We
entered a café before returning to the hotel. (5) The waiter put
before me a plate, spoon, and knife. (6) Instead of playing cards, he
learnt Esperanto. (7) I stood near the door whilst he conversed with
his friend. (8) The professor of (at) the school came with me to
visit your father. (9) He followed me at a distance of about three
paces (steps). (10) She gave me a coin of one franc. (11) He stayed
with us from Saturday till Tuesday. (12) Unknown to me (without my
knowledge), the bird flew down from the tree. (13) He grew pale with
fear, and I, from terror, did not know what to do. (14) During (or,
in) the autumn I travelled about in Italy. (15) The greyhound
(hare-hound) is outside the house. (16) This is the largest of all
the trees in the garden. (17) Do not wonder at (concerning) my
unceremoniousness towards you. (18) Besides Esperanto, I speak the
English language. (19) She was good, and besides that, a very
beautiful young lady.


_Prepositions--continued_ (see pars. 249-261).

(1) Li fianĉiĝis kun Fraŭlino Berto post kiam li estis parolinta
kun ŝia patro. (2) Mi restadas tie ĉi laŭ la konsilo de mia
kuracisto. (3) Malgraŭ mia konsilo, li eliris el la urbo per flanka
vojeto. (4) La domo konstruita de mia onklo estas kovrita per
ardezoj. (5) Por ĉio estas tempo. (6) Ni invitas ĉiujn vidi por
si. (7) Je tiu prezo mi aĉetis por la infanoj tableton. (8) Mi
devos ekiri post kvarono de horo. (9) Tagon post tago ni iris preter
la fenestroj de la domo. (10) Ili sekvis unu post la alia. (11) Li
demandis ŝin, pro kio ŝi ploras. (12) Ne sopiru je via perdita
feliĉo; ne pensu pri ĝi. (13) Sen vi, ni estas kvazaŭ sen kapo.
(14) Spite miajn protestojn, kaj spite ĉion, kion mi povis diri, li
foriris. (15) La hundo kuris sub la tablon por ekkapti la katon, sed
la kato forkuris, kaj la hundo ĝin mortigis sub la kanapo. (16) La
birdo, kiu sidis sur la arbo, surflugis sur la tegmenton de la domo.
(17) Li ĵetis ŝtonon super la muron. (18) Li iris tra la arbaro,
kaj poste pasis trans la ponton.


(1) He became engaged (was affianced) to (with) Miss Bertha after he
had spoken to (with) her father. (2) I am remaining here by
(according to) the advice of my doctor. (3) In spite of my advice, he
left the city by a by-path. (4) The house built by my uncle has been
covered with slates. (5) There is a time for everything. (6) We
invite all to see for themselves. (7) At that price I bought for the
children a tiny table. (8) I must start in (after) a quarter of an
hour. (9) Day by (after) day we went by (past) the windows of the
house. (10) They followed one after the other. (11) He asked her why
(because of what) she cried (cries). (12) Do not sigh for (about,
concerning) your lost happiness; do not think of (about) it. (13)
Without you, we are as without a head. (14) In spite of my
protestations, and in spite of everything I could say, he went away.
(15) The dog ran under the table to (in order to) seize the cat, but
the cat ran away, and the dog killed it under the sofa. (16) The bird
that sat on the tree flew on to the roof of the house. (17) He threw
a stone over the wall. (18) He went through the wood, and then passed
across the bridge.


_Preposition "Je" and the Accusative_ (see pars. 65--69, 251, 256).

(1) Se ni bezonas uzi prepozicion kaj la senco ne montras al ni, kian
prepozicion uzi, tiam ni povas uzi la komunan prepozicion "je." (2)
Sed estas bone uzadi la vorton "je" kiel eble pli[34] malofte. (3)
Anstataŭ la vorto "je" ni povas ankaŭ uzi akuzativon sen
prepozicio. (4) Mi ridas je lia naiveco (aŭ, mi ridas pro lia
naiveco, aŭ, mi ridas lian naivecon). (5) Je la lasta fojo (aŭ, la
lastan fojon) mi vidis lin ĉe vi. (6) Mi veturis du tagojn kaj unu
nokton. (7) Mi sopiras je mia perdita feliĉo (aŭ, mian perditan
feliĉon). (8) El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke se ni pri ia verbo ne
scias, ĉu ĝi postulas post si la akuzativon (t.e., ĉu ĝi estas
aktiva) aŭ ne, ni povas ĉiam uzi la akuzativon. (9) Ekzemple, ni
povas diri, "obei al la patro," kaj "obei la patron" (anstataŭ "obei
je la patro"). (10) Sed ni ne uzas la akuzativon tiam, kiam la
klareco de la senco tion ĉi malpermesas; ekzemple, ni povas diri,
"pardoni al la malamiko," kaj, "pardoni la malamikon," sed ni devas
diri ĉiam, "pardoni al la malamiko lian kulpon."


[34] It is more usual to use _plej_.


(1) If we need to use a preposition, and the sense does not show (to)
us what preposition to use, then we can use the general (common)
preposition _"je."_ (2) But it is well to use the word _"je"_ as
seldom as possible. (3) Instead of the word _"je,"_ we can also use
an accusative without a preposition. (4) I laugh _at_ his simplicity
(or, I laugh _because of his_ simplicity, or, I deride his
simplicity). (5) On the last occasion (or, last time) I saw him with
you. (6) I travelled two days and one night. (7) I sigh _for_ (I
bemoan) my lost happiness. (8) From the said rule (it) follows that
if we, concerning any verb, do not know whether it requires after it
the accusative (i.e., whether it is active) or not, we can always
use the accusative. (9) For example, we can say, "to obey _to_ the
father," and "to obey the father" (instead of "to obey _je_ the
father"). (10) But we do not use the accusative (then) when the
clearness of the sense forbids this; for example, we can say "to
pardon _to_ the enemy," and, "to pardon the enemy," but we must
always say, "to pardon _to_ the enemy his offence."


_Participles, Substantival, Adjectival, Adverbial_ (see pars.

(1) Se la lernanto scius bone sian lecionon, la instruanto[35] lin ne
punus. (2) Fluanta akvo estas pli pura, ol akvo staranta senmove. (3)
Kiam Nikodemo batas Jozefon, tiam Nikodemo estas la batanto kaj
Jozefo la batato. (4) Al homo, pekinta senintence, Dio facile
pardonas. (5) Trovinte pomon, mi ĝin manĝis. (6) La falinta homo ne
povis sin levi. (7) Ne riproĉu vian amikon, ĉar vi mem pli multe
meritas riproĉon; li estas nur unufoja mensoginto, dum vi estas
ankoraŭ nun ĉiam mensoganto. (8) La tempo pasinta jam neniam
revenos; la tempon venontan neniu ankoraŭ konas. (9) Venu, ni
atendas vin, Savonto de la mondo! (10) En la lingvo Esperanto ni
vidas la estontan lingvon de la tuta mondo. (11) Aŭgusto estas mia
plej amata filo. (12) Mono havata estas pli grava ol havita. (13)
Pasero kaptita estas pli bona, ol aglo kaptota. (14) La soldatoj
kondukis la arestitojn tra la stratoj. (15) Li venis al mi tute ne


[35] _Instruanto_ = The one who is teaching, possibly only an
occasional teacher. _Instruisto_ = A teacher habitually, or by


(1) If the pupil knew (should know) his lesson well, the teacher
would not punish him. (2) Flowing water is purer than stagnant
(standing without movement) water. (3) When Nicodemus beats Joseph,
then Nicodemus is the beater (beating one) and Joseph the beaten. (4)
God easily pardons (to) a person sinning (having sinned)
unintentionally. (5) Having found an apple, I ate it. (6) The fallen
man could not raise himself. (7) Do not reproach your friend, for you
much more merit reproach; he is only a one-time liar (has been once a
liar), while you are yet now always a liar (while you are a liar
always now). (8) Time passed will never more return; time about to
come no one yet knows. (9) Come, we await You, Saviour of the world!
(10) In the language Esperanto we see the future language of the
whole world. (11) Augustus is my best loved son. (12) Money in hand
(being had) is more important than that once had (than having been
had). (13) A sparrow caught is better than an eagle about to be
caught. (14) The soldiers led the prisoners through the streets. (15)
He came to me quite unexpectedly.


_Numerals and Suffixes -OBL-, -ON-, -OP-_ (see pars. 115-124, 284).

(1) Mi havas cent pomojn. (2) Mi havas centon da pomoj. (3) Tiu ĉi
urbo havas milionon da loĝantoj. (4) Mi aĉetis dek du oranĝojn.
(5) Mi aĉetis dek-duon da kuleroj kaj du dek-duojn da forkoj. (6)
Mil jaroj (aŭ, milo da jaroj) faras miljaron.[36] (7) Unue, mi
redonas al vi la monon, kiun vi pruntis al mi; due, mi dankas vin por
la prunto; trie, mi petas vin ankaŭ poste prunti al mi, kiam mi
bezonos monon. (8) Por ĉiu tago mi ricevas kvin frankojn, sed por
la hodiaŭa tago mi ricevis duoblan pagon, t.e. (tio estas), dek
frankojn. (9) Kvinoble sep estas (_or_, faras) tridek kvin. (10) Tri
estas duono de ses. (11) Ok estas kvar kvinonoj de dek. (12) Kvar
metroj da[37] tiu ĉi ŝtofo kostas naŭ frankojn; tial du metroj
kostas kvar kaj duonon frankojn (aŭ, da frankoj). (13) Unu tago
estas tricent-sesdek-kvinono, aŭ tricent-sesdek-sesono, de jaro.
(14) Tiuj ĉi du amikoj promenas ĉiam duope. (15) Kvinope ili sin
ĵetis sur min, sed mi venkis ĉiujn kvin atakantojn. (16) Por miaj
kvar infanoj mi aĉetis dek du pomojn, kaj al ĉiu el la infanoj mi
donis po tri pomoj. (17) Tiu ĉi libro havas sesdek paĝojn; tial, se
mi legos en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, mi finos la tutan libron en
kvar tagoj. (18) Kioma horo estas? La tria. (19) Je kioma horo ekiras
la vagonaro por Berlino? (20) Je tri kvaronoj de la tria (horo) (aŭ,
je la dua kaj tri kvaronoj) (aŭ, je kvarono antaŭ la tria) (aŭ, je
la dua kvardek kvin). (21) Kiun daton ni havas hodiaŭ? (22) Hodiaŭ
estas la dudek-sepa de Marto. (23) Kiom kostas tio ĉi? Naŭ frankojn[38]
(aŭ, ĝi kostas naŭ frankojn). (24) Kiom estas la pezo de tiu kesto?
Kvardek funtoj.[39]


[36] _Jarmilo_ is often used in preference to _miljaro_.

[37] Better, _de_ (par. 259 (7)).

[38] Accusative, governed by the verb _kostas_ in the question.

[39] Nominative, because _estas_ does not govern accusative (see
par. 64 (_a_)).


(1) I have a hundred apples. (2) I have a hundred of apples. (3) This
town has a million (of) inhabitants. (4) I bought twelve oranges. (5)
I bought a dozen (of) spoons and two dozen (of) forks. (6) A thousand
years (or, a thousand of years) makes a millennium. (7) Firstly, I
give back to you the money which you lent (to) me; secondly, I thank
you for the loan ; thirdly, I beg you also afterwards to lend to me
when I (shall) need money. (8) For each day I receive five francs,
but for this (to-day's) day I received double payment, i.e. (that is)
ten francs. (9) Five times (five-fold) seven is thirty-five. (10)
Three is (the) half of six. (11) Eight is four-fifths of ten. (12)
Four metres of this stuff cost nine francs; therefore two metres cost
four and a half francs (or, of francs). (13) One day is a 365th or a
366th of a year. (14) These two friends always walk out two together
(by twos). (15) Five together (by fives) they threw themselves upon
me, but I vanquished all five assailants. (16) For my four children
I bought twelve apples, and to each of the children I gave at the
rate of three apples. (17) This book has sixty pages; therefore if
I (shall) read (in) each day at the rate of fifteen pages, I shall
finish the whole book in four days. (18) What time (hour) is it?
Three o'clock (the third). (19) At what time does the train start
for Berlin? (20) At three-quarters of the third (hour) (or, at the
second and three-quarters) (or, one-quarter before the third) (or,
two forty-five). (21) What is the date (what date have we to-day)?
(22) To-day is the 27th of March. (23) How much does this cost? Nine
francs (or, it costs nine francs). (24) How much is the weight of
that box? Forty pounds.


_Suffixes -AĈ-, -AD- and Prefixes EK- and FI-_ (see pars. 270, 288).

(1) En la daŭro de kelke da minutoj mi aŭdis du pafojn. (2) La
pafado daŭris tre longe. (3) Mi eksaltis de surprizo. (4) Mi saltas
tre lerte. (5) Mi saltadis la tutan tagon de loko al loko. (6) Lia
hieraŭa parolo estis tre bela, sed la tro multa parolado lacigas
lin. (7) Kiam vi ekparolis, ni atendis aŭdi ion novan, sed baldaŭ
ni vidis, ke ni trompiĝis. (8) Li kantas tre belan kanton. (9) La
kantado estas agrabla okupo. (10) La diamanto havas belan brilon.
(11) Du ekbriloj de fulmo trakuris tra la malluma ĉielo. (12) La
vortoj "aŭdado, flarado, gustumado, pensado," k.t.p., esprimas niajn
kapablojn; sed kiam ni uzas tiajn vortojn sen la sufikso _-ADO_, tiam
ili esprimas apartajn agojn de tiaj kapabloj. (13) Mi timas, ke vi ne
povos legi tian skribaĉon. (14) Ne legu tiajn fiverkojn.


(1) In the course (duration) of some minutes I heard two shots. (2)
The fusillade (shooting) continued very long. (3) I started (jumped
suddenly) with surprise. (4) I jump very cleverly. (5) I was jumping
all day from place to place. (6) His yesterday's speech was very
fine but (the) too much speaking fatigues him. (7) When you began to
speak, we expected to hear something new, but soon we saw that we
were mistaken. (8) He sings a very fine song. (9) Singing is an
agreeable occupation. (10) The diamond has a beautiful brilliancy
(lustre). (11) Two flashes of lightning ran through the dark sky.
(12) The words "hearing, smelling, tasting, thinking," etc., express
our faculties; but when we use such words without the suffix _-ADO_,
then they express isolated acts of such faculties. (13) I fear you
will not be able to read such bad writing. (14) Don't read such
shameful writings.


_Suffixes -AĴ-, -EC-_ (see par. 271).

(1) Vi parolas sensencaĵon, mia amiko. (2) Mi trinkis teon kun kuko
kaj konfitaĵo. (3) Akvo estas fluidaĵo. (4) Mi ne volis trinki la
vinon, ĉar ĝi enhavis en si ian suspektan malklaraĵon. (5) Sur la
tablo staris diversaj sukeraĵoj. (6) En tiuj ĉi boteletoj sin
trovas diversaj acidoj, vinagro, sulfuracido, azotacido, kaj aliaj.
(7) Via vino estas nur ia abomena acidaĵo. (8) La acideco de tiu ĉi
vinagro estas tre malforta. (9) Mi manĝis bongustan ovaĵon. (10)
Tiu ĉi granda altaĵo ne estas natura monto. (11) La alteco de tiu
monto ne estas tre granda. (12) Kiam mi ien veturas, mi neniam prenas
kun mi multon da pakaĵo. (13) Ĉemizojn, kolumojn, manumojn, kaj
ceterajn similajn objektojn ni nomas tolaĵo, kvankam ili ne ĉiam
estas faritaj el tolo. (14) Glaciaĵo estas dolĉa glaciigita
frandaĵo. (15) La riĉeco de tiu ĉi homo estas granda, sed lia
malsaĝeco estas ankoraŭ pli granda. (16) Li amas tiun ĉi knabinon
pro ŝia beleco kaj boneco. (17) Lia heroeco plaĉas al mi. (18) La
tuta supraĵo de la lago estis kovrita per naĝantaj folioj kaj
diversaj aliaj kreskaĵoj. (19) Mi vivas kun li en granda amikeco.


(1) You speak (a piece of) nonsense, my friend. (2) I drank tea, with
cake and preserve (jam). (3) Water is a fluid (thing). (4) I would
not drink the wine because it contained in it some suspicious
muddiness. (5) Upon the table stood various sweetmeats. (6) In these
phials are various acids, vinegar, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and
others. (7) Your wine is only some abominable sour stuff. (8) The
acidity of this vinegar is very weak. (9) I ate a savoury
(good-tasted) omelette. (10) This great height (eminence) is not a
natural mountain. (11) The height of that mountain is not very great.
(12) When I travel anywhere, I never take with me much luggage. (13)
Shirts, collars, cuffs, and other similar objects we call linen,
although they are not always made out of lint-cloth. (14) An ice is a
sweet frozen dainty. (15) The wealth of this person is great, but his
foolishness is still greater. (16) He loves this girl for her beauty
and goodness. (17) His heroism pleases me. (18) The entire surface of
the lake was covered with floating leaves and various other growths.
(19) I live with him in great amity.


_Suffixes -AN-, -ESTR-, -IST-, -UL-_ (see par. 272).

(1) Kiu okupas sin je meĥaniko, estas meĥanikisto, kaj kiu okupas
sin je ĥemio, estas ĥemiisto. (2) Diplomatiiston oni povas ankaŭ
nomi diplomato, sed fizikiston oni ne povas nomi fiziko, ĉar fiziko
estas la nomo de la scienco mem. (3) La fotografisto fotografis min,
kaj mi sendis mian fotografaĵon al mia patro. (4) La dentisto
eltiris du el la dentoj de mia fratino. (5) La ŝipanoj devas obei la
ŝipestron. (6) Ĉiuj loĝantoj de regno estas regnanoj. (7) Urbanoj
estas ordinare pli ruzaj, ol vilaĝanoj. (8) La regnestro de nia
lando estas bona kaj saĝa reĝo. (9) La Parizanoj estas gajaj homoj.
(10) Nia provincestro estas severa, sed justa. (11) Nia urbo havas
bonajn policanojn, sed ne sufiĉe energian policestron. (12)
Luteranoj kaj Kalvinanoj estas kristanoj. (13) Germanoj kaj francoj,
kiuj loĝas en Rusujo, estas Rusujanoj, kvankam ili ne estas rusoj.
(14) Li estas nelerta kaj naiva provincano. (15) La loĝantoj de unu
regno estas samregnanoj; la loĝantoj de unu urbo estas samurbanoj;
la konfesantoj de unu religio estas samreligianoj. (16) Nia
regimentestro estas por siaj soldatoj kiel bona patro. (17) La
botisto faras botojn kaj ŝuojn, sed tian homon en Anglujo oni nomas
ordinare ŝuisto. (18) La lignisto vendas lignon, kaj la lignaĵisto
faras tablojn, seĝojn, kaj aliajn lignajn objektojn. (19)
Ŝteliston neniu lasas en sian domon. (20) La kuraĝa maristo dronis
en la maro. (21) Verkisto verkas librojn, kaj skribisto simple
transskribas paperojn. (22) Ni havas diversajn servantojn:
kuiriston, ĉambristinon, infanistinon, kaj veturigiston. (23) La
riĉulo havas multe da mono. (24) Ni ne scias, ĉu li estas
malsaĝulo aŭ ruzulo. (25) Timulo timas eĉ sian propran ombron.
(26) Li estas mensogisto kaj malnoblulo.


(1) (He) who occupies himself with mechanics is a mechanic, and (he)
who occupies himself with chemistry is a chemist. (2) A diplomatist
one can also call a "diplomate," but a physicist cannot be called
"physics," because physics is the name of the science itself. (3) The
photographer photographed me, and I sent my photograph to my father.
(4) The dentist drew two of my sister's teeth. (5) The crew must obey
the captain. (6) All inhabitants of a state are members of a state.
(7) Townspeople are usually more crafty than villagers. (8) The ruler
of our land is a good and wise king. (9) The Parisians are a gay
people (men). (10) Our provincial governor is strict, but just. (11)
Our town has good policemen, but an insufficiently energetic chief
constable. (12) Lutherans and Calvinists are Christians. (13) Germans
and French, who live in Russia, are residents in Russia (Russian
residents), although they are not Russians. (14) He is a dull and
simple provincial. (15) The inhabitants of the same (one) state are
fellow-countrymen; the inhabitants of one city are fellow-citizens;
the professors (confessors) of one religion are co-religionists.
(16) Our regimental chief is for his soldiers like a good father (is
like a good father to his soldiers). (17) The bootmaker makes boots
and shoes, but such a man in England they usually call a shoemaker.
(18) The timber merchant sells wood, and the joiner makes tables,
chairs, and other wooden articles. (19) A thief no one lets into his
house. (20) The courageous seaman was drowned in the sea. (21) An
author writes books, and a scribe simply transcribes papers. (22) We
have various servants: a cook (male), a chambermaid, nursemaid, and
coachman. (23) The rich man has much money. (24) We do not know
whether he is a fool or a cunning man. (25) A coward fears even his
own shadow. (26) He is an habitual liar and base fellow (ignoble man).


_Suffixes -AR-, -ER-_ (see par. 273).

(1) Mia skribilaro konsistas el inkujo, sablujo, kelke da plumoj,
krajono, kaj inksorbilo. (2) Oni metis antaŭ mi manĝilaron, kiu
konsistis el telero, kulero, tranĉilo, forko, glaseto por brando,
glaso por vino, kaj buŝtuko. (3) En varmega tago mi amas promeni en
arbaro. (4) Nia lando venkos, ĉar nia militistaro estas granda kaj
brava. (5) Sur kruta ŝtuparo li levis sin al la tegmento de la domo.
(6) Mi ne scias la lingvon hispanan, sed per helpo de vortaro
hispana-germana mi tamen komprenis iom vian leteron. (7) Sur tiuj ĉi
vastaj kaj herboriĉaj kampoj paŝtas sin grandaj brutaroj, precipe
aroj da bellanaj ŝafoj. (8) Centimo, pfenigo, kaj kopeko estas
moneroj. (9) Sablero enfalis en mian okulon. (10) Unu fajrero estas
sufiĉa, por eksplodigi pulvon. (11) Vi ne trovos eĉ unu polveron
sur lia vesto, aŭ unu koteron sur lia pantalono.


(1) My writing materials consist of an inkstand, a sand box, some
pens, a pencil, and blotting paper. (2) They put before me a table
service (eating implements), which consisted of a plate, spoon,
knife, fork, liqueur glass (small glass) for brandy, a glass for
wine, and a serviette. (3) On (in) a hot day I love to walk in a
wood. (4) Our country will conquer, for our army is large and brave.
(5) On a steep ladder he raised himself to the roof of the house. (6)
I do not know the Spanish language, but by help of a Spanish-German
dictionary I nevertheless understood to some extent your letter. (7)
On these vast and richly herbaged fields feed (themselves) large
herds of cattle, especially flocks (collections) of fine-fleeced
sheep. (8) A centime, a pfennig, and a copeck are coins. (g) A grain
of sand fell into my eye. (10) One spark is sufficient (for) to
explode gunpowder. (11) You will not find even one grain of dust on
his coat, or one speck of mud on his trousers.


_Suffixes -ĈJ-, -NJ-, and Moŝto_ (see pars. 274, 283).

(1) La gepatroj ĉiam nomas Johanon, Johanĉjo (aŭ Joĉjo), kaj
Erneston ili nomas Erneĉjo (aŭ Erĉjo). (2) Vilhelmo nomas sian
fratinon Marinjo (aŭ Manjo), kvankam ŝi estas baptita Mario; kaj
Mario nomas sian fraton Vilhelĉjo (aŭ Vilheĉjo, aŭ Vilĉjo, aŭ
Viĉjo). (3) Sofinjo estis baptita Sofio, sed kelkafoje ŝia frato,
Nikolao, nomis ŝin Sonjo, kaj ŝi nomis lin Nikĉjo (aŭ Niĉjo).
(4) Mi diris al la reĝo: via reĝa moŝto, pardonu min! (5) El la
kvar leteroj unu estis adresita: Al Lia Episkopa Moŝto, La Episkopo
de N.; la dua: Al Lia Grafa Moŝto de P.; la tria: Al Lia Moŝto
Sinjoro D.; la kvara: Al Sinjoro G. C.


(1) The parents always call John, Johnnie (or Jack), and Ernest they
call Ernstie (or Ernie). (2) William calls his sister Polly (or
Poll), although she has been christened Mary; and Mary calls her
brother Willie (or Will, or Billy, or Bill). (3) Sophy was
christened Sophia, but sometimes her brother Nicholas called her
Soph, and she called him Nickie (or Nick). (4) I said to the King:
pardon me, your Majesty! (5) Of the four letters one was addressed
to the Right Reverend the Bishop of N.; the second to the Right
Honourable the Earl of P.; the third to the Honourable D. (_or_, His
Honour, _or_, His Worship, etc., D.); the fourth to Mr. G. C. (_or_,
G. C., Esq.).


_Suffixes -EBL-, -EM-, -IND-_ (see par. 275).

(1) Ŝtalo estas fleksebla, sed fero ne estas fleksebla. (2) Vitro
estas rompebla kaj travidebla. (3) Ne ĉiu kreskaĵo estas manĝebla.
(4) Via parolo estas tute nekomprenebla, kaj viaj leteroj estas ĉiam
skribitaj tute nelegeble. (5) Rakontu al mi vian malfeliĉon, ĉar
eble mi povos helpi al vi. (6) Li rakontis al mi historion tute ne
kredeblan. (7) Ĉu vi amas vian patron? Kia demando! kompreneble, ke
mi lin amas! (8) Mi kredeble ne povos veni al vi hodiaŭ, ĉar mi
pensas, ke mi mem havos hodiaŭ gastojn. (9) Li estas homo ne
kredinda. (10) Via ago estas tre laŭdinda. (11) Tiu ĉi grava tago
restos por mi ĉiam memorinda. (12) Lia edzino estas tre laborema kaj
ŝparema, sed ŝi estas ankaŭ tre babilema kaj kriema. Li estas tre
ekkolerema kaj ekscitiĝas ofte ĉe la plej malgranda bagatelo; tamen
li estas tre pardonema, li ne portas longe la koleron, kaj li tute ne
estas venĝema. (13) Li estas tre kredema; eĉ la plej nekredeblajn
aferojn, kiujn rakontas al li la plej nekredindaj homoj, li tuj
kredas. (14) Li estas tre purema, kaj eĉ unu polveron vi ne trovos
sur lia vesto.


(1) Steel is flexible, but iron is not flexible. (2) Glass is
breakable, and can be seen through (transparent = _diafana_). (3) Not
every plant is eatable. (4) Your talk is quite incomprehensible, and
your letters are always written quite illegibly. (5) Relate to me
your misfortune, for possibly I can help you. (6) He told me a story
quite incredible. (7) Do you love your father? What a question! Of
course (it is understandable that) I love him! (8) I probably shall
not be able to come to you to-day, because I think that I myself
shall have guests to-day. (9) He is a person unworthy of belief. (10)
Your action is very praiseworthy. (11) This important day will remain
ever memorable for me. (12) His wife is very industrious and thrifty;
but she is also very loquacious and noisy. He is very choleric, and
often is excited at the least trifle; however, he is very forgiving,
he does not nurse anger long, and he is not at all revengeful. (13)
He is very credulous; even the most incredible things, that the most
unbelievable people tell him, he believes at once. (14) He is very
cleanly, and even a grain of dust you will not find on his coat.


_Suffixes -EDZ-, -ID-, -IN-_ (see pars. 276, 279, 282). _Prefixes
BO-, DUON-, GE-, PRA-_ (see par. 286).

(1) Patro kaj patrino kune estas nomataj gepatroj. (2) Petro, Anno,
kaj Elizabeto estas miaj gefratoj. (3) Gesinjoroj Smith hodiaŭ
vespere venos al ni. (4) Mi gratulis telegrafe la junajn geedzojn.
(5) La gefianĉoj staris apud la altaro. (6) La patro de mia edzino
estas mia bopatro, mi estas lia bofilo, kaj mia patro estas la
bopatro de mia edzino. (7) Ĉiuj parencoj de mia edzino estas miaj
boparencoj, sekve ŝia frato estas mia bofrato, ŝia fratino estas
mia bofratino; mia frato kaj fratino (gefratoj) estas la bogefratoj
de mia edzino. (8) La edzino de mia nevo kaj la nevino de mia edzino
estas miaj bonevinoj. (9) Virino, kiu kuracas, estas kuracistino;
edzino de kuracisto estas kuracistedzino. (10) La doktoredzino Jones
vizitis hodiaŭ la gedoktorojn Robinson. (11) Li ne estas lavisto,
li estas lavistinedzo. (12) La filoj, nepoj, kaj pranepoj de reĝo
estas reĝidoj. (13) La hebreoj estas Izraelidoj, ĉar ili devenas
de Izraelo. (14) Ĉevalido estas nematura ĉevalo; kokido, nematura
koko; bovido, nematura bovo; birdido, nematura birdo. (15) Miaj
filoj kaj filinoj, miaj nepoj kaj nepinoj, miaj pranepoj kaj
pranepinoj estas miaj idoj (aŭ, miaj posteuloj); sed miaj avoj kaj
avinoj, miaj praavoj kaj praavinoj estas miaj prapatroj. (16) La
edzino de mia patro estas mia patrino, kaj la avino de miaj infanoj.
(17) Sur la korto staras koko kun tri kokinoj. (18) Mia fratino
estas tre bela knabino. (19) Mia onklino estas bona virino. (20) Mi
vidis vian onklinon kun ŝiaj kvar nepinoj kaj kun mia nevino.
(21) Lia duonpatrino estas mia bofratino. (22) Mi havas bovon kaj
bovinon. (23) La juna vidvino fariĝis denove fianĉino. (24) La dua
edzo de mia patrino estas mia duonpatro, kaj la infanineto, kiu
estis naskita la lastan semajnon, estas mia duonfratino.


(1) A father and mother together are called parents. (2) Peter, Anne,
and Elizabeth are my brother and sisters. (3) Mr. and Mrs. Smith will
come to us this (to-day) evening. (4) I congratulated by telegraph
the young married couple. (5) The affianced pair stood at the altar.
(6) My wife's father is my father-in-law, I am his son-in-law, and my
father is my wife's father-in-law. (7) All my wife's relations are my
relatives by marriage (relations-in-law), consequently her brother is
my brother-in-law, her sister is my sister-in-law; my brother and
sister (_gefratoj_) are brother-and-sister-in-law of my wife. (8) My
nephew's wife and my wife's niece are my nieces-in-law. (9) A woman
who treats patients is a female doctor; the wife of a doctor is a
_kuracistedzino_ = a doctor's wife. (10) Mrs. Doctor Jones visited

to-day Dr. and Mrs. Robinson. (11) He is not a washerman, he is a
washerwoman's husband. (12) The sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons
of a king are princes (a king's descendants). (13) The Jews are
Israelites, for they descend (originate) from Israel. (14) A foal
is an immature horse; a chicken, an immature fowl; a calf, an
immature ox; a fledgeling, an immature bird. (15) My sons and
daughters, my grandsons and granddaughters, my great-grandsons and
great-granddaughters, are my descendants; but my grandfathers and
grandmothers, my great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers, are my
ancestors. (16) My father's wife is my mother, and the grandmother
of my children. (17) In (on) the yard are a cock and three hens.
(18) My sister is a very beautiful girl. (19) My aunt is a good
woman. (20) I saw your aunt with her four granddaughters and (with)
my niece. (21) His stepmother is my sister-in-law. (22) I have an ox
and a cow. (23) The young widow became again engaged (a fiancée).
(24) The second husband of my mother is my stepfather, and the baby
(female) which was born last week is my half-sister.


_Suffixes -EG-, -ET-_ (see par. 277).

(1) Mi aĉetis por la infanoj tableton kaj kelke da seĝetoj. (2) En
nia lando sin ne trovas montoj, sed nur montetoj. (3) Tuj post la
hejto, la forno estis varmega, post unu horo ĝi estis jam nur varma,
post du horoj ĝi estis nur iom varmeta, kaj post tri horoj ĝi estis
jam tute malvarma. (4) En la somero ni trovas malvarmeton en densaj
arbaregoj. (5) Li sidas apud la tablo kaj dormetas. (6) Mallarĝa
vojeto kondukas tra tiu ĉi kampo al nia domo. (7) Sur lia vizaĝo mi
vidis ĝojan rideton. (8) Kun bruo oni malfermis la pordegon, kaj la
kaleŝo enveturis en la korton. (9) Ĉi tio estis jam ne simpla
pluvo, sed pluvego. (10) Grandega hundo metis sur min sian antaŭan
piedegon, kaj mi pro teruro ne sciis, kion fari. (11) Antaŭ nia
militistaro staris granda serio da pafilegoj.


(1) I bought for the children a tiny table and some tiny chairs. (2)
In our country there are no mountains (lit., mountains do not find
themselves), but only hills. (3) Immediately after the heating, the
stove was hot, after an hour it was no more than (already only) warm,
after two hours it was only just warm, and after three hours it was
already quite cold. (4) In the summer we find coolness in thick
forests. (5) He sits by the table and dozes. (6) A narrow path leads
through this field to our house. (7) Upon his countenance I saw a
joyful smile. (8) With noise they opened the gate, and the carriage
drove into the courtyard. (9) This was no longer (already not) a
simple shower, but a downpour (deluge). (10) An enormous dog put his
huge forepaw upon me, and from terror I did not know what to do. (11)
Before our army stood a great line of cannon.


_Suffixes_ _-EJ-_, _-ING-_, _-UJ-_ (see par. 278).

(1) La domo, en kiu oni lernas, estas lernejo, kaj la domo, en kiu
oni preĝas, estas preĝejo. (2) La kuiristo sidas en la kuirejo. (3)
La kuracisto konsilis al mi iri en ŝvitbanejon. (4) Magazeno, en kiu
oni vendas cigarojn, aŭ ĉambro, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas
cigarejo; skatoleto aŭ alia objekto, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn,
estas cigarujo; tubeto, en kiun oni metas cigaron, kiam oni ĝin
fumas, estas cigaringo. (5) Skatolo, en kiu oni tenas plumojn, estas
plumujo, kaj bastoneto, sur kiu oni tenas plumon por skribado, estas
plumingo. (6) En la kandelingo sidis brulanta kandelo. (7) En la
poŝo de mia pantalono mi portas monujon, kaj en la poŝo de mia
surtuto mi portas paperujon; pli grandan paperujon mi portas sub la
brako. (8) La rusoj loĝas en Rusujo, kaj la germanoj en Germanujo.


(1) The house in which one learns is a school, and the house in which
one prays is a church. (2) The cook is (sits) in the kitchen. (3) The
doctor advised me to go into a Turkish (sweat, vapour) bath. (4) A
shop (warehouse, store) in which cigars are sold (they sell cigars),
or a room in which cigars are kept, is a cigar shop (store); a small
box or other thing into which cigars are put is a cigar-case; a
little tube into which one puts a cigar when one smokes it is a
cigarholder (mouthpiece). (5) A box in which one keeps pens is a
pen-box, and a little stick on which one has (keeps) a pen for
writing is a penholder. (6) In the candlestick was (sat) a burning
candle. (7) In my trousers' pocket I carry a purse, and in my
overcoat pocket I carry a writing-case (pocket-book); a larger
portfolio I carry under my arm. (8) (The) Russians live in Russia,
and (the) Germans in Germany.


_Suffixes -IG- and -IĜ-_ (see par. 280).

(1) En la kota vetero mia vesto forte malpuriĝis; tial mi prenis
broson kaj purigis la veston. (2) Li paliĝis de timo kaj poste li
ruĝiĝis de honto. (3) Li fianĉiĝis kun fraŭlino Berto; post tri
monatoj estos la edziĝo; la edziĝa soleno estos en la nova
preĝejo, kaj la edziĝa festo estos en la domo de liaj estontaj
bogepatroj. (4) Tiu ĉi maljunulo tute malsaĝiĝis kaj infaniĝis.
(5) Post infekta malsano oni ofte bruligas la vestojn de la
malsanulo. (6) Forigu vian fraton, ĉar li malhelpas al ni. (7) Ŝi
edziniĝis kun sia kuzo, kvankam ŝiaj gepatroj volis ŝin edzinigi
kun alia persono. (8) En la printempo la glacio kaj la neĝo
fluidiĝas. (9) Venigu la kuraciston, ĉar mi estas malsana. (10) Li
venigis al si el Berlino multajn librojn. (11) Mia onklo ne mortis
per natura morto, sed li tamen ne mortigis sin mem, kaj ankaŭ estis
mortigita de neniu; unu tagon, promenante apud la reloj de fervojo,
li falis sub la radojn de veturanta vagonaro kaj mortiĝis. (12) Mi
ne pendigis mian ĉapon sur tiu ĉi arbeto; sed la vento forblovis de
mia kapo la ĉapon, kaj ĝi, flugante, pendiĝis sur la branĉoj de
la arbeto. (13) Sidigu vin (aŭ, sidiĝu), sinjoro! (14) La junulo
aliĝis al nia militistaro, kaj kuraĝe batalis kune kun ni kontraŭ
niaj malamikoj.


(1) In the muddy weather my coat became very dirty; therefore I took
a brush and cleaned the coat. (2) He became (or grew) pale with
(from) fear and afterwards he blushed (reddened) with shame. (3) He
became engaged to (with) Miss Bertha; in (after) three months will be
the marriage; the wedding ceremony will be in the new church, and the
marriage festival will be in the house of his future parents-in-law.
(4) This old man became quite foolish and childish. (5) After an
infectious disease they often burn the clothes of the patient. (6)
Send away your brother, because he hinders us. (7) She was married to
her cousin, although her parents wished to marry her to (with)
another person. (8) In the spring (the) ice and (the) snow melt. (9)
Send for (fetch, lit., cause to come) the doctor, for I am ill. (10)
He obtained (caused to come to him) many books from (out of) Berlin.
(11) My uncle did not die (by) a natural death, but he nevertheless
did not kill himself, and also was killed by no one; one day, walking
by the rails of a railway, he fell under the wheels of a travelling
train and came to his death. (12) I did not hang my cap on this
shrub; but the wind blew away the cap from my head, and it, in
flying, got hung up on the branches of the shrub. (13) Seat yourself
(or, be seated), sir! (14) The young man joined (lit., became to) our
army, and courageously fought together with us against our enemies.


_Suffix -IL-_ (see par. 281).

(1) La tranĉilo estis tiel malakra, ke mi ne povis tranĉi per ĝi
la viandon, kaj mi devis uzi mian poŝan tranĉilon. (2) Ĉu vi havas
korktirilon, por malŝtopi la botelon? (3) Mi volis ŝlosi la pordon,
sed mi perdis la ŝlosilon. (4) Ŝi kombas al si la (_or_, siajn)
harojn per arĝenta kombilo. (5) En somero ni veturas per diversaj
veturiloj, kaj en vintro ni veturas per glitveturilo. (6) Hodiaŭ
estas bela frosta vetero, tial mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros
gliti. (7) Per hakilo ni hakas, per segilo ni segas, per fosilo
ni fosas, per kudrilo ni kudras, per tondilo ni tondas, per sonorilo
ni sonoras, per fajfilo ni fajfas. (8) Plumo estas skribilo, kaj
inksorbilo estas mola papero, kiun oni uzas por sorbi aŭ sekigi la


(1) The knife was so blunt that I could not cut the meat with it, and
I had to use my pocket knife. (2) Have you a corkscrew to open
(unstop) the bottle? (3) I wanted to lock the door, but I had lost
the key. (4) She combs (to herself) her (the) hair with a silver
comb. (5) In summer we travel by various vehicles, and in winter we
travel by a sledge. (6) To-day is fine, frosty weather, therefore I
shall take my skates and go skating (to skate). (7) With a hatchet we
chop, with a saw we saw, with a spade we dig, with a needle we sew,
with scissors we clip, with a bell we ring, with a fife (whistle) we
fife (whistle). (8) A pen is a writing implement, and blotting paper
is soft paper which we use to absorb or dry the ink.


_Suffix -UM-_ (see par. 285).

(1) Malfermu la fenestron por aerumi la ĉambron. (2) Ĉiuj hundoj en
nia urbo devas porti buŝumojn. (3) Ĉu vi havas butonumilon por
butonumi miajn botojn ? (4) La lavistino lavis miajn kolumojn kaj
manumojn. (5) Li aĉetis nazumon. (6) Ŝi portadas ventumilon, per
kiu ŝi ventumadas sin. (7) Vi ne buŝumis (estas buŝuminta) vian
hundon. (8) Gustumu tiun ĉi viandon, kaj diru al mi, ĉu ĝi estas
bona aŭ ne. (9) La kalkanumoj de viaj botoj estas tro altaj.
(10) Oni lotumis al mi dek du akciojn en la nova kompanio.
(11) Mi ne povis plenumi miajn promesojn, ĉar mi havis tiom
da aliaj aferoj por decidi. (12) La laktumo de haringo estas


(1) Open the window to air the room. (2) All dogs in our town have to
wear muzzles. (3) Have you a button-hook to button my boots? (4) The
washerwoman washed my collars and cuffs. (5) He bought a pince-nez.
(6) She carries (about) a fan, with which she keeps fanning herself.
(7) You have not muzzled your dog. (8) Taste this meat, and tell me
whether it be good or not. (9) The heels of your boots are too high.
(10) They allotted me twelve shares in the new company. (11) I could
not fulfil my engagements, for I had so many other matters to settle.
(12) The soft roe of a herring is a tasty morsel (thing).


_Prefixes DE-, DIS-, FOR-_ (see par. 287).

(1) Malfeliĉo ofte kunigas la homojn, kaj feliĉo ofte disigas ilin.
(2) Mi disŝiris la leteron kaj disĵetis ĝiajn pecetojn en ĉiujn
angulojn de la ĉambro. (3) La prefiksoj DE-, DIS-, kaj FOR- ĉiuj
montras ian forigon aŭ disigon, ekzemple:--Kiam ni disbatis la muron
kaj disĵetis la fortikaĵeton, tiam la malamikoj deĵetis la
armilojn kaj forkuris. (4) La infano renversis la inkujon kaj
disverŝis la inkon sur mian naztukon. (5) Li estas forkurinto, tial
ke li ne revenis al sia regimento je la templimo de sia forpermeso.
(6) Li demetis la ĉapelon, kiam li eniris (en) la ĉambron. (7)
Kelkaj patrinoj debrustigas siajn infanetojn pli frue, ol aliaj. (8)
Li disŝutis la sablon sur la plankon. (9) La servistino senordigis
(dismetis) miajn librojn tiamaniere, ke mi ne povis trovi tiun, kiun
mi bezonis.


(1) Misfortune often unites men, and happiness often separates them.
(2) I tore up the letter and threw away its fragments into all
corners of the room. (3) The prefixes DE-, DIS-, and FOR- all denote
some sort of abstraction or separation, for example:--When we beat
down the wall and demolished the fort, then the enemy threw down
their (the) weapons and fled (ran away). (4) The child upset the
inkstand and spilled the ink over my handkerchief. (5) He is a
deserter (a runaway), for he did not return to his regiment at the
expiration of his leave of absence (permission to be away). (6) He
took off his (the) hat when he entered the room. (7) Some mothers
wean (take from the breast) their infants earlier than others. (8) He
scattered the sand on the floor. (9) The maidservant disarranged my
books, so that I could not find the one (that which) I wanted.


_Prefixes EK- and RE-_ (see pars. 288, 290).

(1) Li donis al mi monon, sed mi ĝin tuj redonis al li. (2) Mi
foriras, sed atendu min, ĉar mi baldaŭ revenos. (3) La suno
rebrilas en la klara akvo de la rivero. (4) Li venos al mi morgaŭ,
por ke mi redonu al li la librojn. (5) Ŝi ekridis, kaj poste
reekbruligis la kandelon. (6) Tuj kiam mi ekkantis, la infaneto
ekdormis, kaj redoninte ĝin al ĝia patrino, mi revenis domen. (7)
Mi ne povas akcepti vian afablan inviton, ĉar ia malsaneto min
retenas en mia ĉambro. (8) Spegulo reĵetas la radiojn de lumo, tuj
kiam ili ekfalas sur ĝin. (9) Mi eksaltis de surprizo, kiam la pilko
subite resaltis de la muro. (10) Kiam Johano reprenis la libron, kiun
mi redonis al li, li diris, ke ĝi estas malpura, sed mi respondis,
ke ĝi ne estis bonstata (tiam), kiam mi ĝin ricevis.


(1) He gave money to me, but I immediately gave it back to him. (2)
I am going away, but await me, for I shall soon return (come back).
(3) The sun is reflected in the clear water of the river. (4) He
will come to me to-morrow, in order that I may return him the books.
(5) She began to laugh, and then re-lighted the candle. (6) Directly
(immediately when) I began to sing the baby fell asleep, and having
returned it to its mother, I returned home. (7) I cannot accept your
kind invitation, because (an, some kind of) indisposition is keeping
me (is retaining me) to (in) my room. (8) A mirror throws back the
rays of light directly they begin to fall upon it. (9) I started
with surprise when the ball suddenly bounded back from the wall.
(10) When John took back the book which I returned to him, he said
that it was (is) dirty, but I replied that it was not in a good
state (then) when I received it.


_Prefixes MAL-, NE-, SEN-_ (see par. 289.)

(1) Mia frato ne estas granda, sed li ne estas ankaŭ malgranda; li
estas de meza kresko. (2) Li estas tiel dika, ke li ne povas trairi
tra nia mallarĝa pordo. (3) Haro estas tre maldika. (4) La nokto
estis tiel malluma, ke ni nenion povis vidi eĉ antaŭ nia nazo. (5)
Tiu ĉi malfreŝa pano estas malmola, kiel ŝtono. (6) Malbonaj
infanoj amas turmenti bestojn. (7) Li sentis sin tiel malfeliĉa, ke
li malbenis la tagon en kiu li estis naskita. (8) Mi forte malestimas
tiun ĉi malnoblan homon. (9) La fenestro longe estis nefermita; mi
ĝin fermis, sed mia frato tuj ĝin denove malfermis. (10) Rekta vojo
estas pli mallonga, ol kurba. (11) La tablo staras malrekte kaj
kredeble baldaŭ renversiĝos. (12) Li staras supre sur la monto kaj
rigardas malsupren sur la kampon. (13) Malamiko venis en nian landon.
(14) Oni tiel malhelpis al mi, ke mi malbonigis mian tutan laboron.
(15) Lia filo mortis kaj estas nun malviva. (16) La korpo estas
morta, la animo estas senmorta. (17) La fremdulo sidiĝis
neinvitite, kaj tuj ekparolis tute senceremonie. (18) Mi povis nur
neregule sendi mian filon en lernejon, tial la lernejestro ĉiam
plendadis pri lia neakurateco, neatento, kaj neordinara nekapableco.
(19) La vitro estas rompiĝema, kaj estas neeble ĝin fervoje sendi
senriske (aŭ, sen risko). (20) Tiu ĉi objekto estas senutila, sed
ĝi ne estas malutila. (21) Neniu estas senmakula. (22) Li estas tre
nemodesta, kaj lia tromemfido estas senlima, sed li ne estas


(1) My brother is not tall (large), but he is not either (also) short
(small); he is of medium growth. (2) He is so stout (thick) that he
cannot go through our narrow door. (3) A hair is very thin. (4) The
night was so dark that we could see nothing even before our nose. (5)
This stale bread is hard as a stone. (6) Bad children love to torment
animals. (7) He felt himself so unhappy that he cursed the day in
which he was born. (8) I strongly despise this vile (ignoble) person.
(9) The window had long been unclosed; I closed it, but my brother
immediately opened it again. (10) A direct way is shorter than a
curved one. (11) The table stands aslant, and probably (credibly)
will soon upset. (12) He stands above upon the mountain and looks
down below upon the field. (13) An enemy came into our country. (14)
They so hindered me that I spoiled my whole work. (15) His son died,
and is now dead. (16) The body is mortal (of death); the soul is
immortal (without death). (17) The stranger sat down uninvited, and
at once began to speak without ceremony. (18) I could only
irregularly send my son to (in) school, therefore the headmaster
(schoolmaster) was always complaining of (concerning) his
unpunctuality, inattention, and unusual incapacity. (19) Glass is
fragile, and it is impossible to send it by rail without risk. (20)
This article is useless, but it is not harmful. (21) No one is
immaculate. (22) He is very consequential, and his self-conceit is
unbounded, but he is not presumptuous.


The learner will find the following exercises useful in helping him
to avoid errors in the meaning of words which are nearly alike in


(1) Laŭ la _aĝo_ de la knabo, oni ne pensis, ke li estas kapabla je
tia _ago_. (2) _Anĝelo_ vidis _angilon_ naĝantan en sitelo apud la
_angulo_ de la ĉambro. (3) La _bariloj_ sur la stratoj estas faritaj
el _bareloj_ plenigitaj per sablo. (4) La _broĉo_ estas trovita en
_breĉo_ de la muro. (5) Oni devas demeti la _ĉapelon_, kiam oni
eniras _kapelon_. (6) La _ĉielo_ heliĝas, kaj la _celo_ de la
abeloj, kiam ili flirtadas de floro al floro, estas kolekti mielon
por enmeti en la _ĉelojn_ de la mieltavoloj. (7) Ni vespermanĝis
proksime de _dezerto_, sed ne staris _deserto_ sur la tablo. (8) Ĉu
vi _divenis_ de kie la malbonodoro _devenis_? (9) La _funto_ da teo
kuŝis sur la _fundo_ de la kesto, kiun oni trovis apud la _fonto_.
(10) La _faktoro_ diris, ke la _fakturo_ estas ĝusta laŭ ĉiu ero,
kaj tial ĝi povas esti nomata ne sole "_fakturo_," sed ankaŭ
"_faktaro_." (11) Ĉe la _festeno_ estis pendigita super la tablo
_festono_ el rozoj. (12) La _gaso_ ekbruligis pecon da _gazo_. (13)
La _generala_ rango estas pli _ĝenerala_ en Anglujo, ol en Rusujo.
(14) _Justa_ homo estas _ĝusta_ pri siaj aferoj, sed li ne estas,
necese, homo kun _gusto_. (15) _Hirundo_ glutas insektojn, sed
_hirudo_ suĉas sangon. (16) Je la naŭa _horo_, la _ĥoro_ ekkantis.
(17) La _kanabo_, kiun havas la _knabo_, apartenas al lia patro. (18)

Laŭ mia _juĝo_, tiu _jugo_ estas tro larĝa. (19) La _Templo_ de
Jupitro en Romo estas nomata "la _Kapitolo_." Kiam mia amiko ĝin
vidis, li decidis konstrui domegon laŭ simila desegno, kun
_kapitelo_ sur ĉiu _kolono_; sed li trovis, ke li ne havas sufiĉe
da _kapitalo_ por tia celo. Baldaŭ poste, li iris al la _kolonio_
Natalo, kie li sin mortigis per pafo tra la _tempio_. (20) "_Lekanto_"
estas la nomo de floro, sed la sama vorto, Esperante, ankaŭ
signifas personon, kiu lekas ion, t.e., "_lekanto_." (21) _La vango_
de la gvidisto estis difektita per la falo de la _lavango_. (22) "La
_kaso_ estas plena." En ĉi tiu frazo "_kaso_" estas la subjekto de
la verbo, tial ĝi estas en la _kazo_ nominativa. (23) Li donis al
sia amiko sian _loĝion_ en la teatro, kaj tiel lin _logis_, ke li
aĉetu la domon, en kiu ili ambaŭ _loĝis_.


(1) From the boy's _age_, they did not think him capable of such an
_act_. (2) An _angel_ saw an _eel_ swimming in a bucket near the
_corner_ of the room. (3) The _barriers_ in the streets are made of
_barrels_ filled with sand. (4) The _brooch_ has been found in a
_breach_ of the wall. (5) One must take off one's _hat_ when one
enters a _chapel_. (6) The _sky_ is getting clear, and the _purpose_
of the bees, as they flit from flower to flower, is to collect honey
to deposit in the _cells_ of the honeycombs. (7) We dined near a
_desert_, but there was no _dessert_ on the table. (8) Did you
_guess_ from whence the bad smell _emanated_? (9) The _pound_ of tea
lay at the _bottom_ of the box, which they found near the _spring_.
(10) The _factor_ said the _invoice_ was correct in every item, and,
therefore, it might be called not only an _invoice_, but also a
_collection of facts_. (11) At the _banquet_ a _festoon_ of roses was
suspended over the table. (12) The _gas_ ignited a piece of _gauze_.
(13) The rank of _general_ is more _prevalent_ in England than in
Russia. (14) An _upright_ (just) man is _exact_ in his business, but
he is not necessarily a man _of taste_. (15) A _swallow_ swallows
insects, but a _leech_ sucks blood. (16) At 9 _o'clock_ the _choir_
began to sing. (17) The _hemp_ which the _boy_ has, belongs to his
father. (18) In my _judgment_, that _yoke_ is too wide. (19) The
_Temple_ of Jupiter at Rome is called the "_Capitol_." When my
friend saw it, he decided to build a mansion of a similar design,
with a _capital_ on each _column_; but he found he had not sufficient
_capital_ for such a purpose. Soon afterwards he went to the _Colony_
of Natal, where he committed suicide by a shot through his _temple_.
(20) "Marguerite" is the name of a flower, but the same word, in
Esperanto, also means a person who is licking something, i.e., a
"_licker_." (21) The guide's _cheek_ had been injured by the fall of
the _avalanche_. (22) "The _money-box_ is full." In this sentence
"_moneybox_" is the subject of the verb, therefore, it is in the
nominative _case_. (23) He gave his friend his _box_ at the theatre,
and thus _induced_ him to buy the house in which they both _lived_.


(1) La _maĉo_ estas sama, ĉu la nutraĵo estas pano ordinara aŭ
_maco_. (2) La _marŝado_ de la soldatoj estis tra danĝera _marĉo_.
(3) Dum La _Meso_ estis solenata, la virino staris en la _mezo_ de
_amaso_ da adorantoj; ŝia _maso_ da haroj estis subtenata per reto,
kies _maŝo_ estis rompita en diversaj lokoj. (4) La _mastro_ de la
domo estas _magistro_ de artoj, kaj ankaŭ _majstro_ en sia profesio.
(5) Lia _morto_ okazis pro _mordo_ de hundo. (6) La _monarĥo_
paroladis kun _monaĥo_, kiam mi lin vidis. (7) Venena serpenteto lin
_mordis_, kaj preskaŭ tuj li _mortis_. (8) _Muso_ kaj _muŝo_ estis
en la ĉambro de la poeto, kaj tuj kiam li ilin vidis, poeta
_inspiro_, aŭ _muzo_, lin ekkaptis; li spiris rapide, kaj, post
profunda _enspiro_, la _muso_ kaj _muŝo_ rememorigis al li la naŭ
filinojn de Zeŭso, kaj, tie kaj tiam, li ekverkis sian gloran
poemon, "La Batalo de la _Muzoj_." (9) "_Mosto_" estas vino
nefermentita, kiun tre ŝatis lia grafa _moŝto_. (10) La homo
ludanta la _orgenon_ ne sciis, ke ĝi estas malagorda, pro tio, ke li
jam antaŭe perdis la _organon_ de aŭdado. (11) La generalo, kiu
eldonis la _ordonon_, portis la dekoracion de la _ordeno_ "la Stelo
de Hindujo." (12) _Pastelo_ estas bombono en formo de disko, sed
_paŝtelo_ estas krajono el kolora kreto. (13) Estis _paco_ en la
domo, tuj kiam la _peco_ da ligno estis kovrita per _peĉo_. (14) La
dekstra _pedalo_ de la fortepiano, kiu apartenis al la _pedelo_,
estas rompita. (15) La kesto _pezis_ pli, ol la negocisto supozis,
ĉar kiam ĝi estis metita sur la _pesilo_, kaj lia servisto ĝin
_pesis_, oni trovis, ke _pezilo_ kvindek-ses-funta ne estas sufiĉe
_peza_ por ĝin _pesi_. (16) Li _paŝis_ antaŭen, kaj _pasis_ tra la
pordo. (17) Tuj kiam la _piŝto_ moviĝis, la lokomotivo ekiris, kaj
ĝiaj radoj _pistis_ ŝtonon kuŝantan sur la _relo_; birdo nomata
"_ralo_" ektremis je la bruo, kaj flugis trans la fervojon. (18) Li
desegnis ŝipon sur la _posto_ de poŝtkarto, kiun li sendis al
Parizo per la _poŝto_. (19) Li _penis_ disrompi la ŝnuron per la
mano, sed malsukcesis; poste li _provis_ ĝin, kaj _pruvis_, ke ĝi
povas subteni pezilon kvarcent-funtan. (20) La _pulvo_ estas
_pulvoro_ uzata por pafiloj, sed ĝiaj grajnoj ne estas tiel
delikataj, kiel tiuj de _polvo_; alivorte, _pulvero_ estas pli
maldelikata (_or_, malpli delikata) ol _polvero_. (21) La _pruno_
ĝermiĝas el la florburĝono de la prunarbo, sed la burĝonoj estas
kelkfoje detruitaj de la _prujno_. (22) Lia vesto estis subŝtofita
per _pelto_, kaj estis tiel varma, ke _palto_ ne estis necesa.


(1) The _act of mastication_ is the same, whether the food is
ordinary bread or _unleavened bread_. (2) The _march_ of the soldiers
was through a dangerous _swamp_. (3) Whilst _Mass_ was being
celebrated, the woman stood in the _midst_ of a _crowd_ of
worshippers; her _mass_ of hair was supported by a net, the _mesh_ of
which had been broken in various places. (4) The _master_ of the
house is a _master_ of arts, and also a _master_ in his profession.
(5) His _death_ occurred through a _bite_ from a dog. (6) The
_monarch_ was conversing with a _monk_ when I saw him. (7) A venomous
snake _bit_ him, and he _died_ almost immediately. (8) A _mouse_ and
a _fly_ were in the poet's room, and as soon as he saw them, a
poetic _inspiration_, or _muse_, seized him; he breathed quickly,
and, after a deep _inspiration_, the _mouse_ and the _fly_ reminded
him of the nine daughters of Zeus; and, there and then, he began to
write his glorious poem, "The Battle of the _Muses_." (9) "_Must_" is
unfermented wine, which His _Excellency_ the Count much appreciated.
(10) The man playing the _organ_ did not know it was out of tune, for
he had lost the _organ_ of hearing. (11) The general, who issued the
_order_, wore the _order_ of the Star of India. (12) A _pastille_
(lozenge) is a disc-shaped sweetmeat, but a _pastel_ (crayon) is a
pencil made of coloured chalk. (13) There was _peace_ in the house as
soon as the _piece_ of wood had been covered with _pitch_. (14) The
right _pedal_ of the piano, which belonged to the _beadle_, is
broken. (15) The box _weighed_ more than the merchant supposed, for
when it was placed on the _scales_, and his servant _weighed_ it, it
was found that a 56 lb. _weight_ was not sufficiently _weighty_ to
_weigh_ it. (16) He _stepped_ forward and _passed_ through the door.
(17) As soon as the _piston_ began to move, the locomotive started,
and its wheels _crushed_ a stone lying on the _rail_; a bird called a
"_rail_" was startled at the noise, and flew over the railway. (18)
He drew a ship on the _back_ of a postcard, which he sent by _post_
to Paris. (19) He _tried_ to break the cord with his hand, but
failed; then he _tested_ it, and _proved_ that it could sustain a
weight of 400 lbs. (20) _Gunpowder_ is a _powder_ used for guns, but
its grains are not so fine as those of _dust_; in other words, a
_grain of gunpowder_ is coarser than a grain of _dust_. (21) The
_plum_ is formed from the blossom of the plum-tree, but the buds are
sometimes destroyed by _hoar frost_. (22) His coat was lined with
_fur_, and was so warm that a _greatcoat_ was not necessary.


(1) Ŝi staris sur la _ponto_, kaj la _punto_ de ŝia robo flirtis en
la vento. (2) La _puso_ elfluis el la karbunkolo kiam la kuracisto
ĝin tranĉis, sed la malsanulo je la _puŝo_ de la momento, ne povis
ne ekkrii. (3) Li prenis la remilon el la boato, kaj _remetis_ trans
la riveron; atinginte la kontraŭan bordon, li _remetis_ la remilon
(_or_, metis la remilon reen) en la boaton kaj iris hejmen. (4) La
matena _roso_ estis ankoraŭ sur la _rozo_, kiam la _ruso_, per lerta
_ruzo_, venkis la malamikon. (5) Laŭ mia opinio (_or_, miaopinie) la
_reno_ de ŝafo estas pli bongusta, ol la _rano_, kiun oni manĝas en
Francujo. (6) La _rato_ estis kaptita per _reto_. (7) Homo, kiu
_reĝas_, estas reĝo, kaj la popolo, kiun li _regas_, estas liaj
regatoj (_or_, personoj regataj). La reganto de kolonio _regas_
la kolonion, sed li ne _reĝas_. (8) Kiam mi vidis la _Romanon_, li
legis _romanon_, kaj lia edzino kantis _romancon_. (9) La _rabo_
de la _rubeno_, kiu estis tiel granda kiel nigra _ribo_,
okazis apud la loko, kie estis metita la _rubo_. (10) Li ekdormis kaj
_sonĝis_, sed vekiĝinte, li _revis_ pri sia _sonĝo_; tiam subite
li ekkriis: "Ĉu mi vere dormis, aŭ ĉu ĝi estis nur _revo_?" (11)
Se ni aĉetus _sagon_ sen pafarko, ni ne montrus nian _saĝon_, ĉar
la unua sen la dua estus senutila. (12) La homo _ŝarĝis_ la
ŝarĝveturilon per _sakoj_ da greno, poste li _ŝargis_ sian
pafilon, saltis sur la _sakojn_, kaj ludis _ŝakon_ kun sia amiko.
(13) Kiam ni finis la _sarkadon_ de la ĝardeno, ni promenadis apud
(_or_, sur) la marbordo kaj vidis _ŝarkon_. (14) Li _malŝatis_ tian
nutraĵon kaj ne povis ĝin manĝi, kvankam li tre _malsatis_; tial
li mendis kokidon rostitan, kiun li tre _ŝatis_, kaj li baldaŭ
_satiĝis_. (15) Peco da _ŝelo_ en la subŝtofo de la _selo_
brulumigis la dorson de la ĉevalo. (16) Kompreneble vi _ŝercas_
dirante, ke vi _serĉas_ kudrilon en garbo da fojno! (17) Baro el
_ŝtalo_ estas trovita en la _stalo_ de la ĉevalejo. (18) La
_Ŝtato_ ne estis bone regata, kaj la popolo estis (_or_, troviĝis)
en ribela _stato_. (19) La _stipo_ estas arbeto, sed mallonga dika
peco da ligno estas nomata _ŝtipo_. (20) "_Stofo_" estas la nomo de
rusa mezurilo, sed, se ni volas skribi pri la _ŝtofo_ el kiu oni
faras veston aŭ robon, ni metas signon super la unuan literon, kaj
tiu signo aliigas la prononcon. (21) Peco da _stupo_ kuŝis sur la
malsupra _ŝtupo_ de la ŝtuparo. (22) Estis _tablo_ en la mezo de la
ĉambro, kaj sur ĝi estis _telero_, sur kiu kuŝis _talero_ kune kun
aliaj moneroj; _tabulo_ pendis sur la muro, sur kiu estis gluita
_tabelo_ de luveturilkostoj. (23) La _turdo_ estas pli malgranda
birdo, ol la _turto_. (24) Li _tusis_, kiam oni _tuŝis_ lian
traĥeon. (25) Li surmetis la _veŝton_ kaj poste la _veston_.


(1) She stood on the _bridge_, and the _lace_ of her gown fluttered
in the wind. (2) The _matter_ flowed from the carbuncle when the
doctor cut it, but the patient, on the _impulse_ of the moment, could
not help crying out. (3) He took the oar out of the boat and
_paddled_ (rowed leisurely) across the river; after reaching the
opposite bank, he _put back_ the oar into the boat and went home. (4)
The morning _dew_ was still on the _rose_, when the _Russian_, by a
clever _stratagem_, overpowered the enemy. (5) In my opinion, the
_kidney_ of a sheep is more tasty than the _frog_, which is eaten in
France. (6) The _rat_ was caught with a _net_. (7) The man who
_reigns_ is a King, and the people he _governs_ are his subjects (or
persons being governed). The Governor of a Colony _governs_ the
Colony, but does not _reign_. (8) When I saw the _Roman_, he was
reading a _romance_, and his wife was singing a _romance_ (song). (9)
The _robbery_ of the _ruby_, which was as big as a black _currant_,
occurred near the spot where the _rubbish_ had been put. (10) He fell
asleep and _dreamed_, but, after awakening, he _mused_ over his
_dream_; then suddenly he cried out, "Was I really asleep, or was it
only a _waking dream_?" (11) If we bought an _arrow_ without a bow,
we should not show our _wisdom_, for the one without the other would
be useless. (12) The man _loaded_ the wagon with _sacks_ of corn,
then he _loaded_ his gun, jumped on to the _sacks_, and played
_chess_ with his friend. (13) When we finished the _weeding_ of the
garden, we walked near the seashore and saw a _shark_. (14) He
_disliked_ the (that kind of) food and could not eat it, although he
_was_ very _hungry_; so he ordered a roast chicken, which he much
_appreciated_, and he _was_ soon _satiated_. (15) A piece of _bark_
in the lining of the _saddle_ caused an inflammation on the horse's
back. (16) Of course you _are joking_ when you say you are _looking
for_ a needle in a truss of hay. (17) A _steel_ bar has been found in
the _stall_ of the stable. (18) The _State_ (one of a confederation,
regno = _the State_) was not well governed, and the people were in a
rebellious _state_. (19) _Broom_ is a shrub, but a short thick piece
of wood is called a _block of wood_. (20) "_Stofo_" is the name of a
Russian measure, but if we wish to write about the _material_ (or,
_stuff_) of which a coat or gown is made, we put an accent over the
first letter, which alters the pronunciation. (21) A piece of _tow_
was lying on the bottom _step_ of the staircase. (22) There was a
_table_ in the middle of the room, and on it was a _plate_ in which
was a _thaler_, together with other coins; a _board_ hung on the
wall, on which was pasted a _table_ of fares for hired carriages
(hackney coach fares). (23) The _thrush_ is a smaller bird than the
_dove_. (24) He _coughed_ when they _touched_ his windpipe. (25) He
put on his _waistcoat_ and afterwards his _coat_.


The following are Exercises in similar words in English. The words to
be noted are in italics:--


(1) _Ĉesinte_ vetludi, li vizitis sian advokaton kaj _lasis_ siajn
aferojn en liajn manojn, sed, antaŭ ol _eliri_ la ĉambron, li faris
sian testamenton kaj _testamentis_ sian tutan havon al sia frato. (2)
Li petis _permeson_ doni al sia hundo la _restaĵon_ de la
vespermanĝo. (3) La generalo donis al li dumonatan _forpermeson_
(aŭ, _forpermesis_ al li du monatojn). (4) Li _lasis_ sian edzinon
plorantan, kiam li _eliris el_ la domo, sed _elirinte_ ĝin, li
renkontis sian fraton, kiu akompanis lin al la ŝipo, kaj tie lin
_lasis_. La sekvantan tagon li _forlasis_ la landon por ĉiam. (5)
_Eliru_ la ĉambron, vi malĝentilulo! (6) _Lasu_ la ĉambron, kiel
ĝi estas, ĉar mi ne intencas ĝin aliigi.

To turn.

(7) Kiam mi eniris en la _lornejon_, la _tornisto tornis_ la kruron
de tablo el peco da ligno, kiu _turniĝis_ rapide ĉirkaŭ sia akso.
Aŭdante miajn piedpaŝojn, li _turnis sin_, sed daŭrigis la
_tornadon_. Kiam la kruro _torniĝis_, montriĝis, ke ĝi estas tro



(1) _After leaving off_ gambling, he went to his solicitor's, and
_left_ his affairs in his hands, but, before _leaving_ the room, he
made his will, and _left_ all his property to his brother. (2) He
asked _leave_ to give the _leavings_ of the dinner to his dog. (3)
The general gave him two months' _leave of absence_. (4) He _left_
his wife in tears when he _left_ the house, but _after leaving_ it he
met his brother, who accompanied him to the ship, and there _left_
him. The following day he _left_ the country for ever. (5) _Leave_
the room, you impertinent fellow. (6) _Leave_ the room as it is, for
I do not intend to alter it.

To turn.

(7) When I entered the _turnery_, the _turner_ was _turning_ the leg
of a table out of a piece of wood, which was _turning_ rapidly on its
axis. On hearing my footsteps, he _turned round_, but continued his
_turning_. When the leg was _turned_, it _turned out_ to be too


Do, Did (par. 237 (_j_)).

(1) Kiel vi _fartas_? Tre bone, mi dankas vin. (2) _Ĉu vi faris_,
kion mi diris al vi? Jes, mi _faris_. Ne, mi ne (_faris_). (3) Ĉu vi
_mortigis_ tiun teruran hundon? Jes, certe, ĉar mi diris al mia
edzino: "Kion ni povas _fari pri_ tia malbelega besto?" kaj ŝi
respondis: "_Forigu_ ĝin." (4) _Kunligu_ tiujn dek paketojn, kaj
ankaŭ _ordigu_ la ĉambrojn, kaj poste, se vi ne estos tro _laca_,
ni _esploros la vidindaĵojn_ de la urbo. (5) _Ja_ venu (aŭ, _mi
petegas_, _ke_ vi venu), ĉar mi _vere_ tre deziras vin vidi. (6)
Estas malagrable _havi interrilatojn kun_ personoj, kiuj penas nin
_trompi_. (7) Tio _sufiĉos_ por mi, sed por vi ĝi ne _decos_. (8)
Hamleto estas _Esperantigita_ (aŭ, _tradukiĝis Esperanten_, aŭ,
_en Esperanton_) de Doktoro Zamenhof. (9) Mi parolis kun mia patro,
sed li _tute ne volis enmiksiĝi_ en la afero. (10) Li _progresadis_
en la lernejo, sed li ne _sukcesis_ negoce. (11) _Riparu_ por mi ĉi
tiun poŝhorloĝon, se ĝi valoras la koston tion _fari_.


Do, Did.

(1) How _do_ you _do_? Very well, thank you. (2) _Did_ you _do_ what
I told you? Yes, I _did_. No, I _did_ not. (3) Did you _do away with_
that awful dog? Yes, I _did_, for I said to my wife: "What can we _do
with_ such a hideous brute?" and she replied: "_Do away with_ it."
(4) _Do up_ those ten parcels, and also _do up_ the rooms, and
afterwards, if you are not too _done up_, we _will do_ the city. (5)
_Do_ come! for I _do_ want to see you! (6) It is unpleasant to _have
to do with_ persons who try to _do_ us. (7) That _will do well
enough_ for me, but it will not _do_ for you. (8) Hamlet has been
_done into Esperanto_ by Doctor Zamenhof. (9) I spoke to my father,
but he _would have nothing at all to do with_ the matter. (10) He
_did well_ at school, but he _did not do well_ in business. (11) _Do
up_ this watch for me, if it be worth the expense of _doing_ so.


To get (par. 237 (_k_)).

(1) Mi _leviĝis_ je la sesa, kaj tuj kiam mi _vestis min_, mi
ordonis mian serviston, ke li _alkonduku_ al mi mian ĉevalon. Kiam
alvenis la ĉevalo, mi _suriris_ _ĝin_, kaj rajdis al la domo de mia
kuzo, kiu _pretiĝis_ por la vulpoĉasado. Ni _matenmanĝis, pretigis_
la ĉevalojn kaj forrajdis. Sur la vojo, mia ĉevalo _ricevis_
al si ŝtonon en la hufon, tial mi _deiris_, kaj ĝin _elprenis_.
Ĉar la vojetoj estis tre kotaj, la ĉevaloj _ŝpruciĝis_ per koto,
ni ankaŭ tre _malpuriĝis_, sed la ĉasistoj _kutimiĝas_ je tio.
Ni baldaŭ _alvenis_ al la kunvenejo, kaj ĝuis bonan kuradon kun
la ĉashundoj. (2) La knabino _portis_ grizan robon, kaj, kiam mi
demandis ŝin de kiu ŝi ĝin _ricevis_, ŝi diris al mi, ke ŝi penis
ĝin _akiri_ ĉe sia kudristino, sed la kudristino diris, ke ŝi ne
_havas_ robon kun tiu koloro en la tenejo, sed, ke ŝi _farigos_
al ŝi tian (robon). La knabino ankaŭ diris, ke ŝi ne mendis la
robon, kaj tre bone _faris_ sen ĝi, ĝis fine ŝi _decidigis_ sian
patrinon _havigi_ al ŝi tiun, kiun ŝi nun _portadas_. (3) Kiam vi
_venkos_ la malfacilaĵon parkere _lerni_ tiun ĉi lecionon, ne penu
_liberigi vin de_ viaj aliaj lecionoj, ĉar vi ne povos min _trompi_,
pretekstante, ke vi _jam elfaris_ vian tutan taskon.


To get.

(1) I _got up_ at six, and as soon as I _got dressed_, I ordered my
servant to _get_ me my horse. When the horse came, I _got on to it_,
and rode to my cousin's, who _was getting ready_ for the fox hunt. We
_got breakfast_, _got_ the horses _ready_, and rode off. On the way
my horse _got_ a stone in its foot, so I _got off_ and _got it out_.
As the lanes were very muddy, the horses _got splashed_ with mud, we
also _got very dirty_, but huntsmen _get accustomed_ to that. We soon
_got to_ the rendezvous and enjoyed a good run with the hounds. (2)
The girl had _got on_ a grey dress, and when I asked her from whom
she _got_ it, she told me that she had tried to _get_ it at her
dressmaker's, but the dressmaker said she had not _got_ a dress of
that colour in stock, but would _get_ such (a dress) _made_ for her.
The girl also said that she did not give an order for the dress, and
_got on_ very well without it, till at last she _got_ her mother to
_get for_ her the one she had now _got on_. (3) When you have _got
over_ the difficulty of _getting_ this lesson by heart, do not try to
_get off_ your other lessons, for you cannot _get round_ me by
pretending that you _have got through_ all your work.


To appear, know, have.

(1) Kiam li unue _aperis_ en la ĉambro, _ŝajnis_ al mi, ke li estas
malprudentulo, sed poste li _ŝajne_ montris tiom da spriteco, ke mi
ekvidis, ke mi trompiĝas. (2) Se la lernanto _scius_ bone sian
lecionon, la instruanto lin ne punus. (3) "Kristano," li diris al mi,
"vi ne _konas_ la historion de naskiĝo de tiu ĉi folio?"
"Mahometano, mi ne _konas_," mi respondis. (Krestomatio, paĝo 31a).
(4) Mi _sciis_, ke vi havas hundon, sed mi ne _konis_ la hundon, kiam
mi ĝin vidis. (5) Kiam mia amiko petis, ke mi vizitu lin, li ne
_sciis_, ke mi ne _konas_ lian domon; tamen mi _konis_ la straton kie
li loĝas, kaj mi ankaŭ _konis_ lian hundon, tial, tuj kiam mi
_rekonis_ ĝin kuŝantan apud la pordo de domo, mi _eksciis_, ke tiu
domo apartenas al mia amiko. (6) Mi _havas_ libron, kiun mi _devas_
redoni al la biblioteko tuj kiam mi estos traleg_inta_ ĝin.


To appear, know, have.

(1) When he first _appeared_ in the room, it _appeared_ to me that he
was (is) a fool, but afterwards he _appeared_ to show so much wit
that I perceived I was (am) mistaken. (2) If the pupil _knew_ his
lesson well, the teacher would not punish him. (3) "Christian," he
said to me, "you do not _know_ the story of the birth of this leaf?"
"Mahometan, I do not _know_," I answered. (4) I _knew_ that you had a
dog, but I did not _know_ the dog when I saw it. (5) When my friend
asked me to call upon him, he did not _know_ that I did (do) not
_know_ his house; however, I _knew_ the street where he lived
(lives), and I also _knew_ his dog, therefore, as soon as I
_recognized_ it lying close to the door of a house, I _knew_ that
that house belonged to my friend. (6) I _have_ a book which I _have_
(must) to return to the library as soon as I (shall) _have_ read it
through (lit., as soon as I shall be _having_ read it through).


To bring, let, give, effect, affect.

(1) _Alportu_ al mi mian ĉapelon kaj poste diru al Johano ke li
_alkonduku_ mian ĉevalon. (2) La troproduktado _malaltigas_ la
prezon de la komercaĵoj. (3) Kiam oni _sciigis_ la edzon, ke lia
edzino _naskis_ filon, li _elprenis_ el sia kelo sian plej bonan
vinon, por trinki al la bonfarto (aŭ, tosti la sanon) de sia
unuenaskito. La patrino _edukis_ sian filon dum lia infaneco, kaj
poste la patro _instruigis_ lin en unu el la plej bonaj lernejoj en
la lando. (4) Kiam la policano _liberigis_ la viron, ties frato
_lasis_ lin en sian domon, kaj _mallevis_ la rulkurtenojn. (5) Li
_perdis_ la sanon, tial li devis _ĉesigi_ multajn el siaj
bonfaraĵoj, sed li ankoraŭ _disdonas_ multe da mono al la
malriĉuloj. (6) Oni _sciigis_ lin, ke li devos _atesti_, ĉu la
virino _naskis_ filon aŭ filinon. (7) La _efiko_ de ĉi tiu
elpensaĵo, laŭ mia opinio (_or_, miaopinie), faros _efekton_ ne
ĝenerale supozitan, ĉar ĝi _faros_ radikalan ŝanĝon en multaj el
niaj industrioj, kvankam kiam ili estos _tuŝataj_ (or, _influataj_)
de ĝi, mi ne povas diri; kaj _efektive_ estus _afekteco_ miaparte
provi certigi, kiam ĉi tiu _efekto efektiviĝos_.


To bring, let, give, effect, affect.

(1) _Bring_ me my hat, and then tell John to _bring_ my horse. (2)
Overproduction _brings down_ the price of goods. (3) When they
_brought news_ to the husband that his wife had _brought forth_ a
son, he _brought forth_ the best wine in his cellar to drink to the
well-being (or, toast the health) of his first-born. The mother
_brought up_ her son during his childhood, and afterwards the father
_had him brought up_ in one of the best schools in the country. (4)
When the policeman _let_ the man _go_, the brother of the latter
_let_ him into his house, and _let down_ the blinds. (5) His health
_gave way_, so that he had to _give up_ many of his good works, but
he still _gives away_ much money to the poor. (6) They _gave him
notice_ that he would have to _give evidence_ whether the woman had
_given birth_ to a son or a daughter. (7) The _effect_ of this
invention, in my opinion, will produce an _effect_ not generally
supposed, for it will _effect_ a radical change in many of our
industries, although when they will be _affected_ by it I cannot say,
and it would _in fact_ be _affectation_ on my part to attempt to
assert when this _effect will be effected_ (realized).


Can, could, may, might, must, ought, should, would (par. 237 (_l_--_p_)).

(1) _Eble_ li venos, kaj eble ne. (2) _Ĉu vi permesos, ke_ mi venu
morgaŭ? Jes, mi permesos (aŭ, jes, certe). (3) Ĉu vi _povos_ veni
morgaŭ? Jes, mi _povos_. (4) Ĉu mi _devos_ veni morgaŭ? Ne, vi _ne
devos_. (5) Ĉu mi _devus_ vidi (aŭ, _estas necese, ke_ mi vidu) la
kuraciston? Jes, vi _devus_ (aŭ, jes, tre necese); vi _devus_ vidi
lin jam hieraŭ. Mi ne _povas_ lin vidi hodiaŭ, ĉar mi ne havas la
tempon; mi _devas_ iri al la banko, mia oficejo, kaj aliaj lokoj. (6)
Vi _devus_ vidi la kastelon. Mi _amus_ ĝin vidi, sed _estus necese
ke_, mi iru sola, kaj oni _povus_ ŝteli al mi sur la vojo. (7) Li
_devis_ atenti sian laboron, ĉar alie li _estus_ malboniginta ĝin.
(8) Li _devus_ atenti sian laboron pli, ol li faris, kaj tiuokaze li
ne _estus_ difektinta ĝin. (9) Ĉu vi _volus_, ke mi forlasu miajn
amikojn? Kompreneble ne. (10) Li _insistas_ veni; mi _ne povas_
malhelpi lin (al li). Li _venos_, se vi ne malhelpos lin. (11) Li
_insistis_ veni, kvankam mi faris ĉion, kion mi _povis_, por
malhelpi lin. Li _venus_, se vi _invitus_ lin. (12) Li _ne volis_ (li
_rifuzis_) konfesi, ke li nenion vidas. Li _ne konfesus_, ke li
nenion vidis, se li efektive _estus vidinta_ ion. (13) Mi skribas al
li, ke li venu. Mi skribis al li, ke li venu. (14) Mi skribas
(skribis) al li, _por ke li venu_.


Can, could, etc.

(1) He _may_ come, and he _may_ not. (2) _May_ I (will you allow me
to) come to-morrow? Yes, you _may_ (or, yes, certainly). (3) _Can_
you come to-morrow? Yes, I _can_. (4) _Must_ I (shall I _have_ to)
come to-morrow? No, you _need_ not. (5) _Ought_ I to see (or, is it
necessary for me to see) the doctor? Yes, you _ought_ (or, yes, very
necessary); you _ought_ to have seen him yesterday. I _cannot_ see
him to-day, for I have no time; I _have_ to go to the bank, my
office, and other places. (6) You _ought_ to see the castle. I
_should love_ to see it, but I _should have_ (it would be necessary)
to go alone, and I _might_ be robbed on the way. (7) He _had_ to pay
attention to his work, for, otherwise, he _would have_ spoilt it. (8)
He _ought_ to have paid more attention to his work than he did, and
then he _would_ not _have_ spoilt it. (9) _Would_ you _have_ me
desert my friends? Of course (I would) not. (10) He _will_ come; I
_cannot_ stop him. He _will_ come if you _do_ (will) not stop him.
(11) He _would_ come, notwithstanding I did all I _could_ to stop
him. He _would_ come if you invited (would invite) him. (12) He
_would_ not confess that he saw (sees) nothing. He _would_ not have
confessed that he saw nothing, if he really _had_ seen something.
(13) I am writing to him to come. I wrote to him to come. (14) I am
writing (I wrote) to him in order that he _may_ (_might_) come.


Adverbial and Conjunctional Phrases.

(1) Ne faru tion _miakaŭze_ (or, _pro mi_). (2) Ĉiu knabo _siavice_
legu verson. (3) _Nenial_ li ĉesis kanti. (4) _Ial_ li forlasis sian
celon. (5) _Unufoje por ĉiam_ mi diras al vi _denove_, ke mi ne
permesos ĝin. (6) Mi _tute ne_ scias (tion), kion vi volas diri, _se
ne_ (estas), ke vi bezonas monon. (7) Li turnis la librojn _supre
malsupren_, kaj siajn poŝojn _el interne_, sed li ne povis trovi la
leteron. (8) _Malgraŭ ĉio_ (or, _ĉiuokaze_) estas al mi _tute
egale_, ĉu vi ĝin faros aŭ ne. (9) _Ĉiuspecaj personoj_ ĉeestos
la kunvenon, _kiel ekzemple_ nobeloj, negocistoj, komercistoj,
butikistoj, _kaj tiel plu_ (_k.t.p._), sed, _kio ajn okazos_
(aŭ, _ĉiuokaze_), mi tien iros, _pro tio_, _ke_ (aŭ, _ĉar_) ĝi
fariĝas nur _unu fojon ĉiujare_. (10) Li penis fari _sian eblon_,
sed estis _tute senefike_. (11) _Miasurprize_, li diris al mi, ke li
ne faris ĝin _intence_. (12) Nu, oni trovis, _ke tiel_ (Hamleto V,
1). (13) Mi vizitis lin _antaŭ ne longe_. (14) Mi ŝin ne vidis _en
la lasta tempo_, sed mi esperas, ke ŝi vizitos min _pli poste_
(_post kelka tempo_).


_Adverbial and Conjunctional Phrases._

(1) Do not do that _on my account_. (2) Let each boy _in his turn_
read a verse. (3) _For no reason_ he left off singing. (4) _For some
reason_ he abandoned his purpose. (5) _Once for all_, I tell you
again that I will not permit it. (6) I do _not_ know _in the least_
(or, _at all_) what you mean, _unless_ it be that you want money. (7)
He turned the books _upside down_ and his pockets _inside out_, but
he could not find the letter. (8) _After all_, it is _all the same_
to me whether you do it or not. (9) _All sorts of_ people will be at
the meeting, _as, for example_, noblemen, merchants, traders,
shopkeepers, _and so forth_ (_etc._), but _at all events_ I shall go
there, _for_ it takes place only _once a year_. (10) He tried to do
_his best_, but it was _all to no purpose_. (11) _To my surprise_, he
told me that he did not do it _on purpose_. (12) Well, it was _so_
found. (13) I called upon him _lately_ (_not long ago_). (14) I have
not seen her _of late_, but I hope she will call upon me _later on_.


La edzeco (par. 276).

Georgo fianĉiĝis kun ĉarma knabino, kaj estas edziĝonta kun ŝi
ĵaŭde, kaj lia fratino estas edziniĝonta samtage. La fianĉino de
Georgo parolis hieraŭ kun la paroĥestro pri sia edziniĝo, kaj li
diris, ke li edzigis ŝiajn gepatrojn antaŭ dudek jaroj, kaj ke
nenio faros al li pli grandan plezuron, ol edzinigi ŝin. Li
proponis, ke la edziĝo okazu en la paroĥa preĝejo, kaj ŝi
respondis, ke ŝi estas certa, ke ŝia fianĉo raviĝos edziĝi kun
ŝi en la sama preĝejo, kie ŝiaj gepatroj edziĝis, kaj ke ankaŭ
la fratino de Georgo konsentos edziniĝi tie.

La edziĝa tago alvenis, kaj la preĝejo pleniĝis de ĉiuj
edzigeblaj personoj el la vilaĝo, fraŭlinoj kaj fraŭloj; ankaŭ
ĉeestis la pastredzino, kiu estas forta subtenantino de la edzeco.

Kiam la du edziniĝontoj alvenis, la du edziĝontoj atendis ilin en
la preĝejo, kaj baldaŭ la soleno komenciĝis. La du geedziĝontoj
staris flankon ĉe flanko en la ĥorejo kontraŭ la altaro. Dum la
soleno la pastro metis al ĉiu edziĝonto la jenan demandon: "Ĉu vi
volas preni ĉi tiun virinon kiel vian edzinigiton?" kaj poste, al
ĉiu edziniĝonto: "Ĉu vi volas preni ĉi tiun viron kiel vian
edzigiton?" Poste, ĉiu edziĝanto metis ringon sur la kvaran fingron
de sia edziniĝanto, samtempe dirante: "Per tiu ĉi ringo mi vin

Tuj kiam la edziĝa soleno finiĝis, la novedzoj kaj novedzinoj iris
al la domo de la patro de Georgo, kie fariĝis la edziĝa festo.

Je kelke da jaroj (kelkajn jarojn) poste, Georgo eksedziĝis; kaj
jaron pli poste, mi vidis en la ĵurnaloj, ke lia fratino eksedzigis
sian edzon.



George became engaged to a charming girl, and is to be married to her
on Thursday, and his sister is to be married on the same day.
George's fiancée spoke about her marriage to the vicar of the parish
yesterday, and he said he had married her parents twenty years ago,
and that nothing would give him greater pleasure than to marry her.
He proposed that the marriage should take place in the parish church,
and she replied that she was certain her fiancé would be delighted to
be married to her in the same church where her parents had been
married, and that George's sister also would consent to be married

The wedding day arrived, and the church was filled with all the
marriageable persons of the village, maids and bachelors; there was
also present the clergyman's wife, who is a strong advocate of

When the two brides[40] arrived, the two bridegrooms[40] were
awaiting them in the church, and soon the ceremony commenced. The two
bridal couples stood side by side in the chancel opposite the altar.
During the ceremony the clergyman put the following question to each
bridegroom: "Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife?" and then
to each bride: "Wilt thou have this man to thy wedded husband?"
Afterwards each bridegroom put a ring on the fourth finger of his
bride, at the same time saying: "With this ring I thee wed."

As soon as the marriage ceremony was over the bridegrooms and brides
went to George's father's house, where the wedding banquet took

Some years afterwards George was divorced, and a year later I saw in
the papers that his sister had divorced her husband.

[40] "Bride" and "bridegroom" are synonymous terms in English for
persons who are _about to be_ and _have been_ married, but they
are distinguished in Esperanto:

  _Edziniĝonto_ = A bride before marriage.
  _Edziniĝanto_ = A bride who is being married.
  _Edziniĝinto_, or, _novedzino_ = A bride after marriage.

      (See pars. 208, 209.)



        Jesaj Frazoj.              Affirmative Phrases.

  _Estas vere. Tio estas vera._    It is true. That is true.

  _Vi estas prava._                You are right.

  _Estas certe, ke ..._            It is certain that ...

  _Mi estas certa pri tio._        I am sure of that.

  _Mi povas vin certigi._          I can assure you.

  _Mi vin certigas, ke jes._       I assure you it is so.

  _Mi kredas, ke jes._             I believe so.

  _Tion mi kredas._                So (that) I believe.

  _Mi diras, ke jes._              I say yes.

  _Vi povas kredi min (al mi)._    You may (can) believe me.

  _Mi diras al vi, ke ĝi estas_    I tell you it is true.
  _la vero_ (or, _ke estas vere_).

  _Mi donas al vi mian_            I give you my word (of honour).
  _parolon de honoro._

  _Tio sufiĉas._                   That is sufficient.

  _Estas li (ŝi) (ili) mem._       It is he himself (she herself)
                                    (they themselves).

  _Estas frue (malfrue)._          It is early (late).

  _Estas ankoraŭ tre frue._        It is still very early.

  _Estas la dua (horo)._           It is two o'clock.

  _Tiom pli bone._                 So much the better.

    Neaj Frazoj.             Negative Phrases.

  _Ne estas vere, ke_ ...      It is not true that ...

  _Estas malvere, ke_ ...      It is false that ...

  _Vi ne estas prava._         You are not right.

  _Vi estas malprava._         You are wrong.

  _Neniu tion diras._          No one says so (that).

  _Li ne estas tie._           He is not there.

  _Mi ne diris tion._          I did not say that (or, so).

  _Mi iras nenien._            I am going nowhere.

  _Ne aŭskultu lin._           Do not listen to him.

  _La tagmanĝo ne estas_       Lunch is not ready.

  _Mi ne kredas tion._         I don't believe that.

  _Ne estas eble. Neeble!_     It is not possible.

  _Tio ne koncernas min._      That does not concern me.

  _Vi trompas vin._            You deceive yourself.

  _Mi ne farus tion, se mi_    I would not do that if I were you.
  _estus vi._

  _Mi ne scias bone, kion vi_  I don't quite (well) know what you
  _volas diri._                  mean (what you wish to say).

  _Mi ne povas trovi la_       I cannot find the book you want.
  _libron, kiun vi deziras._

    Demandaj Frazoj.                  Interrogative Phrases.

  _Kio estas? Kio okazis?_             What is it? What is the matter?
                                       What has happened?

  _Kiu estas? Kiu estas tie?_          Who is it? Who is there?

  _Kien vi iras?_                      Where (whither) are you going?

  _Kion vi faros, kiam ...?_           What will you do when ...?

  _Kion vi diris?_                     What did you say?

  _Kion vi volas (deziras_)            What do you wish (desire)
  _(postulas) (bezonas)?_              (require) (need)?

  _Kie vi estas?_                      Where are you?

  _Kioma horo estas?_                  What o'clock is it?

  _Je kioma horo vi leviĝas?_          At what time do you get up (rise)?

  _Kion vi volas diri?_                What do you mean?

  _Kiun daton ni havas hodiaŭ?_        What is the day of the month?
                                     (lit., what date have we to-day?)

  _Ĉu vi aŭdis? Ĉu vi ne aŭdis?_       Did you hear? Did you not hear?

  _Ĉu vi konas Sinjoron B.?_           Do you know Mr. B.?

  _Ĉu vi komprenas min?_               Do you understand me?

  _Ĉu vi parolas Esperanton?_          Do you speak Esperanto?

  _Ĉu vi parolas serioze?_             Do you speak seriously?

  _Certe vi ŝercas?_                   Surely you are joking?

  _Ĉu la vespermanĝo estas preta?_     Is dinner ready?

  _Ĉu la veturilo jam alvenis?_        Has the carriage come (arrived)?

  _Ĉu estas la horo por foriri?_       Is it time to go away?

  _Kio estas la nomo de ĉi tiu urbo?_  What is the name of this town?

  _Ĉu vi venos kun mi?_                Will you come with me?

  _Ĉu estas leteroj por mi?_           Are there any letters for me?

  _Ĉu vi estus tiel bona?_             Would you be so good?

  _Ĉu vi havas la bonecon?_            Would you have the goodness?

  _Kian aĝon (kiom da jaroj)_          How old are you?
    _vi havas? Kiomjara vi estas?_

  _Kie vi renkontis lin?_              Where did you meet him?

  _Kial vi ne respondas?_              Why don't you answer?

  _Kion vi bezonas?_                   What do you want?

  _Kiom kostas ĉi tiu objekto?_        What does this article cost?

  _Kiam ni haltos por tagmanĝi?_       When shall we stop for
                                         (to take) lunch?

  _Kia estas via opinio?_              What is your opinion?

  _Kion vi diris al li?_               What did you say to him?

  _Kie (kiam) vi renkontis ŝin?_       Where (when) did you meet her?

  _Ĉu vi vidis ŝin sur la strato_      Did you see her in the street
    _aŭ ĉe ŝia domo?_                    or at her house?

  _Ĉu vi ne diris al ŝi tion,_         Did you not tell her what
    _kion mi petis, ke vi diru?_         I begged you to say?

    Ordonaj Frazoj.                     Imperative Phrases.

  _Venu ĉi tien._ _Foriru._              Come here. Go away.

  _Rapidu._ _Haltu, veturigisto!_        Make haste. Stop, coachman!

  _Diru al li, ke li venu._              Tell him to come.

  _Restu ĉi tie momenton._               Stay here a moment.

  _Aŭskultu min._                        Listen to me.

  _Komencu._ _Daŭrigu._                  Begin. Continue.

  _Atentu, ke vi ne falu._               Take care you don't fall.

  _Ne tiel rapide._                      Not so quick.

  _Iru pli malrapide._                   Go slower.

  _Parolu al li._                        Speak to him.

  _Ne diru tion._                        Don't say that.

  _Faru al mi la plezuron._              Do me the pleasure.

  _Mi petas, (ke vi) ne ĝenu vin._       Pray do not trouble yourself.

  _Ne kredu lin (al li)._                Do not believe him.

  _Faru, kion mi diras._                 Do what I say.

  _Trankviliĝu!_ _Silentu!_              Be quiet! Be silent!

  _Venigu la veturilon._                 Bring the carriage.

  _Alportu miajn botojn._                Bring my boots.

  _Venigu al mi fiakron._                Get me a cab.

  _Donu al mi tiun libron._              Give me that book.

  _Pruntu al mi vian ombrelon,_          Please lend me your umbrella.
    _mi petas._

  _Brosu ĉi tiun vestaĵon._              Brush these clothes.

  _Ne diru unu vorton._                  Don't say a word.

  _Sidiĝu (sidigu vin), mi petas._       Pray be seated. Please sit down.

  _Ne faru tion._                        Don't do that.

  _Pardonu al mi, Sinjoro,_              Excuse me, sir, you are
    _vi okupas mian sidejon._                occupying my place.

  _Pasigu al mi la salon (pipron)_       Pass me the salt (pepper)
    _(mustardon), mi petas!_                 (mustard), if you please!

  _Kelnero, donu al mi la panon!_        Waiter, give me the bread!

  _Fermu (malfermu) la pordon_           Shut (open) the door
    _(la fenestron), mi petas._              (window), please.

  _Rigardu tiun beletan (gracian)_       Look at that pretty girl.

  _Ho! rigardu kia bela domo estas tiu!_ Oh! look what a beautiful
                                           house that is!

  _Foriru! For de ĉi tie!_               Go away from here!

  _Savu lin! li dronas!_                 Save him! he is drowning!

       Esprimoj de Danko.              Expressions of Thanks.

  _Mi dankas. Mi dankas vin (al vi)._  Thank you.

  _Mi tre dankas vin._ _Dankon._       Thank you very much. Thanks.

  _Multe da dankoj._ _Multan dankon._  Many thanks.

  _Mil dankojn._                       A thousand thanks.

  _Vi estas tre bona (kompleza)._      You are very good (kind).

  _Mi ne scias, kiel vin danki._       I don't know how to thank you.

  _Vi estas ja (efektive) tro bona._   You are really too good.

  _Vi faris al mi favoron (servon),_   You have done me a favour (service),
    _kiun mi neniam forgesos._           which I shall never forget.

  _Mi volus pli multe fari._           I wish I could do more.

  _Mi estos ĉiam via ŝuldanto._        I shall always be your debtor.

  _Mi neniam forgesos vian bonecon._   I shall never forget your goodness.

  _Mi petas, akceptu la esprimon_      I beg you to accept the expression
    _de mia profunda dankeco._           of my profound thankfulness.

  _Estis por mi plezuro, ke mi povis_  It was a pleasure to me, to be able
    _esti utila al vi._                  to be of service to you.

  _Mi bedaŭras, ke mi ne_              I regret that I could not do more.
    _povis pli multe fari._

       La Vetero.                           The Weather.

  _Kia estas la vetero?_              What sort of weather is it?

  _Estas belega tago._                It is a lovely day.

  _La suno brilas, sed la vento_      The sun is shining, but the wind
   _estas malvarmega._                  is bitterly cold.

  _Estas tre varmege._                It is excessively hot.

  _Estas tre malvarmege._             It is intensely cold.

  _Ĉu vi opinias, ke pluvos?_         Do you think it will rain?

  _La nuboj amasiĝas._                The clouds are gathering.

  _Pluvis la tutan nokton._           It rained all night.

  _Neĝos morgaŭ, mi opinias._         It will snow to-morrow, I think.

  _Ni havos baldaŭ pluvegon._         We shall soon have a deluge of rain
                                           (a downpour).

  _Pluvegis la pasintan nokton_       It rained in torrents (it
    _(hieraŭ nokte)._                   poured) last night.

  _La vento leviĝas._                 The wind is rising.

  _La pluvo falas._                   The rain is falling.

  _La vetero estas tre ŝanĝiĝema._    The weather is very changeable.

  _Ventego venas, kaj ŝajnas,_        A storm is coming, and it appears
    _ke estos uragano._                 that there will be a hurricane.

  _La hajlo nun ekĉesas._             The hail is now ceasing.

CONVERSATION (Interparolado).

  Pardonu al mi, sinjoro,          Excuse me, sir, but do
  sed ĉu vi parolas Esperanton?    you speak Esperanto?

  Mi parolas ĝin iom, sed          I speak it a little, but
  tre malĝuste, ĉar mi             very incorrectly, for I
  ne havis multe da                have not had much
  ekzerciĝado.                     practice.

  Ŝajnas al mi, ke vi              It appears to me that
  parolas tre bone.                you speak very well.

  Vi faras al mi komplimenton,     You are paying me a
  mi timas; sed                    compliment, I fear;
  mi ĝojas, ke mi ĝin              but I am glad I speak
  parolas sufiĉe bone por          it sufficiently well to
  kompreniĝi. Se vi                be understood. If you
  parolas france, ĉu vi            speak French, will you
  bonvolos havigi al mi            kindly get me a ticket
  bileton por Ĝenevo?              for Geneva?

  Kun multe da plezuro.            With much pleasure. I
  Mi ankaŭ iras tien.              also am going there.
  En kiu klaso vi veturos?         By what class do you travel?

  En la unua ĉe tia longa          By the first for such a
  veturo.                          long journey.

  Mi ankaŭ, do ni povos            I too, so we can travel
  kunveturi (veturi kune).         together. But if you
  Sed, se vi havas pezan           have heavy luggage,
  pakaĵon, vi devos ĝin            you will have to register
  enskribi.                        it.

  Mi havas du vojaĝkestojn         I have two trunks and a
  kaj valizon; vi farus al         portmanteau; you
  mi grandan komplezon,            would do me a great
  se vi rekomendigus ilin por mi.  kindness if you would get
                                   them registered for me.

  Mi faros tion, tuj kiam          I will do so, as soon as I
  mi ricevos la biletojn.          have got the tickets.

  Mil dankojn! Jen estas           A thousand thanks! Here are
  tri centfrankaj bankbiletoj.     three 100-franc notes.

  Mi rekomendis vian pakaĵon,      I registered your luggage,
  kaj jen estas via                and here is your travelling
  vojaĝbileto, la pakaĵbileto,     ticket, the luggage
  kaj la monrestaĵo.               ticket and change
  Mi pagis ducent dudek            (money balance). I
  du frankojn por la bileto        paid 222 francs for the
  de iro kaj reveno                return ticket, and 21
  (revenbileto), kaj dudek         for the registering.
  unu por la rekomendo.

  Tre multan dankon; kaj           Very many thanks; and
  nun, ni okupu niajn              now let us take our
  sidejojn en la vagonaro.         seats in the train.

  Ĉi tiu fako estas plena.         This compartment is full.
  Jen alia, kiu havas du           Here is another that
  sidejojn neokupitajn.            has two vacant seats.
  Ni eniru tiun.                   Let us enter that.

  Tre bone. Kiun sidejon           Very well. Which seat
  vi plivolas? Tiun, kiu           do you prefer? That
  kontraŭas la lokomotivon,        which faces the engine,
  aŭ la alian?                     or the other?

  Al mi estas tute egale.          It is all the same to me.
  Elektu vi mem.                   Choose yourself.

  Nu, mi prenos ĉi tiun,           Well, I will take this,
  ĉar mi ne amas veturi            for I do not like to
  kun la dorso kontraŭ             travel with my back
  la lokomotivo.                   to the engine.

  Kiam la vagonaro ekiros?         When does the train start?

  Post du aŭ tri minutoj.          In two or three minutes.

  Nun, ni iras.                    Now we are off.

  Ĉu vi konas bonan hotelon        Do you know a good
  en Ĝenevo kontraŭ la             hotel in Geneva facing
  lago?                            the lake?

  Mi konas diversajn, en           I know several, to one of
  unu el kiuj mi mem               which I am going myself.
  iros. Ĝi estas tre komforta,     It is very comfortable
  kaj la prezoj                    and the
  moderaj.                         charges moderate.

  Bonvolu diri al mi ĝian          Kindly tell me its name.
  nomon. Tia hotelo tre            Such an hotel would
  bone konvenus al (por)           suit me very well, as I
  mi, ĉar mi neniel estas          am not in any way a
  riĉulo.                          rich man.

  Mi forgesas la nomon, sed        I forget the name, but if
  se vi kuniros tien kun           you will go there with
  mi, mi ĝin montros al            me, I will show it to
  vi.                              you.

  Vi estas tre kompleza;           You are very kind; I
  plezure mi akompanos             will accompany you
  vin. Ĉu ni devos vagonŝanĝi      with pleasure. Shall
  antaŭ ol alveni                  we have to change
  (en) Ĝenevon?                    carriages before arriving
                                   at Geneva?

  Ne. Tiu ĉi vagonaro estas        No. This train is express,
  ekspresa, kaj ni haltos          and we stop only four
  nur kvarfoje inter tie ĉi        times between here
  kaj Ĝenevo, kien ni              and Geneva, where we
  devus alveni je la sesa          ought to arrive at 6.27
  (kaj) dudek sep morgaŭ           to-morrow morning.

  Ni do havos ankoraŭ pli          Then we have still more
  ol sep horojn en la              than seven hours of
  vagonaro. Mi kaptos la           the train. I shall take
  okazon por bona dormo;           the opportunity for a
  do mi diros "Bonan               good sleep, so I will
  nokton, sinjoro."                say "Good night, sir."

  Vekiĝu, sinjoro! Jen ni          Wake up, sir! Here we
  estas en Ĝenevo. Donu            are at Geneva. Give
  al mi vian pakaĵbileton,         me your luggage ticket
  kaj mi kolektos viajn            and I will collect your
  aĵojn kune kun miaj.             things with mine.

  Ĉu mi luu fiakron?               Shall I hire a cab?

  Ne (estas) necese. Ni            It is not necessary. We
  povas iri per la omnibuso;       can go in the omnibus;
  la hotelo ne estas               the hotel is not very
  tre malproksima de la            far from the station.

  Jen la hotelo. Ĉu ĝi             There is the hotel. Does
    kontentigas vin?               it satisfy you?

  Perfekte, se la ĉambroj kaj      Perfectly, if the rooms
  litoj estas puraj, kaj la        and beds are clean and
  manĝaĵo bona.                    the food good.

  Ĉio estis kontentiga la          Everything was satisfactory
  lastan fojon kiam mi             the last time I
  estis tie, kaj mi opinias,       was there, and I fancy
  ke la sama hotelmastro           the same landlord still
  ankoraŭ tenas la hotelon.        keeps the hotel. Yes,
  Jes, mi estas prava.             I am right. Here he
  Jen li! Tial vi povas            is! So you can now
  nun diri al li tion, kion        tell him what you
  vi bezonas.                      want.

  Bonan vesperon. Kion vi          Good evening. What do
  deziras, sinjoro?                you desire, sir?

  Bonan, aeroplenan litĉambron     A good, airy bedroom on
  sur la tria                      the third floor, facing
  etaĝo, kontraŭ la lago.          the lake. What is your
  Kiom vi postulas?                charge (do you ask)?

  Mi havas ĝuste la ĉambron,       I have exactly the room
  kiun vi deziras,                 you desire, sir. The
  sinjoro. La prezo dependas       charge depends on the
  de la daŭro de                   length of time you
  via loĝado en la hotelo,         stay in the hotel, and
  kaj ĉu vi luos la ĉambron        whether you take the
  kun aŭ sen nutraĵo.              room with or without board.

  Mi restos almenaŭ kvin           I shall remain at least
  tagojn por la Kongreso,          five days for the Congress,
  kaj mi prenos ĉiun               and I shall take
  manĝon en la hotelo.             all meals in the hotel.

  Tiuokaze la prezo estos po       In that case the charge
  ok frankoj por ĉiu tago;         will be (at the rate of)
  aŭ, se vi restus tutan           eight francs a day (for
  semajnon, la tuta kosto          each day); or if you
  estus kvindek frankoj,           should remain a whole
  kiu enhavas la servadon          week, the entire cost
  kaj la lumigon.                  would be fifty francs,
                                   which includes attendance
                                   and light.

  Nu, do, mi pensas, ke mi         Well, then, I think I
  restos unu semajnon, se          shall stay a week, if I
  mi trovos la nutraĵon            shall) find the food
  bona kaj la litĉambron           good and the bedroom
  pura kaj komforta. Je            clean and comfortable.
  kiomaj horoj okazas la           At what hours are the
  manĝoj?                          meals?

  Matenmanĝo kiam ajn vi           Breakfast whenever you
  deziras; tagmanĝo je             wish; lunch at one
  la unua, kaj vespermanĝo         o'clock, and dinner at
  je la sesa kaj                   half-past six.

  Bone. Bonvolu suprensendi        Good. Kindly send my
  mian pakaĵon al                  luggage up to my
  mia ĉambro.                      room.

CORRESPONDENCE (Korespondado).

The following are some of the more usual forms of dates,
commencements, and conclusions of letters:--


  _Londono, Anglujo._
  _je la_ 24a _de Januaro_ 1906a.
  _je la_ 24a _de Jan-o_ 1906a.
  _la_ 10an _de Feb-o_ 1906a.
  25 _Junio_ 1906a.

N.B.--The preposition _je_ is generally omitted and the accusative
used in its place, as:--_La_ 12an _de Marto._

Reference to Dates.--In referring to date, the preposition _de_ is
generally used, e.g.:--_Responde al via letero de_ ... = In reply to
your letter of....

  _De la_ 4a _de la lasta monato_ = Of the 4th of last month.
  _De la_ 4a _de la lasta_ = Of the 4th ultimo.
  _De la_ 4a _de la nuna (kuranta) monato_ = Of the 4th of the
    present month.
  _De la_ 4a _de la nuna_ (or, _kuranta_) = Of the 4th instant.

In speaking of future dates, _venonta_ or _proksima_ is used, with or
without _monato_, as:--_Je la_ 4a _de la venonta_ (or, _proksima_)
_monato_ = On the 4th of next month, or on the 4th proximo. _Je_ can
be omitted and the accusative used, as:--_La_ 4an _de la venonta._


The style of address varies considerably among nations, but the
following are some in more or less general use:--


Commencement.--_Estimata_ = Esteemed. _Kara_ = Dear. _Mia kara
Karlo_ = My dear Charles. _Kara_ (or, _mia kara_) _Sinjoro B._ = Dear
(or, my dear) Mr. B. _Sinjorino B._ = Mrs. B. _Fraŭlino B._ = Miss
B. _(Mia) kara Samideano_ (or, _Samideanino_) = Fellow thinker (if an
Esperantist), lit., partisan of the same idea.

Conclusion.--In the undermentioned examples _kun_
may be omitted and the accusative used, as:--_Amikajn_
_salutojn._ This shows that some verb (such as _mi deziras_)
is omitted (see par. 105 on ellipsis, and par. 65 (_c_) on

  _Kun amika saluto_ = With friendly salutation.
  _Kun estimo kaj_... = With esteem and...
  _Kun kora saluto_ = With hearty salutation.
  _Kun saluto_ = With salutation.
  _Kun ĉiu bondeziro_ = With good wishes.
  _Kun miaj bondeziroj_ = With kind regards.
  _Kun la plej granda estimo_ = With the greatest esteem.

  _Via (tre) sincere_ = Yours (very) sincerely.
  _(Tre) kore via_ = (Very) heartily yours.
  _Tute via_ = Entirely yours.
  _Ĉiam via_ = Always yours.
  _Via fidela amiko_ = Your faithful friend.
  _Via_ = Yours.
  _Sindone via. Amike via._
  _Mi restas via._
  _Kredu min (esti) ĉiam, k.c._
  _Vin salutas, k.t.p._


Commencement.--_Sinjoro_ = Sir. _Sinjorino_ = Madam. _Fraŭlino_ =
Mademoiselle. _Estimata_ = Esteemed, may precede the above, or, in
some cases, _kara,_ or, _tre estimata._

Conclusion.--_(Tre) fidele via_ = (Very) faithfully yours. _Via
(tre) vere_ = Yours (very) truly. _(Tre) sincere via_ = (Very)
sincerely yours.

Titles.--For the use of _Moŝto_ in addressing persons with titles,
or in official positions, see par. 283.


In correspondence with near relatives, the following are some of the
terms which might be written:--

Commencement.--_Mia kara_ ... = My dear ... _Plej kara_ ... =
Dearest ... _Mia karegulo_, or, _karegulino_ ... = My darling ...
_Amata_ ... = Beloved ... _Kare amata_ ... = Dearly beloved ...

Conclusion.--_Kun multe da amo (por ĉiuj)_ = With much love (to
all). _Via (tre) amanta_ = Your (very) affectionate. _Via ameganta
patrino_ = Your loving mother.


Commencement.--_Sinjoro_ = Sir. _Sinjoroj_ = Gentlemen, or, Sirs.
_Estimata, estimataj, kara, karaj,_ may precede the above.

Conclusion.--The modes of conclusion are numerous; the following
are a few:--

  _(Tre) fidele via_ = (Very) faithfully yours.
  _Kun ulta estimo_, or, _Altestime_ = With high esteem.
  _Via obea, or obeema (humila) servanto_ = Your obedient (humble) servant.
  _Ricevu la certigon de la plej alta estimo de via obea servanto_ =
  Accept the assurance of the highest esteem from your obedient servant.
  _Mi restas, kun tuta respekto, via plej humila servanto_ = I remain
  with all respect your most humble servant.

SPECIMENS OF LETTERS (Modeloj de leteroj).

_Gesinjoroj M. havas la honoron inviti Gesinjorojn N. kaj ilian
filinon al vespermanĝo ĵaŭdon venontan je la oka horo._

Mr. and Mrs. M. have the honour of inviting Mr. and Mrs. N. and their
daughter to dinner on Thursday next at eight o'clock.

_Gesinjoroj N. kaj ilia filino akceptas kun multa plezuro la afablan
inviton de Gesinjoroj M. por vespermanĝo je la venonta ĵaŭdo._ Or,
_... tre bedaŭras, ke antaŭa promeso malhelpas ilin akcepti la ...

Mr. and Mrs. N. and their daughter accept with much pleasure the kind
invitation of Mr. and Mrs. M. to dinner on Thursday next. Or, ...
very much regret that a previous engagement prevents them from
accepting the ...

_Kara S-ro B.,--Mi proponas viziti vin morgaŭ posttagmeze, je la
5a, se tiu horo estos oportuna por vi; se ne, bonvolu sciigi min,
per la alportanto (de ĉi tio), je kioma horo vi ester libera._

Dear Mr. B.--I propose calling upon you to-morrow afternoon at 5
o'clock, if that hour will be convenient to you; if not, kindly
inform me by bearer (of this) at what hour you will be disengaged.

_Vian leteron de la 30a lasta mi ne ricevis ĝis la 2a de la nuna._

I did not receive your letter of the 30th ultimo till the 2nd inst.

_Mi bedaŭras, ke mi tiel longe prokrastis respondi vian leteron, sed
efektive mi ne povis trovi la tempon ..._

I regret that I delayed so long in replying to your letter, but
really I could not find time ...

_Mi tre ĝojas aŭdi, ke vi ..._

I am delighted to hear that you ...

_Mi kore gratulas vin pro (pri) via fianĉiĝo kun Fraŭlino B._

I heartily congratulate you on your engagement to Miss B.

_Mi ricevis vian leteron tro malfrue por ĝin respondi per la
hodiaŭa poŝto_ (or, _respondi hodiaŭ poŝte_).

I received your letter too late to answer it by to-day's post.

  Esperantista Klubo,
    18an _de aprilo_, 1906a.

Kara Karlĉjo,

Kiam vi ricevos ĉi tiun leteron, eble vi diros: "Kio estas ĉi tio?
Kia lingvo ĝi estas?" Sed, kiam vi malfermos la ŝlosileton (ĉi tie
enfermitan), kaj jam tralegos la unuajn ok paĝojn, vi diros: "Estas
mirinde! Kiu ĝin kredus? Mi povas tute facile kompreni ĉi tiun
strangan lingvon! Kio oni ĝin nomas? Ho! mi vidas, 'Esperanto!' Kion
signifas 'ŝlosileto'? Mi serĉu en la libreto mem. Jen estas!
'Ŝlos' = _lock_; 'il' = _instrument_; 'et' = _diminutive_; 'o' =
_ending of nouns_; tial 'ŝlosileto' signifas _a diminutive
instrument for locking_, = _a tiny key_. Nu, se mi povas tiel facile,
unuavide, kompreni la lingvon, ĝia aŭtoro havas ĉian kaŭzon por
esperi, ke li efektivigos sian deziron; kaj mi kore deziras, ke li
sukcesu. Mi certe lernos Esperanton kaj penos disvastigi ĝin kiel
eble plej multe."

Kaj nun, mia kara Karlo, skribu al mi leteron Esperante, kaj diru al
mi, ĉu mi ne estas tute prava, imagante, ke la suprediritaj vortoj
estas ĝuste tiuj, kiujn vi pensis, ricevinte tiun ĉi leteron.

  Ĉiam la via,

_Postskribaĵo. P.S._--Ĉi tiu klubo estas tute esperantista. Ĉiuj
anoj aŭ parolas Esperanton, aŭ lernadas ĝin; por ĉi tiuj, ni
havas ĉambron aparte dediĉitan al la lernantoj, kaj unu el la anoj
donas lecionojn ĉiutage. La kelneroj kaj ĉiuj servistoj parolas la
lingvon. La manĝokartoj kaj vinkartoj estas en Esperanto, kaj ni
ĉiam parolas Esperante unu kun la aliaj. Mi esperas, ke vi aniĝos,
kiam vi revenos Anglujon.


  Esperantist Club,
    _18th April, 1906._

Dear Charlie,

When you receive this letter possibly you will say: "What is this?
What language is it?" But when you open the _ŝlosileto_ (herewith
enclosed), and have read through the first eight pages, you will say:
"It is wonderful! Who would believe it? I can quite easily understand
this queer language! What do they call it? Oh! I see, 'Esperanto!'
What does '_ŝlosileto_' mean? Let me look in the book itself. Here
it is! '_ŝlos_' = lock; '_il_' = instrument; '_et_' = diminutive;
'_o_' = ending of nouns; therefore '_ŝlosileto_' means _a diminutive
instrument for locking_, = _a tiny key_. Well, if I can so easily, at
first sight, understand the language, its author has every reason to
hope that he will realize his desire, and I heartily hope that he
will succeed. I shall certainly learn Esperanto, and try to spread it
as much as possible."

And now, my dear Charles, write me a letter in Esperanto, and tell me
if I am not quite right in imagining that the above-mentioned words
are exactly what you thought, after receiving this letter.

  Always yours,

_Postscript. P.S._--This Club is entirely Esperantist. All members
either speak Esperanto or are learning it; for the latter we have a
room specially set apart for learners, and one of the members gives
lessons daily. The waiters and all the servants speak the language.
The _menus_ and wine cards are in Esperanto, and we always speak
Esperanto to each other. I hope you will become a member when you
return to England.




  Adiaŭ = _adieu_, _farewell_, _good-bye_ (adv. and int.).
  Ajn = _ever_ (adv.).
  Al = _to_, _towards_ (prep.).
  Almenaŭ = _at least_ (conj. and adv.).
  Ambaŭ = _both_ (pron.).
  Ankaŭ = _also_, _too_ (conj. and adv.).
  Ankoraŭ = _yet_, _still_ (adv.).
  Anstataŭ = _instead of_ (prep.).
  Antaŭ = _before_, _in front of_, _ago_ (prep.).
  Apenaŭ = _hardly_, _scarcely_ (adv.).
  Apud = _near to_, _close by_, _beside_, _at the side of_ (prep.).
  Aŭ = _or_, _either_ (conj.).


  Baldaŭ = _soon_ (adv.).
  Bis = _once more_, _encore_, _again_ (adv. and int.).


  Ĉar = _because_, _for_, _since_ (conj.).
  Ĉe = _at_ (prep.).
  Cent = _hundred_ (num.).
  Ci = _thou_ (per. pron.).
  Ĉi = (_here_) _near_ (adv.).
  Ĉia = _each_, _every kind of_ (pron. adj.).
  Ĉial = _for every cause_, _for every reason_ (adv.).
  Ĉiam = _always_, _ever_ (adv.).
  Ĉie = _everywhere_ (adv.).
  Ĉiel = _in every way_ (adv.).
  Ĉies = _everyone's_ (indef. pron.).
  Ĉio = _everything_ (indef. pron.).
  Ĉiom = _all_, _every quantity_ (adv.).
  Ĉirkaŭ = _round_, _about_ (prep.).
  Ĉiu = _each_, _each one_ (pron. and pron. adj.).
  Ĉu = _whether_ (conj. and adv.).


  Da = _of (for quantity)_ (prep.).
  De = _of_, _from_, _since (time)_, _by (agent)_ (prep.).
  Dek = _ten_ (num.).
  Des pli = _so much the_ ... (conj. and adv.). As:--Des pli bone =
    _so much the better_ (see _ju pli_).
  Do = _then_, _indeed_, _therefore_ (conj.).
  Du = _two_ (num.).
  Dum = _while_, _whilst_ (conj.), _during_ (prep.).


  Eĉ = _even_ (adv.).
  Ekster = _outside_ (prep.).
  El = _out of_ (prep.).
  En = _in, into_ (prep.).


  Fi! = _fie!_ (int.).
  For = _away_, _forth_ (adv. and int.).


  Ĝi = _it_ (per. pron.).
  Ĝis = _till_, _until_, _up to_, _down to_, as far as (prep. and conj.).


  Ha! = _ah!_ _ha!_ (int.).
  He! = _hey!_ _halloa!_ (int.).
  Hieraŭ = _yesterday_ (adv.).
  Ho! = _ho!_ _oh!_ (int.).
  Hodiaŭ = _to-day_ (adv.).
  Hura! = _hurrah!_ _huzza!_ (int.).


  Ia = _some_, _some kind of (any)_ (pron. adj.).
  Ial = _for some (any) cause_ (adv.).
  Iam = _ever_, _at some (any) time_ (adv.).
  Ie = _somewhere (anywhere)_ (adv.).
  Iel = _somehow_, _in some (any) way_ (adv.).
  Ies = _someone's (anyone's)_ (indef. pron.).
  Ili = _they_ (per. pron.).
  Inter = _among_, _between_ (prep.).
  Io = _something (anything)_ (indef. pron.).
  Iom = _some quantity_, _somewhat_, _some (any)_ (adv.).
  Iu = _some one_ (indef. pron. and pron. adj.).


  Ja = _in fact_, _indeed_ (adv.), _indeed!_ (int.).
  Jam = _already_, _now_, _yet_ (adv.).
  Je = an indefinite preposition (see par. 251).
  Jen = _here_, _there_ (adv. and conj.), _lo!_ _behold!_ (int.).
  Jen ... jen = _now ... now_.
  Jes = _yes_ (adv.).
  Ju pli ... des pli = _the more_ (conj. and adv.).
  Ĵus = _just_ (adv.).


  Kaj = _and_, _both_ (conj.).
  Ke = _that_ (conj.).
  Kia = _what kind of_ (interrogative and pron. adj.), _what!_ (int.).
  Kial = _wherefore_, _why_ (conj., adv., and interrogative).
  Kiam = _when_ (conj., adv., and interrogative).
  Kie = _where_ (conj., adv., and interrogative).
  Kiel = _how_, _as_, _in what way_ (conj., adv., and interrogative).
  Kies = _whose_ (interrogative and relative pron.).
  Kio = _what (thing)_ (interrogative and relative pron.).
  Kiom = _how many_, _how much_ (adv. and interrogative).
  Kiu = _who_, _which_ (interrogative, pron., and pron. adj.).
  Kontraŭ = _against_, _facing_, _opposite to_ (prep.).
  Krom = _not including_, _apart from_; hence it can be used for
    "except, besides, save, without, but," etc. (prep.).
  Kun = _with_ (prep.), (not used in an instrumental sense).
  Kvankam = _although_, _though_ (conj.).
  Kvar = _four_ (num.).
  Kvazaŭ = _as if_, _as it were_ (conj. and adv.).
  Kvin = _five_ (num.).


  La = _the_ (art.).
  Laŭ = _according to_ (prep.).
  Li = _he_ (per. pron.).


  Malgraŭ = _notwithstanding_ (prep.).
  Mem = _self_, _selves_, _very_ (pron.).
  Mi = _I_ (per. pron.).
  Mil = _thousand_ (num.).
  Morgaŭ = _to-morrow_ (adv.).


  Naŭ = _nine_ (num.).
  Ne = _no_, _not_, _nay_ (adv.).
  Nek = _neither_, _nor_ (conj. and adv.).
  Nenia = _none_, _no kind of_ (pron. adj.).
  Nenial = _for no cause_ (or, _reason_) (adv.).
  Neniam = _never_, _at no time_ (adv.).
  Nenie = _nowhere_ (adv.).
  Neniel = _nohow_, _in no way_, _not at all_ (adv.).
  Nenies = _no one's_ (pron.).
  Nenio = _nothing_ (noun).
  Neniom = _none_, _no quantity_ (adv.).
  Neniu = _nobody_, _no one_ (noun and pron. adj.).
  Ni = _we_ (per. pron.).
  Nu = _well!_ (int.).
  Nun = _now_ (adv.).
  Nur = _only_ (adv.).


  Ok = _eight_ (num.).
  Ol = _than_ (comparison) (conj.).
  Oni = _they_, _one_, _people_ (per. pron.).


  Per = _by_, _by means of_, _through_, _with_ (prep.).
  Plej = _most_ (adv.).
  Pli = _more_ (comparison) (conj. and adv.).
  Plu = _further_, _farther_, _more_ (adv.).
  Po = _at the rate of_, _apiece_ (prep.).
  Por = _for_, _in order to_ (prep.).
  Post = _after_ (prep.).
  Preskaŭ = _almost_ (adv.).
  Preter = _beyond_, _by_, _past_ (prep.).
  Pri = _concerning_, _of_, _about_ (prep.).
  Pro = _for_, _because of_, _by reason of_, _for the sake of_,
    _owing to_ (prep.).


  Se = _if_ (conj.).
  Sed = _but_ (conj.).
  Sen = _without_ (prep.).
  Sep = _seven_ (num.).
  Ses = _six_ (num.).
  Si = _self_ (reflexive pron.).
  Ŝi = _she_ (per. pron.).
  Sub = _under_ (prep.).
  Super = _above, over_ (prep.).
  Sur = _on, upon_ (prep.).


  Tamen = _however, yet, nevertheless, still_ (conj.).
  Tia = _that kind of, such a_ (dem. pron. and pron. adj.).
  Tial = _therefore, for that_ (or, _such_) _cause_ (or, _reason_)
    (adv. and conj.).
  Tiam = _then, at that time_ (adv.).
  Tie = _there, in that place_ (adv.).
  Tie ĉi = _here, in this place_ (adv.).
  Tiel = _thus, so, as, in that_ (or, _such_) _way_ (or, _manner_)
  Ties = _that one's, of that, of those_ (dem. pron.).
  Tio = _that_ (_thing_) (dem. pron.).
  Tio ĉi = _this_ (_thing_) (dem. pron.).
  Tiom = _so much, so many, as much_ (adv.).
  Tiu = _that one, the former_ (dem. pron. and pron. adj.).
  Tiu ĉi = _this one, the latter_ (dem. pron. and pron. adj.).
  Tra = _through_ (prep.).
  Trans = _across, beyond, on the other side of_ (prep.).
  Tre = _very_ (adv.).
  Tri = three (num.).
  Tro = _too, too much_ (adv.).
  Tuj = _at once, immediately_ (adv.).


  Unu = _one_ (num.).


  Ve! = _woe! alas!_ (int.).
  Vi = _you, ye_ (per. pron.).


In making use of the following list of Adverbs, Adjectives,
Conjunctions, Prepositions, and adverbial and prepositional
expressions, if the student has any doubt as to the correct Esperanto
words he should select when more than one is given, he will generally
find them explained (with examples) in the Alphabetical Lists of
Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions at pages 166, 180, and 219.


  A, per = _en; por,_ as:--_Kvar fojojn en tago_ = Four times a
    day. _Tri funtojn en monato_ = Three pounds per month. _Drapo po
    ses frankoj por metro_ = Cloth at six francs a (per) metre.
  About = _ĉirkaŭ; pri; pli-malpli; proksimume._
  Above = _super; supre; pli ol._
  Above all = _precipe; antaŭ ĉio._
  Absolutely = _absolute._
  Accidentally = _okaze; akcidente._
  According ... _as = laŭ tio ... ke._
  According to = _laŭ; konforme al (je); depende de._
  According to circumstances = _laŭokaze; laŭcirkonstance._
  Accordingly = _laŭe; tial; sekve._
  Across = _trans; laŭlarĝe._
  Actually = _efektive; fakte; ja; reale._
  Adieu = _adiaŭ._
  Afar = _malproksime; malproksime de._
  After = _post; post kiam; poste._
  After a time = _post kelka tempo._
  After all = _malgraŭ ĉio._
  After consideration = _konsiderinte; post pripenso._
  After some time = _post kelke da tempo, iom poste._
  Afterwards = _poste._
  Again = _ree; denove; ankoraŭ unu fojon; bis._
  Again and again = _foje kaj ree; refoje; multfoje, ripete._
  Against = _kontraŭ._
  Agreed that = _konsente ke._
  All, all of it = _ĉiom._
  All at once = _subite._
  All right = _tute prave; ĉio bona; konsentite; bone._
  All sorts of = _ĉiuspecaj (adj.)._
  All that = _ĉio tio._
  All the better = _tiom pli bone._
  All the same = _tute egale._
  All this = _ĉio ĉi tio; ĉio ĉi._
  All together = _ĉiuj kune; ĉiuj samtempe._
  All ways (in every way) = _ĉiel._
  Almost = _preskaŭ._
  Almost always = _preskaŭ ĉiam._
  Along = _laŭlonge de; laŭ; apud; flanke de._
  Along the river, road, etc. = _laŭ la rivero, vojo, k.c._
  Along with = _kune kun._
  Alongside = _flanke de; laŭlonge de._
  Already = _jam; antaŭe._
  Also = _ankaŭ._
  Although = _kvankam._
  Altogether = _tute; kune; samtempe._
  Always = _ĉiam; ĉiufoje; senĉese; konstante._
  Amid, amidst = _meze de._
  Among, amongst = _inter; el._
  Amongst other things = _interalie; inter aliaj aferoj._
  And = _kaj._
  And so forth (so on) = _k.t.p. (kaj tiel plu); k.c. (kaj ceteraj)._
  Anew = _denove._
  Annually = _ĉiujare._
  Any = _ia, iu_ (some); _(k)ia ajn, (k)iu ajn; ĉia; iom; iom da._
  Any more = _ankoraŭ pli; pli multe; ankoraŭ iom da._
  Any time, at = _(k)iam ajn; iam_ (at some time).
  Anybody, anyone = _(k)iu ajn; iu_ (someone); _ĉiu._
  Anybody's, anyone's = _(k)ies ajn; ies_ (somebody's), _ĉies._
  Anyhow = _(k)iel ajn; iel_ (somehow); _ĉiel_ (in every way).
  Anyone (someone) else = _(k)iu ajn alia; iu alia; ĉiu alia._
  Anything (something) else = _io (ajn) alia; ĉio alia; ankoraŭ
   io; alio ajn._
  Anywhere = _(k)ie ajn; ie_ (somewhere); _ĉie_ (everywhere).
  Apart from = _krom; ekster._
  Approximately = _ĉirkaŭe; proksimume; pli-malpli._
  Around = _ĉirkaŭ._
  As = _kiel; same kiel; ĉar; pro tio, ke._ As (time) = _kiam; dum._
  As ... as = _tiel ... kiel._
  As a whole = _entute; sume._
  As also = _kiel ankaŭ._
  As early as possible = _kiel eble plej frue._
  As far as = _ĝis; kiom._ As far as possible = _laŭeble._
  As far as I know (remember) = _kiom mi scias (memoras)._
  As far back (as long) as two years ago = _jam antaŭ du jaroj._
  As for = _pri; rilate al; koncerne._
  As for example = _kiel ekzemple._
  As follows = _jene._
  As if = _kvazaŭ; kiel se._
  As it was (happened) = _kiel okazis._
  As long as = _tiel longe, kiel; se nur._
  As many (much) = _tiom._
  As regards = _pri; koncerne; rilate al._
  As ... so = _same ... kiel; kiel ... tiel._
  As soon as = _tuj kiam._
  As soon as possible = _kiel eble plej baldaŭ._
  As though = _kvazaŭ._
  As to = _pri; rilate al._
  As well as = _kiel ankaŭ; same kiel; kune kun; tiel bone, kiel._
  As yet = _ĝis nun; ankoraŭ._
  Aside = _aparte; flanke._
  At = _ĉe; je; apud; laŭ; sur; po,_ etc., according to sense.
  At a distance = _malproksime; en malproksimo._
  At a gallop = _galope._
  At a run = _kure; kurante._
  At all = _tute, iomete._
  At all events = _kio ajn okazos; en ĉia okazo._
  At all times = _ĉiam; ĉiufoje._
  At any rate = _ĉiaokaze; almenaŭ._
  At any time = _iam ajn; iatempe_ (sometime); _en ĉiu horo._
  At first = _unue; komence; en la komenco; en la unua tempo; unuafoje;
    unuan fojon._
  At first sight = _unuavide._
  At hand = _apud; apude; sub la mano; proksime._
  At home = _hejme; dome,_ as:--_Mi estas hejme_ = I am at home; or,
    _mi estas dome,_ or, _en la domo._
  At last, at length = _fine; en la fino._
  At least = _almenaŭ; malpleje; plej malmulte._
  At most = _plej multe; pleje._
  At once = _tuj; samtempe._
  At option = _laŭvole; laŭ elekto; laŭ (via) bontrovo;
    laŭ deziro._
  At our house = _ĉe ni; en nia domo; hejme._
  At present = _nun; nune; nuntempe._
  At some distance = _en kelka malproksim-o-eco._
  At that = _ĉe tio._
  At that time = _tiam; en tiu tempo._
  At the distance of = _en la interspaco de._
  At the earliest = _plej frue_.
  At the latest = _plej malfrue_.
  At the least = _plej malmulte_.
  At the moment = _ĵus; en la momento_.
  At the most = _plej multe_.
  At the outset = _en la unua tempo; komence_.
  At the rate of = _po_.
  At the same time = _samtempe_.
  At the side of = _apud; flanke de_.
  At this = _ĉe tio (ĉi)_.
  At times = _iafoje; kelkafoje_.
  At what time = _kiam; je kioma horo_.
  At will = _laŭvole; laŭplaĉe; laŭdezire; laŭ bontrovo_.
  Athwart = _laŭlarĝe_.
  Away = _malproksime; for_.
  Away from = _for de; malproksime de_.


  Backwards = _malantaŭ-e-en_.
  Backwards and forwards = _tien kaj reen; tien-reen_.
  Because = _ĉar; tial, ke; pro tio, ke; tial, ĉar_.
  Because of = _pro; kaŭze de_.
  Before = _antaŭ; antaŭ ol; antaŭe; pli frue, ol_.
  Before everything = _antaŭ ĉio_.
  Before long = _baldaŭ; post ne longatempe; post ne longe_.
  Behind = _post; malantaŭ; malantaŭe_.
  Behold! = _jen!_
  Below = _sub; sube; malsupre de_.
  Beneath = _sub; sube_.
  Beside = _apud; flanke de; laŭlonge de_.
  Besides = _ekster; krom; krom tio; krome; cetere_.
  Betimes = _frue; frutempe_.
  Between, betwixt = _inter_.
  Beyond = _trans_ (across); _preter_ (past).
  Beyond measure = _supermezure_.
  Both = _ambaŭ; la du_.
  Both ... and = _kaj ... kaj; tiel ... kiel_.
  Broadways = _laŭlarĝe_.
  But = _sed; krom; nur_ (only); _tamen_.
  But then = _sed ... do; sed tiuokaze; sed tiam_.
  By = _per; de; laŭ; po; apud; preter; apude_, etc., according
    to sense.
  By and by = _baldaŭ; tre baldaŭ; iom poste_.
  By all means = _per ĉiu rimedo; ĉiel; certege; kompreneble_.
  By chance = _okaze_.
  By consent = _konsente_.
  By day = _tage; en la tago_.
  By degrees = _grade; laŭgrade; iom post iom_.
  By express = _rapidire; per ekspreso; eksprese_.
  By half = _poduone_.
  By heart = _parkere_.
  By means of = _per; per helpo de_.
  By night = _nokte; en la nokto_.
  By no means = _neniel; tute ne; per nenia rimedo_.
  By no other means = _neniel alie ol; per neniu alia rimedo_.
  By reason of = _pro; kaŭze de_.
  By some means, somehow = _iel; per ia rimedo, iarimede_.
  By the day = _laŭtage_.
  By the hour = _laŭhore_.
  By the month = _laŭmonate_.
  By the side of = _apud; flanke de; laŭ; laŭlonge de_.
  By the way = _okaze; parenteze; rilate al tio; pasante
    (mi volus diri)_.
  By the week = _laŭsemajne_.
  By the year = _laŭjare_.
  By this means = _per ĉi tio; per ĉi tiu rimedo; ĉi tiel_.
  By this time = _jam; nun; jam nun_.
  By twos and threes = _du-triope_.
  By way of = _en la celo de_.


  Careful of = _zorga pri_.
  Close by = _apud; apude; proksime_.
  Close to = _apud; proksime de_.
  Compared with = _kompare kun_.
  Concerning = _pri; koncerne; rilate al_.
  Consequently = _do; sekve; tial_.
  Consistently = _konsekvence_.


  Daily = _ĉiutage_.
  Day after (by) day = _tagon post tago_.
  Day after to-morrow = _postmorgaŭ_.
  Day before yesterday = _antaŭhieraŭ_.
  Direct = _rekte; senpere_.
  Directly = _tuj; baldaŭ; tuj kiam_.
  Down = _malsupren_.
  Down to = _ĝis_ (if _down_ is implied by the context).
  Downwards = _malsupren_.
  During = _en; en la daŭro de; dum_; or, the accusative.


  Each one's = _ĉies_.
  Early = _frue; frua_.
  Either = _aŭ; ambaŭ; nek mi ankaŭ_ (nor I either).
  Either ... or = _aŭ ... aŭ_.
  Else = _alie; alia; se ne_.
  Elsewhere = _aliloke; aliloken_.
  Encore = _bis_.
  Enough = _sufiĉe_.
  Entirely = _tute; plene_.
  Ere = _antaŭ; antaŭ ol_.
  Especially = _precipe; aparte_.
  Especially as = _precipe ĉar_.
  Even = _eĉ_.
  Even if = _eĉ se; eĉ en la okazo, ke_.
  Ever = _iam; ajn; ĉiam_.
  Ever since = _de tiu tempo; de tiam_.
  Every = _ĉia; ĉiu_.
  Every day = _ĉiutage_.
  Every kind of (sort of) = _ĉia; ĉiuspeca_.
  Every other = _ĉiu alia_.
  Every other day = _ĉiudutage; je alternaj tagoj_.
  Every other line, on = _sur ĉiu dua linio_.
  Every quantity = _ĉiom_.
  Every time when = _ĉiufoje, kiam; ĉiun fojon, kiam_.
  Every two days = _ĉiudutage_.
  Everyone's = _ĉies_.
  Everything = _ĉio_.
  Everything else but = _ĉio alia, ol_.
  Everything else is = _ĉio alia (cetera) estas_.
  Everywhere = _ĉie; ĉien; tutmonde_.
  Evidently = _videble; evidente_.
  Exactly = _ĝuste; precize; akurate_.
  Exactly the same as = _tute egale, kiel_.
  Exceedingly = _treege_.
  Except = _kun escepto de; krom; esceptinte; se ne_.
  Excepting = _esceptinte_.
  Excepting that = _se ne, ke; esceptinte, ke; krom ke_.
  Excessively = _troe_.
  Expressly = _speciale; ĝuste; precize_.
  Extremely = _treege; ekstreme_.


  Facing = _kontraŭ; antaŭ_.
  Far from = _malproksime de_.
  Far off = _malproksime, fore_.
  Farther = _pli malproksime; plu; pli fore_.
  Favourable to = _favora al_.
  Few = _ne multe da; malmulte da; malmultaj (el)_.
  Few, a = _kelke da; iom da; kelkaj (el)_.
  Few days ago, a = _antaŭ kelkaj tagoj; antaŭ nemulte da tagoj_.
  Finally = _fine; laste; en la fino_.
  First-ly = _unue; komence_.
  First ... then = _unue ... due_.
  First of all = _antaŭ ĉio_.
  First time, the = _unuafoje; unuan fojon; en la unua fojo_.
  For = _ĉar; por; pro_, etc., according to sense.
  For a long time = _de longe; jam de longe; longan tempon_.
  For all reasons = _ĉial_.
  For all that = _malgraŭ ĉio; spite ĉio_.
  For better or worse = _por pli aŭ malpli bone_.
  For ever = _por ĉiam_.
  For evermore = _eterne_.
  For every reason = _ĉial_.
  For example = _ekzemple_.
  For fear that = _timante, ke; pro timo, ke_.
  For many reasons = _pro multe da kaŭzoj_.
  For no cause = _nenial_.
  For no other cause than (but) = _nenial alie, ol_.
  For some cause (or, reason) = _ial_.
  For such a purpose = _tiacele; en tia celo_.
  For that reason = _tial; pro tio; kaŭze de tio_.
  For the benefit of = _por; por la profito de_.
  For the last time = _je la lasta fojo; lastfoje_.
  For the most part = _plejparte; pleje_.
  For the purpose of = _por; en la celo de; celante_.
  For the reason that = _pro tio, ke; tial, ke_.
  For the rest, for the matter of that = _cetere_.
  For the sake of (owing to) = _pro_; (with a view to) _por_.
  For the same purpose = _samcele_.
  For the same reason = _samkaŭze_.
  For this reason = _(ĉi) tial; pro tio; kaŭze de tio (ĉi)_.
  For want of = _pro manko de_.
  For what reason = _kial; pro kio_.
  Formerly = _antaŭe_.
  Fortnightly = _(ĉiu)dusemajne; (ĉiu)duonmonate_.
  Forwards = _antaŭen!_
  Frequently = _ofte; multfoje_.
  From = _de_; (in sense of "out of" = _el_); (cause = _pro_).
  From above = _de supre; el supre_.
  From among, amongst = _de inter, el inter_.
  From another cause = _alikaŭze_.
  From another quarter = _de aliloke; de aliparte_.
  From day to day = _tagon post tago; de tago al tago_.
  From inside = _el interne_.
  From now = _de nun_.
  From outside = _el ekstere; de ekster (la domo)_.
  From the time when = _de la tempo, kiam_.
  From time to time = _de tempo al tempo_.
  From top to bottom = _de supra ĝis fundo; de supre malsupren_.
  From under = _de sub; el sub_.
  From within the = _de en la; el interne de la_.
  From without the = _de ekster la_.
  Full of = _plena de_.
  Further = _plie; plu_.
  Furthermore = _plie; krom tio_.


  Generally = _plejofte; ĝenerale; ordinare; kutime_.
  Good-bye = _adiaŭ_.
  Good enough = _sufiĉe bona_.


  Half ... half = _duone ... duone_.
  Hardly = _apenaŭ; preskaŭ ne_.
  Hence = (cause) _tial; pro tio; kaŭze de tio;_ (time) _de nun;
    post;_ (place) _de ĉi tie_.
  Henceforth = _de nun_.
  Here = _jen; ĉi tie_.
  Here is (or, are) = _jen estas_.
  Here and there = _(ĉi) tie kaj tie; tie aŭ aliloke; diversloke;
  Hereafter = _de nun; estontece_.
  Herewith = _per ĉi tio; ĉi tie aldonita (enfermita); ĉi kune_.
  High up = _alte supre_.
  Hither = _ĉi tien; tien ĉi; pli proksima_.
  Hither and thither = _ĉi tien kaj tien, tien-reen_.
  Hitherto = _ĝis nun_.
  Hour by hour = _horon post horo_.
  Hourly = _ĉiuhore_.
  How = _kiel; kiamaniere_.
  How long = _ĝis kiam_.
  How many (much) = _kiom; kiom da_.
  However = _kiel ajn; tamen_.
  However little = _kiel ajn malmulte_.
  However many (much) = _kiom ajn_.


  Identically = _idente; precize same; tute same; ĝuste_.
  If = _se_.
  If ever (at any time) = _se iam_.
  If however = _se tamen_.
  If not = _se ne_.
  If only = _se nur_.
  If perchance = _se okaze_.
  If so = _se tiel; se tio estas; se jes; se vere_.
  If still = _se ankoraŭ_.
  If then (therefore) = _se do;_ (time) _se tiam_.
  If though = _se tamen_.
  Immediately = _tuj_.
  Immediately after = _tuj post; tuj kiam; tuj poste_.
  Immediately when = _tuj kiam_.
  In = _en; laŭ; post_, etc., according to sense.
  In a few days = _post kelkaj_ (or, _nemultaj_) _tagoj_.
  In a few weeks = _post kelkaj_ (or, _nemultaj_) _semajnoj_.
  In a few words = _per kelkaj_ (or, _nemultaj_) _vortoj; kelkvorte_.
  In a great measure = _grandamezure_.
  In a little while = _post iom da tempo; post kelka (kelke da) tempo;
    post nelonge_.
  In a short time = _post mallonga (nelonga) tempo; baldaŭ_.
  In a word = _per unu vorto; unuvorte_.
  In accordance with = _laŭ; konforme al (je); en konsento kun_.
  In addition to = _aldone al; plie; krom_.
  In all cases = _ĉiuokaze_.
  In all particulars = _ĉiudetale_.
  In all respects = _ĉiel; ĉiumaniere; en ĉiu rilato; ĉiurilate_.
  In all sorts of ways = _ĉiel; ĉiumaniere_.
  In another manner, way = _alimaniere_.
  In answer to = _responde je; responde al_.
  In any case = _ĉiaokaze; ĉiusupoze; en ĉiu okazo_.
  In any other way = _alie ajn; alimaniere ajn_.
  In any place = _(k)ie ajn; ĉie_.
  In any way = _(k)iel ajn; ĉiel_.
  In bad condition = _malbonstate_.
  In breadth = _laŭlarĝe_.
  In case = _en la okazo, ke_; or, _se_.
  In case of = _en okazo de_.
  In comparison with = _kompare kun; en komparo kun_.
  In conclusion = _fine; laste; finante_.
  In conformity with = _konforme kun_ (or, _je_); _laŭ_.
  In consequence = _sekve; rezulte; sekve (de tio)_ (of that).
  In consequence of which = _sekve de kio_.
  In countenance (likeness) = _vizaĝe_.
  In countenance (unabashed) = _senhonte_.
  In course of = _en la daŭro (irado) de; dum_.
  In course of time = _en la daŭro de tempo_.
  In defiance (of) = _spite (de)_.
  In due course = _siatempe; ĝiatempe; ĝustatempe; devtempe_.
  In effect = _en la efektiveco; efektive; (laŭ)esence_.
  In every case = _ĉiuokaze_.
  In every manner (or, way) = _ĉiel; ĉiumaniere_.
  In excess = _troe_.
  In fact = _efektive; fakte; ja_.
  In favour of = _por_.
  In form = _forme_.
  In front = _antaŭe_.
  In front of = _antaŭ_.
  In good condition = _bonstate_.
  In good time = _ĝustatempe; akurate_.
  In harmony with = _harmonie kun; akorde kun; (inter)konsente kun;
    konforme al_.
  In large quantities = _grandanombre; grandakvante; pogrande_.
  In length = _laŭlonge_.
  In lieu of = _anstataŭ_.
  In my opinion = _miaopinie; laŭ mia opinio_.
  In no other way = _ne alie; per neniu alia rimedo_.
  In no way, not in any way = _neniel_.
  In no way whatever = _tute neniel; ne niel ajn_.
  In number = _nombre_.
  In order = _laŭ ordo; laŭvice_.
  In order that = _por ke_ (with imperative).
  In order to = _por_ (with infinitive).
  In other respects = _en aliaj rilatoj; alirilate_.
  In other words = _alivorte; alidire_.
  In particular = _precipe; aparte_.
  In point of fact = _fakte; efektive_.
  In reality = _efektive; en realeco_.
  In regard to = _rilate al_; or, _rilate_ (with accusative).
  In relation to = _rilate al_; to be in relation to = _rilati al_.
  In reply to = _responde je (al); respondante_.
  In rotation = _vice; laŭvice; laŭ vico_.
  In shape of = _forme de_.
  In short = _mallonge; malmultavorte_.
  In so many words = _per tiom da vortoj_.
  In so much = _tial, ke_; or, _tiom, ke_.
  In some cases = _en kelkaj okazoj_; or, _iaokaze_.
  In some degree = _ĝis ia grado; iagrade; iom_.
  In some manner = _iamaniere; iel_.
  In some other way = _laŭ iu alia maniero; alimaniere_.
  In some respects = _en kelkaj rilatoj; kelkrilate_.
  In some way = _iel_.
  In spite of = (notwithstanding) _malgraŭ_; (in defiance of) _spite de_.
  In spite of everything = _malgraŭ ĉio_.
  In succession = _vice; intersekve_.
  In such a case = _tiaokaze; en tia okazo_.
  In such a degree = _en tia grado; tiagrade_.
  In such a manner = _tiamaniere; tiel_.
  In such a manner that = _tiamaniere, ke; tiel, ke_.
  In that case = _tiuokaze; tiusupoze_.
  In that way = _tiel; tiumaniere; tiel_.
  In the afternoon = _posttagmeze_.
  In the best way = _per la plej bona metodo_.
  In the evening = _vespere; en la vespero_.
  In the event of = _se okaze; en la okazo, ke_.
  In the former case = _en tiu okazo; en la unua okazo_.
  In the latter case = _en ĉi tiu okazo; en la dua okazo_.
  In the least = _plej malmulte; iomete_.
  In the main = _plej; plejmulte; principe_.
  In the meantime = _intertempe; dume_.
  In the midst = _meze (de)_.
  In the morning = _matene; matenon; en la mateno_.
  In the proportion of = _proporcie je_.
  In the same proportion = _samproporcie_.
  In the same way = _sammaniere; per la sama metodo; same_.
  In the same way as = _same, kiel_.
  In the space of = _en la daŭro de; dum_ (time); _en la interspaco de_
  In this respect = _pri ĉi tio; rilate al ĉi tio; rilate ĉi tion_.
  In time = _ĝustatempe; akurate_.
  In turn = _vice; laŭvice; laŭ vico_.
  In vain = _vane; senfrukte_.
  In what manner (or, way) = _kiel_.
  In whatever manner = _kiel ajn_.
  In width = _laŭlarĝe_.
  Inasmuch as = _ĉar; tial, ke_.
  Incidentally = _okaze; flanke_.
  Indeed = _ja; efektive_.
  Inevitably, infallibly = _nepre_.
  Inside = _en; interne de_.
  Inside out = _el interne; kun la interno ekstere_.
  Insomuch as = _tial, ke; tiom, ke_.
  Instead of = _anstataŭ_.
  Internally = _interne_.
  Into = _en_ (with accusative).
  Inwardly = _interne_.
  Is it not so? = _ĉu ne vere_? or, _ne vere_? or, _ĉu ne_?
  It is a pity = _estas domaĝe_.
  It is so = _jes; ja jes; tiel estas_.
  It may be = _eble; verŝajne; povas esti; estas kredeble_.


  Jointly = _kune_.
  Just = _ĵus; ĝuste; tuj; nur; tute, same_, etc.
  Just as = _ĝuste kiam_ (time); _same kiel; ĝuste kiel_ (comparison).
  Just as ... so = _same kiel ... tiel_.
  Just as if = _ĝuste kvazaŭ; tute kvazaŭ_.
  Just as well as = _egale bone, kiel_.
  Just in time = _ĝustatempe_.
  Just in the same way as = _tute same, kiel_.
  Just now = _ĵus; tuj; nuntempe; en la nuna tempo_.


  Last but one = _antaŭlasta_.
  Last night = _hieraŭ vespere; en la estinta (pasinta, hieraŭa) nokto_.
  Last Tuesday = _la lastan (pasintan) mardon_.
  Last Tuesday week = _la antaŭlastan mardon_.
  Last week = _la lastan semajnon_.
  Lastly = _fine; laste_.
  Lately = _antaŭ ne longe; en la lasta tempo_.
  Later on = _pli poste_.
  Least = _malplej_.
  Lengthways = _laŭlonge_.
  Less = _malpli_.
  Less and less = _malpli kaj malpli_.
  Less ... than = _malpli ... ol_.
  Lest = _timante ke; ke ... ne; por ke ... ne_.
  Like = _kiel; simil-e-a al; kvazaŭ_.
  Like that = _tiel; tiele; tiamaniere; simil-e-a al tio (tiu)_.
  Likewise = _ankaŭ; simile_.
  Little, a = _iom (da); ne multe (da); malmulte (da)_.
  Little by little = _iom post iom_.
  Long = _longe_.
  Long ago (since) = _de longe_; or, _jam de longe_.
  Long time, for a = _longe_.
  Long time afterwards = _longatempe poste_.


  Many, many a = _multe da_.
  Many more of them = _multe pli multe da ili_.
  Many times = _multfoje_.
  Meantime, meanwhile = _dume; en la intertempo; atendante_.
  Merely = _nure; pure; nur; sole_.
  Moment ago, a = _antaŭ momento; ĵus_.
  Monthly = _ĉiumonate_.
  More = _pli; pli multe; ankoraŭ; plu_ (further). More (of something)
    = _pli da_.
  More and more = _pli kaj pli_.
  More or less = _pli aŭ malpli_; or, _pli-malpli_.
  More ... than = _pli ... ol_.
  Moreover = _plie; krom tio_.
  Most = _plej; la pleje; plej granda nombro (da); la plejmulto (da)_.
  Most often = _plejofte; pleje_.
  Mostly = _plej; pleje; plej multe_.
  Much = _multo; multe da_.
  Much more = _multe pli multe; multe pli_.


  Namely = _nome; tio estas_, or, _t.e._
  Nay = _ne_.
  Near (to) = _apud; proksime (de); proksime_.
  Nearest, the = _la plej proksima_.
  Nearly = _preskaŭ_.
  Neither = _nek_.
  Neither ... nor = _nek ... nek_.
  Never = _neniam_.
  Nevermore = _neniam plu_.
  Never mind = _ne ĝenu vin; ne (estas) grave; nenio grava_.
  Nevertheless = _tamen_.
  Next = _apuda; proksima; sekvanta; baldaŭa_.
  Next day = _la morgaŭan (postan) tagon; en la sekvanta tago_.
  Next Sunday = _la proksiman (venontan) dimanĉon_.
  Next time = _la proksiman fojon, kiam; kiam denove_.
  Next week = _la proksiman semajnon; en la proksima semajno_.
  Night after night = _nokton post nokto_.
  Nightly = _ĉiunokte; nokta_ (adj.).
  No = _ne_.
  No doubt = _sendube_.
  No farther (further) = _ne plu_.
  No longer = _jam ne; ne plu_.
  No matter = _ne malhelpas; negrave; ne gravas_.
  No matter (whether) = _tute egale (ĉu)_.
  No more than = _ne pli, ol; ne pli multe, ol_.
  No one's = _nenies_.
  No one else = _neniu alia_.
  No quantity = _neniom_.
  No sooner than = _tuj kiam_.
  No use = _senutile; senutila_.
  Nobody's = _nenies_.
  Nohow = _neniel_.
  None = _neniom; nenia; nenio; neniu_.
  Nor = _nek_.
  Nor ... also (either) (too) = _nek ... ankaŭ_.
  Not = _ne_.
  Not altogether (entire) = _ne tute_.
  Not any = neniom; _ne ... iom; neniu_.
  Not at all = _tute ne; neniel_.
  Not in the least = _neniel; tute ne_.
  Not long ago (since) = _antaŭ nelonge; antaŭ nelonga tempo;
  Not long afterwards = _ne longe poste; post nelonge; baldaŭ poste_.
  Not many (much) = _nemulte (da)_.
  Not more than = _ne pli, ol_.
  Not only = _ne nur; ne sole_.
  Not till after that = _ne pli frue, ol post tio; nur poste;
    ne ĝis poste_.
  Not yet = _ankoraŭ ne; ne ĝis nun_.
  Nothing = _nenio_.
  Nothing at all = _neniom (ajn)_.
  Nothing more = _nenio pli (plu)_.
  Notwithstanding = _tamen; malgraŭ_.
  Notwithstanding all that = _malgraŭ ĉio_.
  Notwithstanding that = _malgraŭ (tio), ke_.
  Now = _nun; nune_.
  Now ... now = _jen ... jen_.
  Now and then = _iafoje; okaze; de tempo al tempo_.
  Nowadays = _nuntempe_.
  Nowhere, not anywhere = _nenie_.


  Of = _da; de; el; en; inter; pri_, etc., according to sense.
  Of course = _kompreneble_.
  Of late = _en la lasta tempo; de mallonga tempo_.
  Off = _for de; de_.
  Often = _ofte; multfoje_.
  On = _de; en; por; sur_, etc., according to sense.
  On account of = _kaŭze de; pro_.
  On arrival = _alvenante; alveninte; ĉe alveno_.
  On behalf of = _por; por la profito de_.
  On condition that = _kondiĉe, ke_; or, _kun la kondiĉo, ke_.
  On consideration = _konsiderinte; pripensinte_.
  On every occasion = _en ĉiu okazo; ĉiuokaze_.
  On first thoughts = _ekpensinte; unuapense_.
  On (for) hire = _luebla; luata_.
  On loan = _prunte_.
  On my account = _por mi_ (for my sake); _pro mi_ (because of me).
  On my part = _miaflanke; de mia flanko; miaparte_.
  On no account = _nenial_.
  On one's own account = _pro (por) si mem_.
  On purpose = _intence; cele_.
  On sale = _vendata; vendebla_.
  On second thoughts = _post plua konsiderado; duapense_.
  On that = _ĉe tio_.
  On that account = _pro tio; tial_.
  On the contrary = _kontraŭe; male; inverse_.
  On the day = _en la tago; la tagon_.
  On the other hand = _aliflanke; aliparte_.
  On the other side of = _trans; aliflanke de_.
  On the supposition that = _supoze, ke_.
  On the part of = _flanke de_.
  On the way = _en (sur) la vojo; survoje_.
  On the whole = _entute_.
  On this = _ĉe tio (ĉi)_.
  On this account = _pro ĉi tio; (ĉi) tial_.
  On view = _elmontrata_.
  Once = _foje; iam_ (sometime), _unufoje_ (once); _unu fojon_
    (one time, on one occasion).
  Once a week = _unu fojon semajne (en semajno)_.
  Once again = _denove; ankoraŭ unu fojon_.
  Once for all = _unufoje por ĉiam; unu fojon por ĉiam_.
  Once in a way = _por unu fojo; okaze_.
  Once more = _bis; denove; ree; ankoraŭ unufoje (unu fojon)_.
  Once upon a time = _iam; foje_.
  Once when = _foje, kiam_.
  One = _unu_.
  One after another = _unu post (la) ilia_.
  One and the other = _ambaŭ_.
  One another = _unu la alian; sin reciproke_.
  One at a time = _unuope_.
  One by one = _unu post unu; unuope_.
  One day = _iam; en unu tago; foje; unu tagon_.
  One day when = _foje kiam; iam, kiam; en unu tago, kiam_.
  One or other of them = _unu aŭ alia el ili_.
  One to another = _unu al alia_.
  Only = _nur; sed_ (but); _sole; sola_.
  Only just = _apenaŭ, preskaŭ ne_.
  Opposite to = _kontraŭ_.
  Or = _aŭ; alie_.
  Other = _alia_.
  Other kinds = _alispecoj_; or, _aliaj specoj_.
  Other than = _krom; alia ol_.
  Others, the = _la aliaj_; (the rest remaining = _la ceteraj_).
  Otherwise = _alie; se ne; alimaniere; en alia okazo_.
  Out of = _el_.
  Out of date = _malnovmoda; ne laŭ modo; ne laŭmoda_.
  Out of order = _malorda; malordigita; ekstervise_.
  Out of place = _ne ĝustaloke_.
  Out of print = _elvendita_ (sold out); _elĉerpita_ (exhausted).
  Outside = _ekster; ekstere de_.
  Over = _super; pli ol_.
  Over against = _kontraŭ_.
  Over and above = _pli ol; troe_.
  Overlooking = _kontraŭ; rigardante sur_.
  Owing to = _kaŭze de; pro; dank'al; ŝuldata al; pere de_.


  Particular = _aparta; speciala_.
  Particularly = _precipe; aparte_.
  Per, _see_ "A."
  Possibly = _eble_.
  Post free = _afrankite_.
  Precisely = _ĝuste; precize_.
  Precisely the same as = _tute same, kiel_.
  Presently = _baldaŭ; tuj; post iom da tempo_.
  Probably = _kredeble; verŝajne; probable_.
  Promptly = _rapide; tuj; akurate; baldaŭ_.
  Provided that = _se nur; kondiĉe, ke_.
  Putting aside the question = _lasante flanke la demandon_.


  Quite = _tute_.
  Quite at home = _tute hejme; komforta_.
  Quite right = _tute prava; tute ĝusta_.


  Rarely = _malofte_.
  Rather = _plivole; prefere; iom_.
  Readily = _volonte; preteme; facile_.
  Recently = _antaŭ nelonge; freŝe_.
  Regarding, respecting, re = _pri; rilate al_.
  Relative to = _rilate al; pri_.
  Rest, the (those remaining) = _la ceteraj_.
  Right through = _trae; tute tra; tra la tuta_.
  Round = _ĉirkaŭ; ronde_.
  Round about = _ĉirkaŭe; ĉirkaŭen_.


  Save, saving = _krom_.
  Save one = _krom unu_.
  Scarcely = _apenaŭ_.
  Secondly = _due_.
  Seeing that = _tial, ke; vidante, ke; konsiderinte, ke_.
  Seldom = _malofte_.
  Self, selves = _mem; si; sin_.
  Several = _diversaj; kelkaj_.
  Several times = _kelkajn fojojn; diversfoje_.
  Short time, a = _mallongatempe_.
  Short time afterwards, a = _baldaŭ poste_.
  Short time ago, a = _antaŭ nelonge_.
  Shortly = _mallonge; baldaŭ; lakone; abrupte_.
  Shortly afterwards = _iom poste; baldaŭ poste_.
  Since = _ĉar; tial, ke; pro tio, ke; de; de la tempo, kiam;
    de kiam; de tiam; de tiu tempo_.
  Since then = _de tiu tempo; de tiam; de post_.
  Spite of = _malgraŭ_.
  So = _tial; do; tiel; tiamaniere_.
  So and so = _tia kaj tia_; Mr. So-and-so = S-ro Ajnulo.
  So as to = _por ke; tiel, ke; tiamaniere, ke_.
  So far as = _ĝis_. So far, so good = _ĝis tie, bone_.
  So many (much) = _tiom_.
  So many (much) that = _tiom, ke_.
  So much so = _tiel; tiom_.
  So much so that = _tiel, ke; tiom, ke_.
  So much the better = _des pli bone; tiom pli bone_.
  So much the more = _tiom pli_.
  So much the worse = _des pli malbone; tiom pli malbone_.
  So that = _por ke; tiamaniere, ke; tiel, ke_.
  So to say = _tiel diri_.
  Some = _iom; kelke; kelke da; kelkaj; unuj; iuj; iaj_.
  Some days ago = _antaŭ kelkaj tagoj_.
  Some manner, in = _iel_.
  Some of = _iom da; kelke da_.
  Some one's = _ies_.
  Some ... or other = _ia_.
  Some other = _ia alia; iu alia_.
  Some quantity = _iom_.
  Some time, at = _iatempe; iam_.
  Some time ago = _antaŭ kelka tempo_.
  Some way, in = _iel_.
  Somebody, some one = _iu_.
  Somebody else = _iu alia_.
  Somebody's = _ies_.
  Somehow = _iel; iamaniere_.
  Something = _io_.
  Something else = _io alia; alio_.
  Something of that kind = _io tiuspeca; io tia_.
  Some time, at = _iam_.
  Sometimes = _kelkafoje_.
  Sometimes ... at other times = _jen ... jen_.
  Somewhat = _iom_.
  Somewhat later = _iom poste_.
  Somewhere = _ie_.
  Soon = _baldaŭ_.
  Soon afterwards = _baldaŭ poste_.
  Sooner or later = _pli-malpli baldaŭ; nepre_.
  Sooner than = _pli frue, ol_ (time); _plivole ol_ (rather than).
  Specially = _aparte; precipe; speciale_.
  Still = _ankoraŭ; ankoraŭ nun_.
  Still, if = _tamen, se_.
  Subsequently = _plue; poste_.
  Such = _tia; tiaj_.
  Such (a one), the like = _tiela; tielaj_.
  Such a one's = _ties_.
  Such and such = _tia kaj tia; tiu kaj tiu_.
  Such as = _tia, kia_.
  Such being the case = _en tiu okazo_.
  Such that = _tia, ke_.
  Suddenly = _subite_.
  Suffice it to say = _sufiĉas diri_.
  Suppose, supposing that = _supoze, ke; ni supozu, ke_.
  Surely = _certe; nepre_.


  Taking into consideration that = _konsiderante, ke; ne forgesante, ke_.
  Than = _ol_.
  Thanks to (your advice) = _dank' al (via konsilo)_.
  That (conj.) = _ke_.
  That is = _(t.e.) tio estas; or, nome_.
  That is the reason = _jen kial; jen (estas) la kaŭzo; tio estas la kaŭzo_.
  That is why = _tio estas, kial; jen kial_.
  That one's = _ties_.
  The day after (following), the next day = _la morgaŭan
    (proksiman, sekvantan, postan) tagon_.
  The day after to-morrow = _postmorgaŭ_.
  The day before yesterday = _antaŭhieraŭ_.
  The day but one after = _la duan tagon poste_.
  The less ... the less = _ju malpli ... des malpli_.
  The less ... the more = _ju malpli ... des pli_.
  The more ... the less = _ju pli ... des malpli_.
  The more ... the more = _ju pli ... des pli_.
  The more so, as (that) = _des pli, ke_.
  The sooner the better = _ju pli baldaŭ (frue), des pli bone_.
  The time will come when = _venos la tempo, kiam_.
  Then = _do; tiam_; or, _tiam, kiam; poste; tiuokaze_.
  Then, when = _tiam, kiam_.
  Thence = _de tie; el tie_.
  There = _tie; tien_.
  There and back again = _tien kaj reen_.
  Thereabouts = _pli aŭ malpli; pli-malpli_.
  Therefore = _tial; sekve; do_.
  Thereupon = _post tio; sekve de tio; ĉe tio_.
  Thither = _tien_.
  This afternoon = _hodiaŭ posttagmeze_.
  This day week = _post sep tagoj; semajnon post hodiaŭ_.
  This evening = _hodiaŭ vespere_.
  This moment = _ĵus; tuj_.
  This morning = _hodiaŭ matene_.
  Though = _kvankam_.
  Through = _per; pro; tra_, etc., according to sense.
  Throughout = _tute tra_.
  Thus = _tiel_.
  Thus for example = _tiel ekzemple_.
  Till = _ĝis_.
  Time after time = _fojon post fojo; foje kaj ree_.
  To = _al; ĉe; ĝis; kun; por_, etc., according to sense.
  To a great extent = _grandamezure_.
  To and fro = _tien kaj reen_.
  To my surprise = _miasurprize_.
  To no purpose = _senefike; vane_.
  To no place = _nenien_.
  To some extent = _iom; en ia amplekso; iagrade_.
  To that effect = _en (laŭ) tiu senco_.
  To the effect that = _tiel, ke; por ke_.
  To the end that = _por ke_.
  To the full extent = _en tuta amplekso_.
  To the left = _maldekstren_.
  To the right = _dekstren_.
  To the same extent = _samamplekse; laŭ sama grado; samgrade_.
  To what extent = _laŭ kia mezuro; kiom_.
  To wit = _nome; tio estas_.
  To-day = _hodiaŭ_.
  Together = _kune_.
  Together with = _kune kun; kun_.
  To-morrow = _morgaŭ_.
  To-morrow afternoon = _morgaŭ posttagmeze_.
  To-morrow evening = _morgaŭ vespere_; or, _morgaŭ nokte_.
  To-morrow morning = _morgaŭ matene_.
  To-night = _hodiaŭ nokte_.
  Too = _ankaŭ; tro_.
  Too much = _tro_.
  Too many, much (of) = _tro da_.
  Touching = _pri; tuŝante; rilate al_.
  Towards = _al; kontraŭ_.
  Truly = _vere_.
  Twice = _dufoje_.
  Twice a day = _du fojojn en unu tago; dufoje ĉiutage_.
  Twice as large (much) = _duoble pli granda (multa)_.


  Ultimately = _laste; fine; en la fino_.
  Under = _sub; sube_.
  Under any (all) circumstances = _ĉiuokaze_.
  Under consideration = _konsiderata_.
  Under no circumstances = _neniel; neniaokaze_.
  Under some circumstances = _iel; iaokaze_.
  Under such circumstances = _tiaokaze_.
  Under these circumstances = _tiuokaze_.
  Unless = _krom se; esceptinte, ke; se ... ne_.
  Until = _ĝis; ĝis kiam; ĝis la tempo, kiam_.
  Until late at night = _ĝis profunda nokto_.
  Until now = _ĝisnune; ĝis nun_.
  Until then = _ĝis tiam; ĝis tiu tempo_.
  Up = _supre; supren_.
  Up and down = _tien kaj reen; supren-malsupren_.
  Up to = _ĝis_ (if _up_ is implied by the context).
  Up to date = _ĝishodiaŭ-e-a; progresema; ĝisdat-e-a_.
  Up to now = _ĝisnune_.
  Up to then (that time) = _ĝis tiam; ĝistiama (adj.)_.
  Up to this = _ĝisnune_.
  Upon = _sur_. (To depend) upon = _(dependi) de_.
  Upon that = _ĉe tio_.
  Upon the whole = _entute_.
  Upon this = _ĉe tio (ĉi)_.
  Upon which = _ĉe kio_.
  Upside down = _kun la supro malsupre; renversite; kun la fundo supre_.
  Upstairs = _supre; supren_.
  Upwards = _supren_.
  Upwards of = _pli, ol_.
  Utterly = _tute; tutege; absolute_.


  Verily = _vere_.
  Very = _tre_.
  Very seldom = _tre malofte_.
  Very soon = _tre baldaŭ_.
  Vice versa = _kontraŭe; inverse_.
  Virtually = _praktike; laŭintence_.


  Weekly = _ĉiusemajne_.
  Well = _bone; nu!_
  Well-nigh = _preskaŭ_.
  What = _kio; kia_.
  What else = _kia alia; kio alia_.
  What is to be done? = _kion fari?_
  What matters it? = _Kiom gravas?_
  Whatever = _kia ajn_.
  Whatever quantity = _kiom ajn_.
  When = _kiam_; or, _tiam, kiam_.
  Whence = _de kie_; or, _el kie_.
  Whencesoever = _de kie ajn_; or, _el kie ajn_.
  Whenever, whensoever = _kiam ajn; ĉiufoje kiam; ĉiun fojon kiam_.
  Where = _kie; kien_.
  Whereas = _kiam efektive; ĉar; tial ke; pro tio, ke_.
  Whereby = _per kio_.
  Wherefore = _kial_.
  Wherever, wheresoever = _kie ajn; kien ajn_.
  Wherein = _en kio_.
  Whereof = _pri kio; pri kiu; el kio_.
  Whereupon = _pro kio; sekve de kio; tuj post kio; ĉe kio_.
  Whether = _ĉu_.
  Whether ... or = _ĉu ... aŭ_.
  Whether ... whether = _ĉu ... ĉu_.
  Which = _kio; kiu_.
  Which of the two = _kiu el la du_.
  Whichever, whoever = _kiu ajn_.
  While, whilst = _dum; kiam efektive_.
  Whither = _kien_.
  Whithersoever = _kien ajn_.
  Whose = _kies_.
  Why = _kial; pro kio; por kio_.
  Willingly = _volonte_.
  With = _kiu; per; ĉe; el_, etc., according to sense.
  With a view to = _por ke; en la celo de_.
  With advantage = _profite; utile_.
  With difficulty = _malfacile_.
  With reference (regard, respect) to = _rilate al_; or, _pri_.
  With that object = _tiucele_.
  With the exception of = _kun escepto de; esceptinte; krom_.
  With the intention = _intencante; por_.
  Within = _en; interne_.
  Without = _ekster; krom; sen; ekstere_, etc., according to sense.
  Without any cause, reason = _sen ia kaŭzo; senkaŭze; nenial_.
  Without any exception = _sen ia escepto; tute senescepte_.
  Without cause, reason = _senkaŭze; nenial_.
  Without comparison = _senkompare_.
  Without contradiction = _senkontraŭdire_.
  Without doubt = _sendube_.
  Without exception = _senescepte_.
  Word for word = _laŭvorte_.


  Year by year = _jaron post jaro_.
  Yearly = _ĉiujare_.
  Yes = _jes_.
  Yesterday = _hieraŭ_.
  Yesterday afternoon = _hieraŭ posttagmeze_.
  Yesterday evening = _hieraŭ vespere_.
  Yesterday morning = _hieraŭ matene_.
  Yet = _ankoraŭ; tamen_.
  Yonder = _tie; tien_.


These hints are principally for learners teaching themselves. Follow
the advice of your instructor, if you have a good one.

(1). First study carefully the pronunciation (pars. 5-19).

(2). Learn, in the following order, Grammatical Terminations (par.
53); Suffixes and Prefixes (pars. 54, 55); Pronouns (pars. 126, 131);
List of Prepositions (page 180); Correlative Words (par. 147); List
of Primary Words (page 334); Use of the Accusative (pars. 65-68).

(3). Read _aloud_ daily some portion of the "Krestomatio," and
Exercises on pages 259-315.

(4). Translate daily some portion of the "Krestomatio," or Kabe's
"Unua Legolibro," into English, and then back into Esperanto, and
compare. At first, translate the Esperanto fairly literally, so as to
get a good idea of the usual order of words in Esperanto, and where
it differs from English in construction. Afterwards translate into
fluent English, and then back into Esperanto.

(5). Get readiness of expression by constantly asking yourself aloud
questions, and then replying to them; by saying in Esperanto what you
see when walking out, what you are doing, etc., as, "Now I must go to
bed," "It is time to get up," "I must cross the street," "I wonder
who lives there," etc., etc.

(6). Read anecdotes in the "Krestomatio," or in Kabe's "Unua
Legolibro," and then try to repeat them, as if you were telling them
to someone. Keep on repeating an anecdote until you can tell it as
fluently in Esperanto as in English, but not necessarily in the exact
words of the book.

(7). In writing, say aloud the sentences as you write them. Your ear
will then often prevent errors.

(8). Write your diary in Esperanto.

(9). Read the _best_ authors, and mark in pencil any words or phrases
which strike you as useful to remember. Write these in a notebook for
future reference.

(10). Don't slavishly copy in your style any particular author. Note
the good points in each, and remember that what is not easily
understood is not good style, however correct it may be

(11). After about a week's study, look out for recruits and teach
them what you have learnt. In teaching others you teach yourself.

(12). When you read your daily newspaper, translate aloud a few
sentences; that will give you facility of expression in many

(13). Always bear in mind the following:--

(_a_). Every letter and syllable is pronounced (par. 16).

(_b_). Do not clip or drag the vowels (pars. 8-10).

(_c_). The tonic accent is always on the last syllable but one (par. 17).

(_d_). Do not use the _compound_ forms of verbs unless necessary for
the sense (pars. 167-170, 222-226).

(_e_). Remember that each preposition in Esperanto, except _je_, has
a fixed meaning (pars. 250, 251).

(_f_). Note carefully the use of the accusative case (pars. 66-68).

(_g_). Avoid conundrums in the shape of long compound words of three
or more different roots. A sentence in Esperanto is not a riddle!


(_Numbers relate to paragraphs, unless otherwise stated_.)

  Ablative Absolute, Not in Esperanto, 211_b_.
  Accent, 17, 19.
  ACCUSATIVE, 65-69.
    (1) Direct Object, 66.
    (2) O. Direction (Motion towards), 67, Ex. 12, 13.
    (3) Omitted Preposition, 68, Ex. 16; Duration of time, 68_b_;
      Price, weight, measure, 68_c_.
    (4) General remarks, 69.
    With adjectives, 36, 69_a_, 108, 110.
    With adverbs, 67_b_.
    With nouns, 109.
    With verb omitted, 64_a_, 105.
  ACTION, commencement of, 216_b_.
    Continuation of, 216_a_.
    Just happened, 225.
    Soon to happen, 225, 229.
  Aĉ, 270, Ex. 19.
  Ad, 270 (1), Ex. 19.
  ADJECTIVES, 107-114.
    Adverbs used for, 245, 269_a_.
    Case of, 108, 110.
    Classes of, 108.
    Comparison, 112.
    Degree of intensity, 114.
    Numeral, 116.
    Participial, 111, 209_b_, 213.
    Place of, 84.
    Possessive sense, 106_c_.
    Predicative, 36, 69_a_, 77, 108_b_.
    Qualifying, 36, 69_a_, 108_a_.
    Superlative, 113.
    Use in compound words, 106_c_.
  ADVERBS, 238-248, Ex. 3, 43.
    Accusative case, 67_b_.
    Classes of, 242.
    Comparison, 248.
    Followed by word in accusative, 247.
    From prepositions, 244.
    Instead of prepositional phrase, 252.
    List of, 248_b_.
    No influence on case, 243.
    Numeral, 117.
    Of quantity followed by da, 246.
    Participial, 209_c_, 245_a_.
    Place of, 87-88, 241.
    Used for adjectives, 245, 269_a_.
  Advice to the Learner, page 363.
  _Affect_, Ex. 41.
  Affirmation, 63-64, page 317.
  Affixes, See _Prefixes, Suffixes_.
  Ajn, 158 (_c-e_).
  Aĵ, 271, Ex. 20, Agreement of adjective and noun, 69_a_, 108, 110.
  Al, 259 (1).
  Alphabet, Esperanto, 1-4.
  An, 272, 278_c_ (1), Ex. 21.
  Ankoraŭ, pages 167, 170-171.
  Anstataŭ, 259 (2).
  Antaŭ, 259 (3).
  Antaŭ ol, pages 188, 220.
  _Any_ (= _any whatever_), 158_d_, (= _some_), 158_c_.
  _Appear,_ Ex. 40.
  Apposition, 69 (_c-d_).
  Apud, 259 (4).
  Ar, 273, Ex. 22.
  ARTICLES, 96-102.
    _A, an,_ 96.
    _The,_ 97-101. See "La."
  _At,_ 261_a_.
  Aŭ ... aŭ, page 220.

  Bo, 286, Ex. 25.
  _Bring,_ Ex. 41.
  _By_, 261_b_.

  _Can, could_, 237 (_f, l_), Ex. 42.
  Capitals, Use of, 70.
  Cardinal numerals, 115.
  Case, See "accusative," "nominative."
  Collective numerals, 121.
  Combinations of consonants 11-15; of vowels, 10.
  Comparison of adjectives, 112; of adverbs, 248: Ex. 4.
    Circumstantial, 32, 80.
    Direct, 29, 30, 66, 78.
    Indirect, 31, 79; Accusative for, 251, 253; Adverb for, 239, 252.
  Compound tenses, 169, 195, 222-226.
  Compound words, 39_c_, 46, 49, 106_c_.
  Conditional Mood, See "Moods."
  Congresses, International, page viii.
  Conjugation: esti, 167; active verb 168-169; Reflexive verb, 170.
  CONJUNCTIONS and Conjunctive Adverbs, 262-268, Ex. 43.
    Case after, 105, 266.
    Co-ordinating, 264.
    List of, 268_a_.
    No influence on mood, 171, 263.
    Omission of, 267.
    Subordinating, 265.
  Consonants, 7.
  Contents, List of, page xxv.
  Conversation, pages 324-328.
  CORRELATIVES, 139-158. Ex. 10, 11.
    Initial and terminal letters, 141.
    Parts of speech, 140.
    Series beginning with i, 158 (_c-d_).
    Series ending with a, 149; al, 150, 158_a_; am, 151; e, 152; el,
    153, 158_a_; es, 154; o, 155, 158_b_; om, 156; u, 157, 158_b_.
  Correspondence, pages 329-333.
    Titles and addresses, 283.
  Countries, names of, 278_c_.

  Ĉe, 259 (5).
  Ĉef, 272 (_g_).
  Ĉi, 143.
  Ĉirkaŭ, 259 (6).
  Ĉj, 274, Ex. 23.
  Ĉu, 58, 63-64, 91, 170.

  Da, 259 (7).
  De, 259 (8), 287, Ex. 31
  Definitions, 20-39.
  Dev, 237_a_, Ex. 42.
  Direct complement, 29-30, 66, 78.
  Dis, 287, Ex. 31.
  Distributive numerals, 123.
  _Do_, _did_, 217, 237_j_, Ex. 38.
  Dum, 259 (9).
  Duon, 120, 286, Ex. 25.

  Ebl, 275, Ex. 24.
  Ec, 271, Ex. 20.
  Edz, 276, Ex. 25, 44.
  _Effect_, Ex. 41.
  Eg, 114, 277, Ex. 26.
  Ej, 278, Ex. 27.
  Ek, 288, Ex. 19, 32.
  El, 259 (12).
  Elision, 56-57.
  Ellipsis, 58_a_, 64_a_, 105, 237_m_.
  Em, 275, Ex. 24.
  Emphasis: (order of words) 76, 84_a_, 87-88; (ja), 217.
  En, 259 (12).
  Er, 273, Ex. 22.
  "Espero, La," pages xxii, xxiii.
  Est, 163, 167, 234.
  Estr, 272, Ex. 21.
  Et, 52_b_, 114, 277, Ex. 26.
  Exercises and Translations, pages 259-316.
  Expressions, Useful, pages 340-362.

  Fi, 270, Ex. 19.
  Foj, 122.
  For, 287, Ex. 31.
  _For_, 261_c_.
  Foreign words, 39_d_, 52.
  Formation of words, 39_c_, 40-50, 106_c_.
  Fractional numerals, 120.
  _From_, 261_d_.
  Fuŝ, 270.

  Ge, 286, Ex. 25.
  _Get_, 237_k_, Ex. 39.
  _Give_, Ex. 41.
  GRAMMAR, 94.
    Adjectives, 107-114.
    Adverbs, 238-248.
    Article, 96-102.
    Commentary, 95-290.
    Conjunctions, 262-268.
    Interjections, 269.
    Nouns, 103-106.
    Parts of speech, 95.
    Prepositions, 249-261.
    Pronouns, 125-157.
    Rules, 94.
    Verbs, 159-237.
    Explanations, 40-42.
    List of, 53.
    Of verbs, 160.

  Ĝis, 259 (13).

  _Have_, Ex. 40.
  Hints to learners, page 363.

  Id, 279, Ex. 25.
  Ig, 280, Ex. 28.
  Iĝ, 280, Ex. 28.
  Il, 281, Ex. 29.
  Imperative mood, See "Moods."
  Imperative phrases, pages 320-321.
  Impersonal verbs, 129, 164.
  In, 282, Ex. 25.
  _In_, 261_e_.
  Ind, 275, Ex. 24.
  Indicative mood, See "Moods."
  Indirect complement, 31, 79.
  Infinitive mood, See "Moods."
  Ing, 278, Ex. 27.
  Inter, 259 (14).
  Interjections and Exclamations, 269.
  Interrogation, 58-64, 91, 170, pages 318-320.
  Ism, 52_b_, 293.
  Ist, 272, Ex. 21.

  Ja, 217, page 170.
  Jam, page 170, par. 226_a_.
  Je, 251, 259 (15), Ex. 16.
  Jes, 63, 64.
  Ju ... des, 112_d_, page 171.

  Ĵus, 225, page 171.

  Kaj ... kaj, Page 222.
  Ke, page 223; Ke ne, 63; Ke ... u, 200, por ke ... u, 201.
  _Know_, 237_c_, Ex. 40.
  Kon, sci, 237_c_, Ex. 40.
  Kontraŭ, 259 (16).
  Krom, 177, 179, 259 (17).
  Kun, 259 (18).
  Kuŝ, 237 (_b_).

   LA, 97-102.
    Before numeral adjectives, 101.
    Before proper names, 99_b_.
    English and Esperanto uses compared, 99.
    Instead of possessive pronoun, 100.
    Invariable, 97.
    Optional use, 101_a_.
  Land-names, 278_c_.
  Las, 237_d_, Ex. 36, 41.
  Laŭ, 259 (19).
  League of Nations, page vii.
  _Leave_, Ex. 37.
  _Let_, Ex. 41.
  Letters, Names of, 4.
  Logical Tense, 220, 232.

  Mal, 289, Ex. 33.
  Malgraŭ, 259 (20).
  Matrimony, Ex. 44.
  _May_, _might_, 237_m_, Ex. 42.
  Mem, 291.
  MOODS OF VERBS, 171-202.
    Conditional, 190-194; after se, 193; to soften an expression, 194.
    English and Esperanto compared, 171.
    How to determine, 172.
    Imperative, 195-202; after por ke, 201.
    Indicative, 171_a_, 186-189; when obligatory, 189.
    Infinitive, 173-185; as a noun, 181; place of, 82; prepositions
      used with, 177; ebla instead of, 275_c_; used for gerund, 182;
      used for participle or other mood, 184, 185; used generally
      without a preposition, 176; when another mood is used for, 183.
    Subjunctive, None in Esperanto, 171_b_.
  Moŝt, 283, Ex. 23.
  Multiple numerals, 119.
  _Must_, 237 (8), Ex. 42.

  Ne, 59_a_, 289, Ex. 33.
  NEGATION, 59-62, page 318.
    Double, repeated, 60, 62.
    Place of negative, 59_a_, 92.
    Questions and answers, 64, 170.
  Nek ... nek, 59_c_, page 225.
  Nj, 274, Ex. 23.
  Nominative case, 104, 110.
  NOUNS, 103-106.
    Case, 105, 109, 110.
    Declension, 104.
    Elision of final O, 56, 57.
    Infinitive as noun, 180.
    Numeral, 118.
    Participial, 209_a_, 210.
    Place of, 83.
    Possessive case, 106.
    Predicative, 35, 109.
  NUMERALS, 115-124, Ex. 18.
    Cardinal, 115.
    Collective, 121.
    Distributive, 123.
    Fractional, 120.
    Multiple, 119.
    Ordinal adjectives, 116.
    Ordinal adverbs, 117.
    Reiterative, 122.
    Substantive (numeral nouns), 116.

  Object of proposition, 28, 75.
  Obl, 284.
  _Of_, 261_f_.
  On, 284.
  _On_, 261_g_.
  Oni, onia, onin, 126.
  Op, 284.
  Order of words, 73-93.
  Ordinal numerals, 116-117.
  _Ought_, 237_p_, Ex. 42.

  PARTICIPLES, 203-213, Ex. 17.
    Active, 160, 203, 222, 224, 226, 230, 231; Followed by accusative,
      66_b_, 208.
    Adjectival, 111, 207, 209_b_; distinguished from simple adjectives,
    Adverbial, 209_c_, 245_a_.
    Anta, distinguished from a, 213.
    Infinitive used for: In English, 185; In Esperanto, 184.
    Predicative, 209_b_.
    Passive, 160, 204, 233-236; not used with iĝi, 280_g_.
    Place of, 87.
    Terminations of, 203-204.
  Parts of speech, 95.
  Per, 259 (21).
  Pes, pez, 237_e_.
  Phrases, pages 317-323.
  Plej ... el, 113, 248, page 176.
  Pli aŭ malpli, and similar phrases, 246_a_.
  Pli ... ol, 112, 248, page 176.
  Plu, page 176.
  Plural, 103, 107, 115_f_, 142.
  Po, 259 (22).
  Por, 259 (23); por ke, 201.
  Possession, 106, 130-138.
  Possessive pronouns, See "Pronouns."
  Possessive sense of adjective, 106_b_.
  Post, 259.
  Pov, 237_f_, Ex. 42.
  Pra, 286, Ex. 25.
  Predicate, 24, 33.
  Predicative adjectives, 36, 69_a_, 77, 108_b_.
  Predicative nouns, 35, 109.
  PREFIXES, 286-290.
    Definition, 44.
    List of, 55.
    Order in combination, 45.
  PREPOSITIONS, 249-261, Ex. 14, 15.
    Adverb with, 258.
    As prefixes, 254, 259 (1-34).
    Case after, 255, 256.
    Classes of, 259.
    Definition, 249.
    Denoting movement, 257.
    List of, 259.
    Omission of, 68, 106_d_, 253, 258.
    Place of, 89.
    Prepositional expressions, 258.
    Relation to complement, 259.
    Replaced by adverb, 252.
    Replaced by participle, 212.
  Preter, 259 (25).
  Pri, 259 (26).
    Conversion into other parts of speech, 51.
    Definition, 39_a_.
    List of, pages 334-339.
  Pro, 259 (27).
  PRONOUNS, 125-157.
    Classes of, 125.
    Correlative, 140.
    Demonstrative, 143.
    Interrogative, 145.
    Personal, 126; with al, for possessive, 134_a_.
    Place of, 85.
    Possessive, 130-138, Ex. 5; la instead of, 100; sia, lia, etc.,
      135; omission of, 134; with or without la, 132.
    Reflexive, 128-138, Ex. 6;
      after participle or infinitive, 138_c_.
    Relative, 145.
  Pronunciation, 5-19.
  Proper names, accus. with, 69_d_.
  Proposition, 22.
  Punctuation, 71-2.

  Qualifying adjectives, 36, 69_a_, 108_a_.
  Questions (affirmation, negation), 58-64, 91, 170.

  Re, 290, Ex. 32.
  Reflexive pronouns, 128-138, Ex. 6, 138_c_.
  Reflexive verbs, 165, 170.
  Reiterative numerals, 122.
  Roots: definition of, 28; idea conveyed by, 50; modification of
    English spelling, 52; transitive, intransitive, 237_i_.
  Rules of Grammar, 94.

  Sci, kon, 237_c_, Ex. 40.
  Se, pages 226-227, 168 (ĉu).
  Sen, 259 (28), 289, Ex. 33.
  _Shall_, _will_, 237_n_.
  _Should_, _would_, 237_o_, Ex. 42.
  Si, See "Reflexive Pronouns"; Possible non-use of, 138_d_.
  Sid, 237_g_.
  Similar words, Distinction of: Ex. 34-36.
  Sin, 291; sin trovi, 237_h_.
  _Some_, 158 (_c-e_).
  Spelling, modification of English, 52.
  Spite, 259 (29).
  Sub, 259 (30).
  Subject of proposition, 23, 25-26, 75; omitted, 27.
  Subjunctive Mood, None in Esperanto, 171_b_.
  Substantives, See "Nouns."
  Substantive Numerals, 118.
  SUFFIXES, 43, 270-285.
    List of, 54.
    Order in combination, 46.
  Super, 259 (31).
  Sur, 259 (32).
  Syntax, 20-36.

  Telegrams, Alphabet for, 2.
  TENSES, 214-236.
    Future; Simple, 227-229; compound, 230_i_; used for present
      or subjunctive, 232.
    Names of, 215.
    Past: simple, 223; compound, 224; used for pluperfect, 226.
    Present: simple, 216; compound, 222; used for past or future,
  Terminations, List of, 53.
  Thanks, Expressions of, Pages 321-322.
  Time of day, 124.
  Titles and addresses, 283.
  To, 261_b_.
  Tra, 259 (33).
  Trans, 259 (34).
  Transitive and intransitive roots, 237_i_.
  Turn, Ex. 37.
  Tuj, 225, page 179.
  Typewriting Esperanto, 3.

  U.E.A., page vii.
  Uj, 278, Ex. 27.
  Ul, 272, Ex. 21.
  Um, 285, Ex. 30.
  Unu, Use of, 115_f_.

  VERBS, 159-237.
    Auxiliary (esti), 163, 167, 234.
    Compound tenses, 169; Active Voice, Ex. 8; Passive Voice, Ex. 9;
      Less frequent than in English, 167, 195, 222-226.
    Conjugation: esti, 167; Active verb, 168-9; Reflexive verb, 170.
    Duration of action, 216, 225, 229.
    Ellipsis of, 58_a_, 64_a_, 66_c_, 237_m_.
    Impersonal, 164.
    Intransitive, 162, 237_i_.
    Moods, 171-202.
    Participles, 203-213.
    Place of, 86.
    Reflexive, 165, 170.
    Tenses, 214-236.
    Transitive, 66a, 161, 237_i_.
  Vic, 292.
    Adverbs, 248_b_.
    Conjunctions and Conjunctive adverbs, 268_a_.
    Interjections and Exclamations, 269.
    Prepositions, 259.
    Primary words, pages 334-339.
    Useful words and expressions, pages 340-362.
  "Vojo, La," page xxiv.
  Vol, 237_n_, Ex. 42.
  Vowels, 8.

  Weather, The, pages 322-323.
  _Will_, _shall_, 237_n_.
  _With_, 261_i_.
  Word-building, 40-50, 106_c_.
  _Would_, _should_, 237_o_, Ex. 42.

  Printed in Great Britain
  Billing and Sons Ltd., Guildford and Esher

Transcriber's notes:

Minor typographical errors and inconsistencies in the original
have been silently corrected. In many places, ditto marks have
been replaced with their intended text. Page boundaries have been
recorded in comments in the html markup.

The following changes to the text have been made:

Location     Original                      Emendation

Par. 29
   accusative form-- -N in the         accusative form -N in the
   singular, or-- -JN in the plural.   singular, or -JN in the plural.

Par. 69
    aŭ, rozojn belajn                  or, rozojn belajn

Footnote 19
    seen from the following examples   seen from the examples

Par. 261(i)
    Represented as under:--            Represented by:--

Exercise 36
    (aŭ, personoj regataj)             (or, personoj regataj)

Par. 147
    at for all time                    for all time

The original book had a list of errata which have been applied to
the text. In many cases these were simple corrections. But in places
that would have required more extensive rewriting, the errata have
been included as footnotes. This has resulted in some footnotes
that contradict the main body of the text. For reference, the
original errata list is included below.

Notes on the Current Edition of Cox's


As this edition is a photographic reprint of the last it has not been
possible to introduce emendations or additions, and it is thought
that the following notes will be helpful to students using the book.

(Figures refer to pages and lines, thus: "46/8" means "page 46, line
8". The letter "m" after a line number means "from bottom of page").

xxiii/4. Read "passing through the _world_".

xxiv/11. For "pri tempoj" read "pri l' tempoj".

33. Add prefix MIS-, denoting mis-, amiss, wrongly, erroneously.

37/18-20. The words "_Kiuj ... week_" should be transferred to par.

37/8m. After "how much" insert "how many'th".

38/6 and 58/8. After "word" add "or words".

46/8. In the _Fundamento_, Zamenhof used capital letters to begin the
names of months. In his mature style he also used capitals for nouns
and adjectives of nationality, e.g. _Angla_, _Anglo_, _Dana_,

49/1m. For "Tiu" read "Tio".

53/19. The use here of the preposition _je_ is not recommended.

66. The second paragraph requires qualification. For "adjectives and
adverbs" read "derived adjectives and adverbs": the principle dealt
with in the paragraph applies to words consisting of roots _plus_ one
or more grammatical endings. There are several words in Esperanto
(e.g. _tra_, _tre_, _tro_, _la_, _je, po_) which are thus outside the
principle as stated.

67/6. For "Tiu estas floro" read "Tio estas floro"

68. Section (_b_) is too strict. In practice the definite article is
often used before proper names, and one can say (e.g.) _la Alpoj_,
_la Mediteraneo_, etc.

69. In section (_b_) read "It is not _generally_ used".

72/7m. For "Tiu estas ... " read "Tio estas ... "

73/4. Replace "Ĉu tiu ĉi ... " by "Ĉu ĉi tio ... "

80. Section (_g_). This use of _unu_ is not recommended.

81/3m. For "kvaro da pikoj" read "kvaro pika", and for "seso da
keroj" read "seso kera".

87/4. For "Tiu estas bela ... " read "Tio estas bela ... "

87/6. This use of _ĝi_ for a person is not recommended, and _li_ (or
_tiu_) would be better in a case where there is doubt as to the sex.

96/11. For "Occasionally" read "Often". Zamenhof advised the placing
of _ĉi_ normally before the demonstrative,--as in the example (_Ĉi
tiu_) here given, and _ĉi tie_, _ĉi tien_ in the next paragraph.

101/2. "Mi ĵus ... " is preferable to "ĵus mi ... "

102/12m. For "Tagon" read "Iun tagon".

128/15. For "de du horoj" read "du horojn", and delete "from" in the
next line.

140/8. For "plenaj je vivo" read "plenaj de vivo".

140/22. For "of speaking" read "spoken of".

165/6-8. For "more and more" read "in addition, besides". Delete
"Malplie = Less and less" and "Malpleje = at (the) least, least", as
these usages are seldom employed.

165/11. For "signifas" read "gravas".

170/5m. For "Mi jam ĝin ankoraŭ ... " read "Mi ĝin ankoraŭ ... "

175/7. For "He has nothing at all" read "He has none at all".

180. Delete the item "(Spite) ... " The expression "_in spite of_" is
usually best translated by _malgraŭ_.

184/17. For "kaj tiam ... " read "kaj tuj poste ... "

184/20. For "kaj tiam kuris ... " read "kaj poste kuris ... "

187/16m. For "the preceding" read "this".

191/10. For "leĝoj" read "juro".

191/3m. For "da vortoj" read "de vortoj".

192/3m. For "de la breto" read "de sur la breto".

193/3 and 19. It is a question whether _dum_ can ever be correctly
described as adverb: and the reference to Zamenhof's use of it as
such is mistaken.

195/12m. For "en (or, el)" read "el". _En_ cannot be correctly used

197/20. For "vidas" read "vidis".

199/20. For "diversaj flankoj" read "diversajn flankojn".
(Alternatively, replace "en" by "al" and retain the nominative case).

201/22. For "havas la tempon" read "havas tempon".

203/16. For "Tiu estas verko ... " read "Tio estas verko ... "

204. _Spite_ is not a preposition, but an adverb, and to translate
the prepositional form "_in spite of_" it is usually better to use
_malgraŭ_, as indicated above under the reference to p. 180. The
expression _in defiance of_ can be suitably rendered by _spite_
followed by the accusative case (as shown in the footnote). In the
Examples "ĉio" should be replaced by "ĉion" and "mia malamiko" by
"mian malamikon".

206/4m. For "tiam" read "poste".

214/2. For "da vortoj" read "de vortoj".

216. Add _Kontraŭ_, as:--_Li batalis kontraŭ la malamiko_ = He
fought with the enemy.

219/6m. and 8m. Better use _aliflanke_ for _on the other hand_.

233/8. For "armajo" read "armaĵo", and for "bovajo" read "bovaĵo".

233/15m. For "a good (action)" read "a good (action or thing)".

237/1m. For "lump" read "grain".

239/14m. Delete "serviceable": and replace "serviceableness" by
"inclination to serve".

249/21. Delete this line. _Magistrato_ does not mean _a magistrate_:
it means the local civic authority (e.g. a Borough or District

251/7. Asterisk _amindumi_.

273/4m. For "sukereron" read "sukerpecon", and delete the footnote.

276/12. For "miaj protestoj" read "miajn protestojn" and for "ĉio"
read "ĉion".

276/18. For "tiam" read "poste".

279/2m. For "miljoro" read "miljaro".

288/5m. "mia" is here preferable to "miaj". (See Zamenhof's
_Ekzercaro_, par. 36).

290/5m. For "Tiu ĉi estis ..." read "Ĉi tio estis ..."

301/20. For "estas subtenita" read "estis subtenata".

304/1m. For "leteron" read "literon", and for "kiu" read "kaj tiu

307/3m. For "el" read "pri".

311/10. For "unuenaskita" read "unuenaskito".

311/21. For "radika" read "radikala".

331/23. For "de ĉi tiu" read "de ĉi tio".

332/7. For "Kia lingvo estas?" read "Kia lingvo ĝi estas?"

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The International Auxiliary Language
Esperanto, by George Cox


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